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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2019) – 71 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Perishable apple pomace (AP) was transformed into stable apple pomace flour (APF) by dehydration (5 [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Combined Effect of Ultra-Sonication and High-Voltage Cold Plasma Treatment on Quality Parameters of Carrot Juice
Foods 2019, 8(11), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110593 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Influence of the combined effect of ultra-sonication (US) and high-voltage cold plasma treatment (HVCP) on the quality parameters of fresh carrot juice has been studied. During the treatment of ultra-sonication, carrot juice was subjected to a 0.5 inch probe for 3 min by [...] Read more.
Influence of the combined effect of ultra-sonication (US) and high-voltage cold plasma treatment (HVCP) on the quality parameters of fresh carrot juice has been studied. During the treatment of ultra-sonication, carrot juice was subjected to a 0.5 inch probe for 3 min by adjusting the pulse duration 5 s on and off at 20 kHz frequency, amplitude level 80%. The ultrasound intensity was measured by using a thermocouple and was 46 Wcm−2. The temperature was maintained at 10 °C by an automatic control unit. During the treatment of HVCP, carrot juice was then subjected to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma discharge at 70 kV voltage for 4 min. Significant increases were observed when HVCP treated carrot juice was tested against total carotenoids, lycopene, and lutein when compared to the control treatments. Moreover, this increase was raised to its highest in all pigments, chlorogenic acid, sugar contents, and mineral profile, as the results of ultra-sonication when combined with high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (US-HVCP). Whereas, a significant decreased was observed in Mg, total plate count, yeast, and mold after US-HVCP treatment. Furthermore, results indicated that the combined effect of US-HVCP treatment has improved the quality and led to a higher concentration of lycopene, lutein, chlorogenic acid, and mineral compounds (Na, K, and P). Therefore, the findings of the current study suggested that US-HVCP treatment is a novel combined technique that could provide better quality and more stability during the processing of carrot juice with better physicochemical properties and bio-available nutrients, so this novel processing technique could serve as an alternative to traditional processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Soaking and Fermentation Time on Biogenic Amines Content of Maesil (Prunus Mume) Extract
Foods 2019, 8(11), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110592 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Maesil extract, a fruit-juice concentrate derived from Prunus mume prepared by fermenting with sugar, is widely used with increasing popularity in Korea. Biogenic amines in maesil extract were extracted with 0.4 M perchloric acid, derivatized with dansyl chloride, and detected using high-performance liquid [...] Read more.
Maesil extract, a fruit-juice concentrate derived from Prunus mume prepared by fermenting with sugar, is widely used with increasing popularity in Korea. Biogenic amines in maesil extract were extracted with 0.4 M perchloric acid, derivatized with dansyl chloride, and detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among 18 home-made maesil extracts collected from different regions, total biogenic amine content varied from 2.53 to 241.73 mg/L. To elucidate the effects of soaking and fermentation time on biogenic amine content in maesil extract, maesil was soaked in brown sugar for 90 days and the liquid obtained was further fermented for 180 days at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. The main biogenic amines extracted were putrescine and spermidine and the total biogenic amine content was higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. Soaking at 15 and 25 °C increased the total biogenic amines content from 14.14 to 34.98 mg/L and 37.33 to 69.05 mg/L, respectively, whereas a 180 day fermentation decreased the content from 31.66 to 13.59 mg/L and 116.82 to 57.05 mg/L, respectively. Biogenic amine content was correlated with total amino acid content (particularly, arginine content). Based on these results, we have considered that biogenic amine synthesis can be reduced during maesil extract production by controlling temperature and fermentation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines and Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Protein Nutritious Flatbreads and an Option for Gluten-Sensitive Individuals
Foods 2019, 8(11), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110591 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Whole grain quinoa and wheat, high-protein vegetable flatbreads were evaluated by tasters and a physical analysis was conducted. The objective was to produce nutritious, tasty gluten-free (quinoa) as well as gluten-containing (wheat) flatbreads. Flatbreads were Quinoa Peanut Oilcake Broccoli (QPCBROC), Wheat Peanut Oilcake [...] Read more.
Whole grain quinoa and wheat, high-protein vegetable flatbreads were evaluated by tasters and a physical analysis was conducted. The objective was to produce nutritious, tasty gluten-free (quinoa) as well as gluten-containing (wheat) flatbreads. Flatbreads were Quinoa Peanut Oilcake Broccoli (QPCBROC), Wheat Peanut Oilcake Broccoli (WPCBROC), Quinoa Peanut Oilcake Beets (QPCBEET) and Wheat Peanut Oilcake Beets (WPCBEET). Peanut Oilcake would increase protein and add value to this farm byproduct. Bile acid binding broccoli and beets with cholesterol-lowering potential were used. Tasters preferred QPCBROC flatbreads for all sensory parameters. Acceptance of flatbreads was QPCBROC (83%), WPCBROC (70%), QPCBEET (78%) and WPCBEET (69%); these values were statistically similar. The objective of ≥25% protein content was exceeded by 5–8% and that of ≥70% acceptance was adequately achieved. These flatbreads were low in fat (5–6%) and contained essential minerals (4%) with only ≤1% added salt. Porosity and expansion data suggest that these flatbreads would take up relatively little shelf space. These flatbreads require only three ingredients and can be made in a household kitchen or by commercial production. These flatbreads offer a nutritious, tasty choice for all, and quinoa flatbreads offer an option for gluten-sensitive individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Polysaccharide Production from Cordyceps militaris by Solid-State Fermentation on Rice and Its Antioxidant Activities
Foods 2019, 8(11), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110590 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Polysaccharides are an important class of bioactive components of medical mushroom and herbs and are now used as natural drugs or dietary supplements on a global scale. In this paper, we aimed to increase the polysaccharide production of Cordyceps militaris and the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are an important class of bioactive components of medical mushroom and herbs and are now used as natural drugs or dietary supplements on a global scale. In this paper, we aimed to increase the polysaccharide production of Cordyceps militaris and the antioxidant activities of fermented rice by solid-state fermentation. The media components and culture condition were optimized by orthogonal design and mono-factor tests using rice as the raw material. The optimal media consisted of (g/L): rice (50), fructose (7), glycerin (7), peptone (1), MgCl2 (0.11), VB1 (0.05), VB2 (0.05), CaCl2 (1.5), corn bran (6), and a water–materials ratio of 100%. The fermentation condition was as follows: inoculum volume of 5.5% (v/w), rice weight of 50 g in one bowl with a diameter of 120 mm and a depth of 90 mm, incubation temperature of 26 °C, and incubation time of seven days. Under the optimized condition, the maximal C. militaris polysaccharide content and free radical scavenging ratio were 68.3 mg/g dry substrate and 98.9%, respectively. This study provides a new strategy for the production of healthy food from traditional food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Use of Milk Replacers and pH on the Texture Profiles of Raw and Cooked Meat of Suckling Kids
Foods 2019, 8(11), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110589 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the texture profile of fresh and cooked longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle from suckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacers. Suckling male kids from eight goat breeds (Florida, FL; Cabra del Guadarrama, GU; [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the texture profile of fresh and cooked longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle from suckling kids raised with natural milk or milk replacers. Suckling male kids from eight goat breeds (Florida, FL; Cabra del Guadarrama, GU; Majorera, MA; Palmera, PL; Payoya, PY; Retinta, RE; Tinerfeña, TI; Verata, VE), all of single parturition, were raised with milk replacers (MR) or with natural milk from the dams (NM). The meat pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture profile analysis and chemical composition were determined. Kids were clustered based on their pH by k-means clustering. The effect of the rearing system on the textural profile was strongly modulated by breed. The values of Warner-Bratzler shear force and hardness found in these breeds under both rearing systems were very low. Hence, the toughness of very light suckling kids should not be a determining factor in choosing a breed or rearing system. Nevertheless, the use of milk replacers increased the presence of meat with high pH, which modified the textural parameters, decreasing the shear force but increasing cohesiveness and adhesiveness. Consequently, depending on the commercial strategy of the farm, the election of the breed and rearing system must be considered together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Pre-Mortem Factors on Meat Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Authentication of the Geographical Origin of Margarines and Fat-Spread Products from Liquid Chromatographic UV-Absorption Fingerprints and Chemometrics
Foods 2019, 8(11), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110588 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
Fat-spread products are a stabilized emulsion of water and vegetable oils. The whole fat content can vary from 10 to 90% (w/w). There are different kinds, which are differently named, and their composition depends on the country in which [...] Read more.
Fat-spread products are a stabilized emulsion of water and vegetable oils. The whole fat content can vary from 10 to 90% (w/w). There are different kinds, which are differently named, and their composition depends on the country in which they are produced or marketed. Thus, having analytical solutions to determine geographical origin is required. In this study, some multivariate classification methods are developed and optimised to differentiate fat-spread-related products from different geographical origins (Spain and Morocco), using as an analytical informative signal the instrumental fingerprints, acquired by liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in both normal and reverse phase modes. No sample treatment was applied, and, prior to chromatographic analysis, only the samples were dissolved in n‑hexane. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used as classification methods. In addition, several classification strategies were applied, and performance of the classifications was evaluated applying proper classification metrics. Finally, 100% of samples were correctly classified applying PLS-DA with data collected in reverse phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Phytochemical Analyses and Metabolic Profiling of Different Phenotypes of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica Rapa ssp. Pekinensis)
Foods 2019, 8(11), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110587 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
This study aimed to comprehensively examine the interface between primary and secondary metabolites in oval- and rectangular-shaped Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) using gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition to differences [...] Read more.
This study aimed to comprehensively examine the interface between primary and secondary metabolites in oval- and rectangular-shaped Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) using gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition to differences in shape, there was significant morphological variation between the two cultivars. The rectangular variety had greater height and deeper green color, whereas the oval variety had more leaves and greater width. A total of 42 primary metabolites identified by GC-TOFMS were subjected to partial least-squares discriminant, which indicated significant differences in the primary and secondary metabolisms of the two cultivars. Furthermore, total glucosinolate and phenolic contents were higher in the oval cultivar, whereas the rectangular cultivar contained a higher level of total carotenoids. This metabolome study comprehensively describes the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites in the oval and rectangular cultivars of Chinese cabbage and provides information useful for developing strategies to enhance the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, phenolics, and carotenoids in Chinese cabbage. Additionally, this work highlights that HPLC and GC-TOFMS–based metabolite profiling is suitable techniques to determine metabolic differences in Chinese cabbage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Compositional and Functional Attributes of Commercial Flours from Tropical Fruits (Breadfruit and Banana)
Foods 2019, 8(11), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110586 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the compositional and functional properties of tropical flour sources (two breadfruit flours (type A and type B) and a banana flour) with a more traditional flour source (wheat flour). Macro-nutrient composition, pH, water and oil [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the compositional and functional properties of tropical flour sources (two breadfruit flours (type A and type B) and a banana flour) with a more traditional flour source (wheat flour). Macro-nutrient composition, pH, water and oil holding capacity, bulk density, particle size, solubility, swelling power, pasting properties, and thermodynamics (gelatinization and retrogradation) were determined. All flours evaluated were similar in their composition with high levels of carbohydrates (greater than 82.52 g/100 g on a dry-matter basis), with most of the carbohydrate content comprised of starch (greater than 67.02 g/100 g). The tropical fruit flours had greater (p < 0.05) water holding capacity than wheat flour. Breadfruit flour B had the lowest (p < 0.05) bulk density, while banana flour had the greatest (p < 0.05) bulk density. The swelling power of the tropical flours was greater (p < 0.05) than the wheat flour. The viscosity of the tropical flours was higher than wheat flour but decreased significantly when temperature was held at 130 °C. These results indicated that the two breadfruit flours and banana flour have great potential for application in processed food products, and have similar compositional attributes to a more traditional flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Spent Coffee Waste as a Potential Media Component for Xylanase Production and Potential Application in Juice Enrichment
Foods 2019, 8(11), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110585 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
In this study, spent coffee waste (SCW) was used as the sole carbon source for xylanase production in solid state fermentation mode using Aspergillus niger. A Box–Behnken design was constructed using three parameters viz. temperature, initial moisture content, and log number of [...] Read more.
In this study, spent coffee waste (SCW) was used as the sole carbon source for xylanase production in solid state fermentation mode using Aspergillus niger. A Box–Behnken design was constructed using three parameters viz. temperature, initial moisture content, and log number of spores to determine the optimal fermentation condition. The best fermentation conditions for xylanase production were found to be incubation at 30 °C with an initial moisture content of 70% and using an inoculum of 6.5 × 106 spores/g of dry SCW. Furthermore, the design of experiments revealed that maintaining a medium composition of 0.2 g of yeast extract, 0.04 g of K2HPO4, and 0.03 g of MgSO4 increased xylanase production. Under optimised solid-state fermentation conditions an enzyme activity of 6495.6 IU/g of dry SCW was recorded, which was approximately 1.39-fold higher than that of control (4649 IU/g of dry SCW). The efficacy of the purified xylanase as a juice enrichment agent for strawberry, blueberry, and raspberry pulp was tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Waste)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Impact of Common Food Labels on Consumer Liking in Vanilla Yogurt
Foods 2019, 8(11), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110584 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
As competition on super market shelves is higher than ever, the importance of product concepts, communicated through labels, can dictate a product’s success or failure. However, it is possible for labels to affect a consumer’s experience, changing the overall response to the product. [...] Read more.
As competition on super market shelves is higher than ever, the importance of product concepts, communicated through labels, can dictate a product’s success or failure. However, it is possible for labels to affect a consumer’s experience, changing the overall response to the product. In this study, we tested samples of vanilla yogurt with one of four commonly used labeling concepts (high-protein, low-fat, made with stevia and all-natural) on sensory perception, consumer liking, expected consumption amount, and willingness to pay (WTP) in a consumer test (n = 108). Each participant evaluated five samples of the same vanilla yogurt identified with one of the labels, or an unlabeled control. Results showed panelists liked the samples labeled with low-fat and high-protein to the greatest degree, with all-natural scoring the lowest. Those more concerned with protein content found the samples less satiating, dependent on sex. Sweetness was also perceived more highly in younger panelists, with panelists WTP dependent on their liking of the labels. Results highlight the importance of labeling as an extrinsic cue affecting liking ratings, with potential ramification for ultimate product success. Understanding consumers’ response to labels, as well as their attitudes, has broad implications for food marketing, as well as public health and the study of eating habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Visuals Affect Food Choice?)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Morphological and Physicochemical Properties of Waxy and Non-waxy Proso Millets during Cooking Process
Foods 2019, 8(11), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110583 - 17 Nov 2019
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Proso millet, a grain which is principally consumed in cooked form, is favored by consumers because of its rich nutritional value. However, the changes in morphological and physicochemical properties of proso millet grains occurring during the cooking process have rarely been reported. In [...] Read more.
Proso millet, a grain which is principally consumed in cooked form, is favored by consumers because of its rich nutritional value. However, the changes in morphological and physicochemical properties of proso millet grains occurring during the cooking process have rarely been reported. In this study, we investigated the changes in morphological and physicochemical properties of cooked waxy and non-waxy proso millets. During the cooking process, starch granules in the grains were gradually gelatinized starting from the outer region to the inner region and were gelatinized earlier in waxy proso millet than in non-waxy proso millet. Many filamentous network structures were observed in the cross sections of cooked waxy proso millet. As the cooking time increased, the long- and short-range, ordered structures of proso millets were gradually disrupted, and the ordered structures were fully disrupted by 20 min of cooking. In both waxy and non-waxy proso millets, thermal and pasting properties significantly changed with an increase in the cooking time. This study provides useful information for the processing of proso millet in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytosterols Suppress Phagocytosis and Inhibit Inflammatory Mediators via ERK Pathway on LPS-Triggered Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages and the Correlation with Their Structure
Foods 2019, 8(11), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110582 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Phytosterols, found in many commonly consumed foods, exhibit a broad range of physiological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and ergosterol acetate were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that all phytosterol [...] Read more.
Phytosterols, found in many commonly consumed foods, exhibit a broad range of physiological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and ergosterol acetate were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that all phytosterol compounds alleviated the inflammatory reaction in LPS-induced macrophage models; cell phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and expression and activity of pro-inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) were all inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitosterol was higher than stigmasterol and campesterol, which suggests that phytosterols without a double bond on C-22 and with ethyl on C-24 were more effective. However, inconsistent results were observed upon comparison of ergosterol and ergosterol acetate (hydroxy or ester group on C-3), which suggest that additional research is still needed to ascertain the contribution of structure to their anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Food and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Motivation to Buy Organic Food Depends on Lifestyle
Foods 2019, 8(11), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110581 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
The aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between the physical activity undertaken by Polish consumers and their attitude towards organic food. The motives for the selection of organic food, the barriers that consumers face when buying it, and the requirements [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between the physical activity undertaken by Polish consumers and their attitude towards organic food. The motives for the selection of organic food, the barriers that consumers face when buying it, and the requirements set by consumers were determined. The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using the author′s questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In total, 3436 respondents from all over Poland were examined using the selected research sample. Statistica 13.1 PL was used for statistical analyses. The results of the research indicate that the main reasons for the selection of organic food, especially among physically active respondents, were the perceived lack of harmful substances and that it is healthy in itself. The study showed that physically active respondents preferred to purchase, to a greater extent, less processed food produced in a natural way and on organic farms. The main reason for purchasing organic food in physically inactive respondents was due to its taste values. The originality of the paper stems from demonstrating differences and similarities in the motives for buying organic food expressed by physically active consumers and those preferring passive lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
In-Depth Qualitative Analysis of Lime Essential Oils Using the Off-Line Combination of Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2019, 8(11), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110580 - 16 Nov 2019
Viewed by 689
Abstract
The present research is focused on the in-depth qualitative analysis of three types of lime essential oil (EO), viz., Key (A and B) and Persian, using the off-line combination of normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–quadrupole mass [...] Read more.
The present research is focused on the in-depth qualitative analysis of three types of lime essential oil (EO), viz., Key (A and B) and Persian, using the off-line combination of normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC-QMS). The first analytical dimension (NP-HPLC) was exploited for the isolation of the hydrocarbon constituents from the oxygenated ones. Each fraction was then reduced in volume and analyzed using (cryogenic modulation) GC × GC-QMS. Peak assignment was carried out through the combined use of mass spectral database and linear retention index matching processes. The powerful four-dimensional technology enabled the separation and identification of a very high number (153) of lime essential oil volatile compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Methods for Food Fraud and Food Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Phenolic Metabolites from Traditionally Used Mediterranean Herbs and Spices
Foods 2019, 8(11), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110579 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The phenolic extracts of fifteen Mediterranean medicinal plants, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated to grade their potential as additives in the food industry. Phenolic profiles of plant extracts were determined spectrophotometrically (total phenolics and phenolic subgroups) while individual [...] Read more.
The phenolic extracts of fifteen Mediterranean medicinal plants, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated to grade their potential as additives in the food industry. Phenolic profiles of plant extracts were determined spectrophotometrically (total phenolics and phenolic subgroups) while individual compounds were identified using chromatographic assays. The biological activity of samples was determined using five antioxidant assays, while the antibacterial potential was determined against six foodborne pathogens (Camplyobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonela Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus). The results showed significant variations in phenolic profile of plants and consequently their biological activity. Bearberry contained the highest concentration of phenolics, was extremely rich in non-flavonoids and also had the highest amount of catechins that resulted with good reducing and free radical scavenging properties and low chelating activity. All extracts were not effective against tested microorganisms with Gram-positive bacteria being more sensitive (especially S. aureus). The most effective extracts were St. Johns wort against S. aureus with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.00 mg/mL), bay laurel and nettle against B. cereus (MICs of 1.67 mg/mL), and woodland strawberry against L. monocytogenes (MIC of 3.33 mg/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Physical Properties of Edible Calcium Alginate Gel Beads: Response Surface Methodological Approach
Foods 2019, 8(11), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110578 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been widely investigated for the development of artificial foods; however, there are few studies on its thermal stability. This study aimed to monitor changes in the physical properties of CAG beads during heat treatment using response surface methodology. [...] Read more.
Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been widely investigated for the development of artificial foods; however, there are few studies on its thermal stability. This study aimed to monitor changes in the physical properties of CAG beads during heat treatment using response surface methodology. Heating temperature (X1, 40–100 °C) and heating time (X2, 5–60 min) were chosen as independent variables. The dependent variables were rupture strength (Y1, kPa), size (Y2, μm), and sphericity (Y3, %). The heating temperature (X1) was the independent variable that had a significant effect on the rupture strength (Y1) and size (Y2). Rupture strength (Y1) increased as the heating temperature (X1) increased; at the same time, the CAG beads size (Y2) decreased. With all conditions, the values of sphericity (Y3) were over 94%. SEM images revealed that increase in the rupture strength of the CAG beads by heat treatment resulted from their porous structures. Loss of moisture by syneresis, occurring with heat treatment, was judged to create a dense porous structure of CAG beads. Our findings offer useful information for cooking or sterilizing food products utilizing CAG beads. In addition, thermal treatment could be applied to produce hard CAG beads with a high rupture strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessEditorial
Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity
Foods 2019, 8(11), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110577 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 822
Abstract
This Special Issue contains innovative research papers on the characterization, chemical composition and physical properties of honey. This constitutes very useful information to avoid frauds and to guarantee the authenticity of this food product. The knowledge of the particularities of honey is increasingly [...] Read more.
This Special Issue contains innovative research papers on the characterization, chemical composition and physical properties of honey. This constitutes very useful information to avoid frauds and to guarantee the authenticity of this food product. The knowledge of the particularities of honey is increasingly demanded by beekeepers and consumers, and also by labs to typify honeys according to their botanical origin and to check their quality. Melissopalynological, sensorial and physicochemical techniques are being used to study the characteristics of honeys samples from different plant sources and geographical areas. The combination of these analytical techniques with mathematical and statistical methods or chemometrics allows researchers to identify a set of variables or individual parameters that define independent samples, providing a practical solution to classify honey according to the geographical or the botanical origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity)
Open AccessArticle
Investigating Consumer Attitude and Intention towards Online Food Purchasing in an Emerging Economy: An Extended TAM Approach
Foods 2019, 8(11), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110576 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Along with the development of the Internet and technology, food retailers have increasingly adopted online channels that enable consumers to buy food products online. This research aims to investigate the factors that influence consumer attitude and intention towards online food purchasing. A research [...] Read more.
Along with the development of the Internet and technology, food retailers have increasingly adopted online channels that enable consumers to buy food products online. This research aims to investigate the factors that influence consumer attitude and intention towards online food purchasing. A research framework was developed by combining the technology acceptance model with website trust, which is an important facilitator of online shopping. Using an online survey, data were obtained from 319 online food shoppers in an Asian emerging economy, i.e., Vietnam. Results from structural equation modeling show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and website trust are important drivers of attitude towards online food purchasing. Among these drivers, perceived ease of use has the greatest impact on attitude. Additionally, attitude and website trust exert a direct and positive effect on intention towards online food purchasing. Taken together, these findings have important managerial implications for key stakeholders, such as online food retailers, associations, and policy makers. One key implication is that online food sellers must endeavor to make their websites simple to use, easy to navigate, reliable, and secure. Several potential caveats for future research studies are also presented in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Isolates on Spinach Leaf Surfaces Using Eugenol-Loaded Surfactant Micelles
Foods 2019, 8(11), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110575 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Spinach and other leafy green vegetables have been linked to foodborne disease outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica around the globe. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of surfactant micelles formed from the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), SDS micelle-loaded [...] Read more.
Spinach and other leafy green vegetables have been linked to foodborne disease outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica around the globe. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of surfactant micelles formed from the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), SDS micelle-loaded eugenol (1.0% eugenol), 1.0% free eugenol, 200 ppm free chlorine, and sterile water were tested against the human pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Saintpaul, and naturally occurring microorganisms, on spinach leaf surfaces during storage at 5 °C over 10 days. Spinach samples were immersed in antimicrobial treatment solution for 2.0 min at 25 °C, after which treatment solutions were drained off and samples were either subjected to analysis or prepared for refrigerated storage. Whereas empty SDS micelles produced moderate reductions in counts of both pathogens (2.1–3.2 log10 CFU/cm2), free and micelle-entrapped eugenol treatments reduced pathogens by >5.0 log10 CFU/cm2 to below the limit of detection (<0.5 log10 CFU/cm2). Micelle-loaded eugenol produced the greatest numerical reductions in naturally contaminating aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and fungi, though these reductions did not differ statistically from reductions achieved by un-encapsulated eugenol and 200 ppm chlorine. Micelles-loaded eugenol could be used as a novel antimicrobial technology to decontaminate fresh spinach from microbial pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lebanese Population Exposure to Trace Elements via White Bread Consumption
Foods 2019, 8(11), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110574 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess Lebanese population exposure to trace elements (TEs) via white pita consumption. A survey of white pita consumption was achieved among one thousand Lebanese individuals, grouped into adults (above 15 years old, men, and women) and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess Lebanese population exposure to trace elements (TEs) via white pita consumption. A survey of white pita consumption was achieved among one thousand Lebanese individuals, grouped into adults (above 15 years old, men, and women) and young people (6–9 and 10–14 years old). The most consumed pita brands, labeled B1, B2, and B3, were selected. Levels of TEs (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb) in B1, B2, B3 pitas were measured. The highest contents of TEs in pitas were: Ni (1292 µg/kg) and Co (91 µg/kg) in B1; As (400 µg/kg) and Cd (< 15 µg/kg) in B2; Cr (363 µg/kg), Pb (260 µg/kg), and Hg (0.89 µg/kg) in B3. The pita brand B3 was the source of the highest TEs exposure, except for Ni for which it was B1. Daily exposures to TEs due to the fact of pita consumption were compared to safety levels. There were no safety concerns for Hg, Cd, Cr or Co (except the 95th percentile of 6–9 years old). An excess of the Ni tolerable daily intake was observed for the most exposed populations. The very low margins of exposure for As and Pb suggest a worrying risk for the Lebanese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence Applied to Flavonoid Data in Food Matrices
Foods 2019, 8(11), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110573 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Increasing interest in constituents and dietary supplements has created the need for more efficient use of this information in nutrition-related fields. The present work aims to obtain optimal models to predict the total antioxidant properties of food matrices, using available information on the [...] Read more.
Increasing interest in constituents and dietary supplements has created the need for more efficient use of this information in nutrition-related fields. The present work aims to obtain optimal models to predict the total antioxidant properties of food matrices, using available information on the amount and class of flavonoids present in vegetables. A new dataset using databases that collect the flavonoid content of selected foods has been created. Structural information was obtained using a structural-topological approach called TOPological Sub-Structural Molecular (TOPSMODE). Different artificial intelligence algorithms were applied, including Machine Learning (ML) methods. The study allowed us to demonstrate the effectiveness of the models using structural-topological characteristics of dietary flavonoids. The proposed models can be considered, without overfitting, effective in predicting new values of Oxygen Radical Absorption capacity (ORAC), except in the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) algorithm. The best optimal model was obtained by the Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The in silico methodology we developed allows us to confirm the effectiveness of the obtained models, by introducing the new structural-topological attributes, as well as selecting those that most influence the class variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Conventional and Sustainable Lipid Extraction Methods for the Production of Oil and Protein Isolate from Edible Insect Meal
Foods 2019, 8(11), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110572 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Edible insects represent an interesting alternative source of protein for human consumption but the main hurdle facing the edible insect sector is low consumer acceptance. However, increased acceptance is anticipated when insects are incorporated as a processed ingredient, such as protein-rich powder, rather [...] Read more.
Edible insects represent an interesting alternative source of protein for human consumption but the main hurdle facing the edible insect sector is low consumer acceptance. However, increased acceptance is anticipated when insects are incorporated as a processed ingredient, such as protein-rich powder, rather than presented whole. To produce edible insect fractions with high protein content, a defatting step is necessary. This study investigated the effects of six defatting methods (conventional solvents, three-phase partitioning, and supercritical CO2) on lipid extraction yield, fatty profiles, and protein extraction and purification of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meals. Ethanol increased the lipid extraction yield (22.7%–28.8%), irrespective of the insect meal used or the extraction method applied. Supercritical CO2 gave similar lipid extraction yields as conventional methods for Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) (22.1%) but was less efficient for Acheta domesticus (A. domesticus) (11.9%). The protein extraction yield ranged from 12.4% to 38.9% for A. domesticus, and from 11.9% to 39.3% for T. molitor, whereas purification rates ranged from 58.3% to 78.5% for A. domesticus and from 48.7% to 75.4% for T. molitor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Slaughter Age on Muscle Fiber Composition, Intramuscular Connective Tissue, and Tenderness of Goat Meat during Post-Mortem Time
Foods 2019, 8(11), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110571 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of slaughter age and post-mortem time on meat quality traits, tenderness, histochemical analyses, and perimysium thickness in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of the Korean native black goat (KNBG) maintained at 4 °C for up to 21 days [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of slaughter age and post-mortem time on meat quality traits, tenderness, histochemical analyses, and perimysium thickness in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of the Korean native black goat (KNBG) maintained at 4 °C for up to 21 days post mortem. Samples of LT muscle were obtained from the carcasses of 24 KNBGs, including old and young goats (AG, n = 12, 18 months of age; YG, n = 12, 9 months of age), to measure all analyses during 21 days of post-mortem time. AGs had a higher percentage of type I fiber but a lower percentage of type IIA fiber than YGs (p < 0.05). AGs had higher a* value, lower released water (RW) %, and higher Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) value than YGs (p < 0.05). The perimysium thickness (PMT) of AGs was also higher than that of YGs (p < 0.05). Although the PMT did not change during post-mortem period, the WBSF value of AGs was higher than that of YGs after 21 days post mortem (p < 0.05). The results imply that AGs are tougher than YGs due to their muscle fiber characteristics and thicker perimysium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Meat Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Quality Traits Defined by Physicochemical Functional Properties
Foods 2019, 8(11), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110570 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Pea is one of the most produced and consumed pulse crops around the world. The study of genetic variability within pea germplasm is an important tool to identify outstanding accessions with optimal functional and nutritional qualities. In the present study, a collection of [...] Read more.
Pea is one of the most produced and consumed pulse crops around the world. The study of genetic variability within pea germplasm is an important tool to identify outstanding accessions with optimal functional and nutritional qualities. In the present study, a collection of 105 pea accessions was analysed for physicochemical properties, pasting viscosity, and basic composition parameters. While pasting viscosities were negatively correlated to hydration capacity, cooking time, and basic composition, a positive correlation was found between the hydration capacity and the basic composition parameters. Basic composition (protein, fibre, fat, and resistant starch) parameters were further evaluated regarding seed trait morphology, namely, seed shape, colour, and surface. Allelic characterisation at the r and rb genetic loci was performed in a subgroup of 32 accessions (3 phenotyped as smooth and 29 as rough seeded), revealing that none of the initially classified rough-seeded accessions were rb mutants, 19 were r mutants, and 13 were neither r nor rb. Despite their initial phenotypic classification, the 13 accessions genetically classified as smooth behaved differently (p < 0.05) to the 19 r mutants in terms of physicochemical properties, pasting viscosity, and basic composition parameters. Using multivariate analysis of the most discriminatory parameters for the food-related traits studied, the best-performing accessions at functional and nutritional levels were identified for future plant breeding to improve field pea production and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessEditorial
Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables
Foods 2019, 8(11), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110569 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond with efficiency to the increasing consumer expectations. Various emerging, unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed [...] Read more.
Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond with efficiency to the increasing consumer expectations. Various emerging, unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultrasound, high pressure, and microwave drying) enable the processing of fruits and vegetables, increasing their stability while preserving their thermolabile nutrients, flavour, texture, and overall quality. Some of these technologies can also be used for waste and by-product valorisation. The application of fast noninvasive methods for process control is of great importance for the fruit and vegetable industry. The following Special Issue “Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables” consists of 11 papers, which provide a high-value contribution to the existing knowledge on safety aspects, quality evaluation, and emerging processing technologies for fruits and vegetables. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consumer Attitudes and Preference Exploration towards Fresh-Cut Salads Using Best–Worst Scaling and Latent Class Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(11), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110568 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
This research explored the preferences and buying habits of a sample of 620 consumers of fresh-cut, ready-to-eat salads. A best–worst scaling approach was used to measure the level of preference stated by individuals regarding 12 attributes for quality (intrinsic, extrinsic and credence) of [...] Read more.
This research explored the preferences and buying habits of a sample of 620 consumers of fresh-cut, ready-to-eat salads. A best–worst scaling approach was used to measure the level of preference stated by individuals regarding 12 attributes for quality (intrinsic, extrinsic and credence) of fresh-cut salads. The experiment was carried out through direct interviews at several large-scale retail outlets in the Turin metropolitan area (north-west of Italy). Out of the total number of questioned consumers, 35% said they did not consume fresh-cut salads. On the contrary, the rest of the involved sample expressed the highest degree of preference towards the freshness/appearance attribute, followed by the expiration date and the brand. On the contrary, attributes such as price, organic certification and food safety did not emerge as discriminating factors in consumer choices. Additionally, five clusters of consumers were identified, whose preferences are related both to purchasing styles and socio-demographic variables. In conclusion, this research has highlighted the positive attitude of consumers towards quality products backed by a brand, providing ideas for companies to improve within this sector and implement strategies to answer the needs of a new segment of consumers, by determining market opportunities that aim to strengthen local brands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaging Negatively Influences Consumer Acceptability Traits of Pork
Foods 2019, 8(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110567 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed [...] Read more.
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed (VAC) on eating quality and colour, after storage in simulated illuminated retail display conditions. Pork loins (n = 40) were cut and stored under two packaging methods (HiOxMAP, 80% O2, 20% CO2; VAC) for up to 14 days, with samples taken at various times for measurements. After 7 days of storage, HiOxMAP samples exhibited inferior consumer acceptability for tenderness, flavor, overall liking, quality and re-purchase intention as well as higher shear force and hardness, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). Loins stored in HiOxMAP had higher lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 3 and 7 days, but lower ratio of oxymoglobin to metmyoglobin (oxy/met) values in the meat surface at 14 days of display, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). The oxy/met ratio declined from 2.3 to 1.7 between days 3 and 14 of display in HiOxMAP samples (p < 0.05), whereas the ratio was similar and stayed relatively high for VAC samples. VAC samples produced consistently higher colour values (a*, b*, oxy/met) when left to bloom 30 min after removal from packaging (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation values, measured using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, in HiOxMAP pork loins, were higher at all time points compared to VAC during the 14 day storage period (p < 0.05). The use of vacuum packing for retail shelves, should be considered as the preferred option, over HiOxMAP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Pretreatment in Synthesis of Caprylic-Rich Structured Lipids by Lipase-Catalyzed Acidolysis of Corn Oil in Organic System and Its Physicochemical Properties
Foods 2019, 8(11), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110566 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The current work was to evaluate the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of corn oil with caprylic acid (CA) in organic system under bath ultrasonic pretreatment and to analyze the physicochemical properties of structured lipids (SLs). Under optimum conditions (Novozym 40086 lipase, 200 W ultrasound power, [...] Read more.
The current work was to evaluate the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of corn oil with caprylic acid (CA) in organic system under bath ultrasonic pretreatment and to analyze the physicochemical properties of structured lipids (SLs). Under optimum conditions (Novozym 40086 lipase, 200 W ultrasound power, 10 min ultrasound pretreatment time, 12% dosage of lipase, Triacylglycerol (TAG)/Free fatty acids (FFA): 1/8, 40 °C for 6 h), a 45.55% CA incorporation was obtained (named SLs-U). The highest CA incorporation was 32.75% for conventional method at reaction time of 10 h (named SLs-N). The predominant TAG types of SLs were MLM (medium-, long- and medium-chain-type TAGs) and MLL (medium-, long- and long-chain-type TAGs). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both SLs-U and SLs-N present β form. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that both SLs-U and SLs-N show a lower melting and crystallization temperature than corn oil. This study suggested that bath ultrasonic pretreatment can accelerate lipase-catalyzed acidolysis synthesis of MLM structured lipids in an organic system, and two kinds of structured lipids show similar physicochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Varietal Diversity of Typical Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Croatian Extra Virgin Olive Oils as Revealed by GC-IT-MS and UPLC-DAD Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110565 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Despite having an interesting native olive gene pool and a rapidly emerging olive oil industry, monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Croatia are relatively unexplored. To investigate the inter-varietal diversity of typical volatile and phenolic profiles of Croatian EVOO, 93 samples from [...] Read more.
Despite having an interesting native olive gene pool and a rapidly emerging olive oil industry, monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Croatia are relatively unexplored. To investigate the inter-varietal diversity of typical volatile and phenolic profiles of Croatian EVOO, 93 samples from six olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties were subjected to gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD), respectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was also performed. Analysis of variance extracted many relevant exclusive or partial discriminators between monovarietal EVOOs among the identified volatile compounds and phenols. Successful differentiation model with a 100% correct classification was built by linear discriminant analysis, while the most typical volatiles for each monovarietal EVOO were confirmed by partial least squares discriminant analysis. Diverse typical sensory attributes among the EVOOs were tentatively ascribed to the variations in the composition of volatiles and phenols. It was proven that the approach that comprises GC-IT-MS and UPLC-DAD analysis may provide additional objective information about varietal origin and typicity which successfully complement those obtained by sensory analysis. The approach was characterized as universal in nature, with a significant potential to contribute in strengthening the varietal identities and position on the market of monovarietal and Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) EVOO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality, Safety, and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Passive- and Active-Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Physio-Chemical and Quality Attributes of Fresh In-Hull Pistachios (Pistacia vera L. cv. Badami)
Foods 2019, 8(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110564 - 09 Nov 2019
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The effects of passive- and active-modified atmosphere packaging (passive- and active-MAP) were investigated on the physio-chemical and quality attributes of fresh in-hull pistachios stored at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Fresh pistachios were packaged under each of the following [...] Read more.
The effects of passive- and active-modified atmosphere packaging (passive- and active-MAP) were investigated on the physio-chemical and quality attributes of fresh in-hull pistachios stored at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Fresh pistachios were packaged under each of the following gas combinations: active-MAP1 (AMA1) (5% O2 + 5% CO2), AMA2 (5% O2 + 25% CO2), AMA3 (5% O2 + 45% CO2), AMA4 (2.5% O2 + 5% CO2), AMA5 (2.5% O2 + 25% CO2), and AMA6 (2.5% O2 + 45% CO2), all balanced with N2, as well as passive-MAP (PMA) with ambient air (21% O2 + 0.03% CO2 + 78% N2). Changes in quality parameters were evaluated after 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of storage. Results demonstrated that AMA6 and PMA had significantly lower (7.96 Log CFU g−1) and higher (9.81 Log CFU g−1) aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts than the other treatments. However, the AMA6 treatment decreased, kernel chlorophyll and carotenoid content, hull antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content. The PMA treatment produced a significant weight loss, 0.18%, relative to the other treatments. The active-MAP treatments were more effective than the passive-MAP in decreasing weight loss, microbial counts, kernel total chlorophyll (Kernel TCL), and kernel carotenoid content (Kernel CAC). The postharvest quality of fresh in-hull pistachios was maintained best by the AMA3 (5% O2 + 45% CO2 + 50% N2) treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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