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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Conventional and Sustainable Lipid Extraction Methods for the Production of Oil and Protein Isolate from Edible Insect Meal
Foods 2019, 8(11), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110572 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Edible insects represent an interesting alternative source of protein for human consumption but the main hurdle facing the edible insect sector is low consumer acceptance. However, increased acceptance is anticipated when insects are incorporated as a processed ingredient, such as protein-rich powder, rather [...] Read more.
Edible insects represent an interesting alternative source of protein for human consumption but the main hurdle facing the edible insect sector is low consumer acceptance. However, increased acceptance is anticipated when insects are incorporated as a processed ingredient, such as protein-rich powder, rather than presented whole. To produce edible insect fractions with high protein content, a defatting step is necessary. This study investigated the effects of six defatting methods (conventional solvents, three-phase partitioning, and supercritical CO2) on lipid extraction yield, fatty profiles, and protein extraction and purification of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meals. Ethanol increased the lipid extraction yield (22.7%–28.8%), irrespective of the insect meal used or the extraction method applied. Supercritical CO2 gave similar lipid extraction yields as conventional methods for Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) (22.1%) but was less efficient for Acheta domesticus (A. domesticus) (11.9%). The protein extraction yield ranged from 12.4% to 38.9% for A. domesticus, and from 11.9% to 39.3% for T. molitor, whereas purification rates ranged from 58.3% to 78.5% for A. domesticus and from 48.7% to 75.4% for T. molitor. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Slaughter Age on Muscle Fiber Composition, Intramuscular Connective Tissue and Tenderness of Goat Meat during Post-Mortem Time
Foods 2019, 8(11), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110571 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of slaughter age and post-mortem time on meat quality traits, tenderness, histochemical analyses, and perimysium thickness in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of the Korean native black goat (KNBG) maintained at 4 °C for up to 21 days [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of slaughter age and post-mortem time on meat quality traits, tenderness, histochemical analyses, and perimysium thickness in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of the Korean native black goat (KNBG) maintained at 4 °C for up to 21 days post mortem. Samples of LT muscle were obtained from the carcasses of 24 KNBGs, including old and young goats (AG, n = 12, 18 months of age; YG, n = 12, 9 months of age), to measure all analyses during 21 days of post-mortem time. AGs had a higher percentage of type I fiber but a lower percentage of type IIA fiber than YGs (p < 0.05). AGs had higher a* value, lower released water (RW) %, and higher Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) value than YGs (p < 0.05). The perimysium thickness (PMT) of AGs was also higher than that of YGs (p < 0.05). Although the PMT did not change during post-mortem period, the WBSF value of AGs was higher than that of YGs after 21 days post mortem (p < 0.05). The results imply that AGs are tougher than YGs due to their muscle fiber characteristics and thicker perimysium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Meat Quality)
Open AccessArticle
Variation in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Quality Traits Defined by Physicochemical Functional Properties
Foods 2019, 8(11), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110570 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Pea is one of the most produced and consumed pulse crops around the world. The study of genetic variability within pea germplasm is an important tool to identify outstanding accessions with optimal functional and nutritional qualities. In the present study, a collection of [...] Read more.
Pea is one of the most produced and consumed pulse crops around the world. The study of genetic variability within pea germplasm is an important tool to identify outstanding accessions with optimal functional and nutritional qualities. In the present study, a collection of 105 pea accessions was analysed for physicochemical properties, pasting viscosity, and basic composition parameters. While pasting viscosities were negatively correlated to hydration capacity, cooking time, and basic composition, a positive correlation was found between the hydration capacity and the basic composition parameters. Basic composition (protein, fibre, fat, and resistant starch) parameters were further evaluated regarding seed trait morphology, namely, seed shape, colour, and surface. Allelic characterisation at the r and rb genetic loci was performed in a subgroup of 32 accessions (3 phenotyped as smooth and 29 as rough seeded), revealing that none of the initially classified rough-seeded accessions were rb mutants, 19 were r mutants, and 13 were neither r nor rb. Despite their initial phenotypic classification, the 13 accessions genetically classified as smooth behaved differently (p < 0.05) to the 19 r mutants in terms of physicochemical properties, pasting viscosity, and basic composition parameters. Using multivariate analysis of the most discriminatory parameters for the food-related traits studied, the best-performing accessions at functional and nutritional levels were identified for future plant breeding to improve field pea production and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessEditorial
Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables
Foods 2019, 8(11), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110569 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond with efficiency to the increasing consumer expectations. Various emerging, unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed [...] Read more.
Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond with efficiency to the increasing consumer expectations. Various emerging, unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultrasound, high pressure, and microwave drying) enable the processing of fruits and vegetables, increasing their stability while preserving their thermolabile nutrients, flavour, texture, and overall quality. Some of these technologies can also be used for waste and by-product valorisation. The application of fast noninvasive methods for process control is of great importance for the fruit and vegetable industry. The following Special Issue “Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables” consists of 11 papers, which provide a high-value contribution to the existing knowledge on safety aspects, quality evaluation, and emerging processing technologies for fruits and vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
Open AccessArticle
Consumer Attitudes and Preference Exploration towards Fresh-Cut Salads Using Best–Worst Scaling and Latent Class Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(11), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110568 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
This research explored the preferences and buying habits of a sample of 620 consumers of fresh-cut, ready-to-eat salads. A best–worst scaling approach was used to measure the level of preference stated by individuals regarding 12 attributes for quality (intrinsic, extrinsic and credence) of [...] Read more.
This research explored the preferences and buying habits of a sample of 620 consumers of fresh-cut, ready-to-eat salads. A best–worst scaling approach was used to measure the level of preference stated by individuals regarding 12 attributes for quality (intrinsic, extrinsic and credence) of fresh-cut salads. The experiment was carried out through direct interviews at several large-scale retail outlets in the Turin metropolitan area (north-west of Italy). Out of the total number of questioned consumers, 35% said they did not consume fresh-cut salads. On the contrary, the rest of the involved sample expressed the highest degree of preference towards the freshness/appearance attribute, followed by the expiration date and the brand. On the contrary, attributes such as price, organic certification and food safety did not emerge as discriminating factors in consumer choices. Additionally, five clusters of consumers were identified, whose preferences are related both to purchasing styles and socio-demographic variables. In conclusion, this research has highlighted the positive attitude of consumers towards quality products backed by a brand, providing ideas for companies to improve within this sector and implement strategies to answer the needs of a new segment of consumers, by determining market opportunities that aim to strengthen local brands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaging Negatively Influences Consumer Acceptability Traits of Pork
Foods 2019, 8(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110567 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed [...] Read more.
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed (VAC) on eating quality and colour, after storage in simulated illuminated retail display conditions. Pork loins (n = 40) were cut and stored under two packaging methods (HiOxMAP, 80% O2, 20% CO2; VAC) for up to 14 days, with samples taken at various times for measurements. After 7 days of storage, HiOxMAP samples exhibited inferior consumer acceptability for tenderness, flavor, overall liking, quality and re-purchase intention as well as higher shear force and hardness, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). Loins stored in HiOxMAP had higher lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 3 and 7 days, but lower ratio of oxymoglobin to metmyoglobin (oxy/met) values in the meat surface at 14 days of display, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). The oxy/met ratio declined from 2.3 to 1.7 between days 3 and 14 of display in HiOxMAP samples (p < 0.05), whereas the ratio was similar and stayed relatively high for VAC samples. VAC samples produced consistently higher colour values (a*, b*, oxy/met) when left to bloom 30 min after removal from packaging (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation values, measured using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, in HiOxMAP pork loins, were higher at all time points compared to VAC during the 14 day storage period (p < 0.05). The use of vacuum packing for retail shelves, should be considered as the preferred option, over HiOxMAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Meat Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Pretreatment in Synthesis of Caprylic-Rich Structured Lipids by Lipase-Catalyzed Acidolysis of Corn Oil in Organic System and Its Physicochemical Properties
Foods 2019, 8(11), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110566 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The current work was to evaluate the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of corn oil with caprylic acid (CA) in organic system under bath ultrasonic pretreatment and to analyze the physicochemical properties of structured lipids (SLs). Under optimum conditions (Novozym 40086 lipase, 200 W ultrasound power, [...] Read more.
The current work was to evaluate the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of corn oil with caprylic acid (CA) in organic system under bath ultrasonic pretreatment and to analyze the physicochemical properties of structured lipids (SLs). Under optimum conditions (Novozym 40086 lipase, 200 W ultrasound power, 10 min ultrasound pretreatment time, 12% dosage of lipase, Triacylglycerol (TAG)/Free fatty acids (FFA): 1/8, 40 °C for 6 h), a 45.55% CA incorporation was obtained (named SLs-U). The highest CA incorporation was 32.75% for conventional method at reaction time of 10 h (named SLs-N). The predominant TAG types of SLs were MLM (medium-, long- and medium-chain-type TAGs) and MLL (medium-, long- and long-chain-type TAGs). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both SLs-U and SLs-N present β form. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that both SLs-U and SLs-N show a lower melting and crystallization temperature than corn oil. This study suggested that bath ultrasonic pretreatment can accelerate lipase-catalyzed acidolysis synthesis of MLM structured lipids in an organic system, and two kinds of structured lipids show similar physicochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Varietal Diversity of Typical Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Croatian Extra Virgin Olive Oils as Revealed by GC-IT-MS and UPLC-DAD Analysis
Foods 2019, 8(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110565 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Despite having an interesting native olive gene pool and a rapidly emerging olive oil industry, monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Croatia are relatively unexplored. To investigate the inter-varietal diversity of typical volatile and phenolic profiles of Croatian EVOO, 93 samples from [...] Read more.
Despite having an interesting native olive gene pool and a rapidly emerging olive oil industry, monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from Croatia are relatively unexplored. To investigate the inter-varietal diversity of typical volatile and phenolic profiles of Croatian EVOO, 93 samples from six olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties were subjected to gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD), respectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was also performed. Analysis of variance extracted many relevant exclusive or partial discriminators between monovarietal EVOOs among the identified volatile compounds and phenols. Successful differentiation model with a 100% correct classification was built by linear discriminant analysis, while the most typical volatiles for each monovarietal EVOO were confirmed by partial least squares discriminant analysis. Diverse typical sensory attributes among the EVOOs were tentatively ascribed to the variations in the composition of volatiles and phenols. It was proven that the approach that comprises GC-IT-MS and UPLC-DAD analysis may provide additional objective information about varietal origin and typicity which successfully complement those obtained by sensory analysis. The approach was characterized as universal in nature, with a significant potential to contribute in strengthening the varietal identities and position on the market of monovarietal and Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) EVOO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality, Safety, and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Passive- and Active-Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Physio-Chemical and Quality Attributes of Fresh In-Hull Pistachios (Pistacia vera L. cv. Badami)
Foods 2019, 8(11), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110564 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
The effects of passive- and active-modified atmosphere packaging (passive- and active-MAP) were investigated on the physio-chemical and quality attributes of fresh in-hull pistachios stored at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Fresh pistachios were packaged under each of the following [...] Read more.
The effects of passive- and active-modified atmosphere packaging (passive- and active-MAP) were investigated on the physio-chemical and quality attributes of fresh in-hull pistachios stored at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Fresh pistachios were packaged under each of the following gas combinations: active-MAP1 (AMA1) (5% O2 + 5% CO2), AMA2 (5% O2 + 25% CO2), AMA3 (5% O2 + 45% CO2), AMA4 (2.5% O2 + 5% CO2), AMA5 (2.5% O2 + 25% CO2), and AMA6 (2.5% O2 + 45% CO2), all balanced with N2, as well as passive-MAP (PMA) with ambient air (21% O2 + 0.03% CO2 + 78% N2). Changes in quality parameters were evaluated after 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of storage. Results demonstrated that AMA6 and PMA had significantly lower (7.96 Log CFU g−1) and higher (9.81 Log CFU g−1) aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts than the other treatments. However, the AMA6 treatment decreased, kernel chlorophyll and carotenoid content, hull antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content. The PMA treatment produced a significant weight loss, 0.18%, relative to the other treatments. The active-MAP treatments were more effective than the passive-MAP in decreasing weight loss, microbial counts, kernel total chlorophyll (Kernel TCL), and kernel carotenoid content (Kernel CAC). The postharvest quality of fresh in-hull pistachios was maintained best by the AMA3 (5% O2 + 45% CO2 + 50% N2) treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Characterization of Protein Hydrolysates from Three Edible Insects: Mealworm Larvae, Adult Crickets, and Silkworm Pupae
Foods 2019, 8(11), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110563 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
A comparative characterization of proteins from three edible insects—Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae, Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket), and Bombyx mori (silkworm) pupae—was performed in this study. Proteins were extracted from edible insects and their hydrolysates were prepared through enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes (Flavourzyme: [...] Read more.
A comparative characterization of proteins from three edible insects—Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae, Gryllus bimaculatus (cricket), and Bombyx mori (silkworm) pupae—was performed in this study. Proteins were extracted from edible insects and their hydrolysates were prepared through enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes (Flavourzyme: 12%; Alcalase: 3%). Solubility was significantly higher following enzymatic hydrolysis, while foamability was lower compared to those of the protein control. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was significantly inhibited after enzymatic hydrolysis, especially following Alcalase treatment, with IC50 values of 0.047, 0.066, and 0.065 mg/mL for G. bimaculatus, T. molitor larvae, and B. mori pupae, respectively. Moreover, the Alcalase-treated group of B. mori pupae and the T. molitor larvae group treated with a mixture of enzymes showed the effective inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the insect hydrolysates was assessed via nitric oxide production from macrophages, and B. mori pupae samples exhibited significant activity regardless of the method of hydrolysis. These results indicate the functional properties of protein and hydrolysates from three species of edible insects, which may be useful in their future exploitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Panel and Panelist Performance in the Sensory Evaluation of Black Ripe Olives from Spanish Manzanilla and Hojiblanca Cultivars
Foods 2019, 8(11), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110562 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
There is vast experience in the application of sensory analysis to green Spanish-style olives, but ripe black olives (≈1 × 106 kg for 2016/2017) have received scarce attention and panelists have less experience on the evaluation of this presentation. Therefore, the study [...] Read more.
There is vast experience in the application of sensory analysis to green Spanish-style olives, but ripe black olives (≈1 × 106 kg for 2016/2017) have received scarce attention and panelists have less experience on the evaluation of this presentation. Therefore, the study of their performance during the assessment of this presentation is critical. Using previously developed lexicon, ripe olives from Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars from different origins were sensory analysed according to the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The panel (eight men and six women) was trained, and the QDA tests were performed following similar recommendations than for green olives. The data were examined while using SensoMineR v.1.07, programmed in R, which provides a diversity of easy to interpret graphical outputs. The repeatability and reproducibility of panel and panelists were good for product characterisation. However, the panel performance investigation was essential in detecting details of panel work (detection of panelists with low discriminant power, those that have interpreted the scale in a different way than the whole panel, the identification of panelists who required training in several/specific descriptors, or those with low discriminant power). Besides, the study identified the descriptors of hard evaluation (skin green, vinegar, bitterness, or natural fruity/floral). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Characterization and Processing of Table Olives)
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Open AccessArticle
Functionality and Storability of Cookies Fortified at the Industrial Scale with up to 75% of Apple Pomace Flour Produced by Dehydration
Foods 2019, 8(11), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110561 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Apple pomace flour (APF) with high content of dietary fibers (DF), total polyphenolics (TPCs) and flavonoids (TFCs) was produced at the industrial scale. Bulk and tapped density, swelling, water and oil holding capacity, solubility and hydration density of fine and coarse APF with [...] Read more.
Apple pomace flour (APF) with high content of dietary fibers (DF), total polyphenolics (TPCs) and flavonoids (TFCs) was produced at the industrial scale. Bulk and tapped density, swelling, water and oil holding capacity, solubility and hydration density of fine and coarse APF with average particle size 0.16 and 0.50 mm were compared. The effect of wheat flour substitution with 25%, 50% and 75% of fine and coarse APF was studied upon cookies production at the industrial scale and after one year of storage. Coarse APF performed better in respect to sensorial properties, content and retention of dietary compounds and antioxidant (AO) activity. The cookies with optimal share of coarse APF (50%) contained 21 g/100 g of DF and several times higher TPC, TFC as well as AO activity than control cookies, retained well health promoting compounds and maintained an intensely fruity aroma and crispy texture. They were acceptable for consumers according to the hedonic test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Polydatin and Resveratrol Inhibit the Inflammatory Process Induced by Urate and Pyrophosphate Crystals in THP-1 Cells
Foods 2019, 8(11), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110560 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
Resveratol (RES) and its natural precursor polydatin (PD) are polyphenols that may display a broad variety of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of RES and PD in the inflammatory process induced by monosodium urate (MSU) and [...] Read more.
Resveratol (RES) and its natural precursor polydatin (PD) are polyphenols that may display a broad variety of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of RES and PD in the inflammatory process induced by monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in vitro. A monocytic cell line (THP-1) was primed for 3 hours with phorbol myristate acetate (100 ng/mL) and stimulated with synthetic MSU (0.05 mg/mL) and CPP (0.025 mg/mL) crystals. RES and PD were added to cultures concurrently with the crystals, or as 2-hour pretreatment. The effect of the two polyphenols was evaluated on intracellular and extracellular IL-1β levels, NACHT-LRRPYD-containing protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and the assessment of crystal phagocytosis. RES and PD strongly inhibited IL-1β induced by crystals after cell pretreatment. Cell pretreatment was effective also in reducing IL-1 mRNA expression while no effect was observed on NLRP3 gene expression. RES and PD had no effect on crystal phagocytosis when used as pretreatment. Both polyphenols were significantly effective in inhibiting ROS and NO production. Our results demonstrated that RES and PD are effective in inhibiting crystal-induced inflammation. Data obtained after cell pretreatment allow us to hypothesize that these polyphenols act on specific signaling pathways, preventing inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Wheat Bran Incorporation on the Physical and Sensory Properties of a South African Cereal Fried Dough
Foods 2019, 8(11), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110559 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of wheat bran (WB) supplementation on the physical and sensory properties of a South African cereal fried dough (magwinya). The physical properties, instrumental texture, and sensory profile were determined for magwinya (100:0, control) and for wheat [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of wheat bran (WB) supplementation on the physical and sensory properties of a South African cereal fried dough (magwinya). The physical properties, instrumental texture, and sensory profile were determined for magwinya (100:0, control) and for wheat flour to wheat-bran ratios of 95:5 (MWB5), 90:10 (MWB10), 85:15 (MWB15), and 80:20 (MWB20). An increase in the proportion of WB in the fried dough showed no significant difference on the specific volume (1.47–1.54) of samples. The chroma value (30.19–22.29), lightness (35.92–28.98), and hue angle (55.03–47.77) decreased, while ∆E increased distinctly with the addition of WB. Magwinya supplemented with WB was less cohesive and easy to chew. Significant correlations were found between instrumental hardness and sensory springiness (r = −0.63; p < 0.05), as well as between instrumental cohesiveness and sensory springiness (r = −0.71; p < 0.01). Two principal components were identified, which accounted for 85.1% of the variance in the instrumental data. A substitution level of 5 and 10% WB was similar to the sensory properties of the control in taste, texture, and overall acceptability and can replace part of the wheat flour in the cereal fried dough production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Lintnerization, Autoclaving, and Freeze-Thaw Treatments on Resistant Starch Formation and Functional Properties of Pathumthani 80 Rice Starch
Foods 2019, 8(11), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110558 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of lintnerization, autoclaving, lintnerization followed by autoclaving, and freeze thawing treatments on the production of resistant starch from Pathumthani 80 (RD 31) rice. The produced resistant starch was further evaluated for some important [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of lintnerization, autoclaving, lintnerization followed by autoclaving, and freeze thawing treatments on the production of resistant starch from Pathumthani 80 (RD 31) rice. The produced resistant starch was further evaluated for some important physicochemical properties including pasting properties, swelling behavior, digestibility, water holding capacity, and functional properties including glycemic index and antioxidant properties. The lintnerization treatment and autoclaving significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased resistant starch content to 64% (w/w) and gave the lowest glycemic index (46.12%). The lintnerization followed by autoclaving treatment significantly increased the solubility and water holding capacity, reduced the swelling power, and disrupted the crystalline structure of the starch granules. The native rice starch with autoclave treatment exhibited the highest swelling power among the samples, while the acid hydrolyzed starch was followed by autoclave treatment showing the lowest swelling power (1 g/g) at 90 °C. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed the modified structures and bonding of the starch materials with the shifting of C=O stretch. However, the antioxidant properties and pasting properties were observed to decrease with the lintnerization, autoclaving, and freeze-thawing treatment of the native starch. The highly resistant starch content and low glycemic index value of the autoclaved RD 31 starch indicates the potential of the resistant starch’s application for the formulation of functional foods targeting the diabetic population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional Analysis of Non-Polar and Polar Metabolites in 14 Soybeans Using Spectroscopy and Chromatography Tools
Foods 2019, 8(11), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110557 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
There has been significant interest in soybean oil, fatty acid, and sugar composition to develop new value-added soybean products. Thus, compositional analysis is critical for developing value-added soybeans. In the present study, we showed simple screening tools (near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and high-performance [...] Read more.
There has been significant interest in soybean oil, fatty acid, and sugar composition to develop new value-added soybean products. Thus, compositional analysis is critical for developing value-added soybeans. In the present study, we showed simple screening tools (near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)) coupled with multivariate analysis for the sample classification of 14 soybeans as a proof-of-concept. We further determined major non-polar and polar metabolites responsible for differences between different soybeans using gas and ion chromatography. These differences in soybean profiles were attributed to lower levels of total oil content in wild soybeans (~9%) versus cultivated soybeans (16%–22%). In addition, higher levels of linolenic acid (~17%) and stachyose (~53%) were determined in wild type, whereas higher levels of oleic acid (~19%) and sucrose (~59%) were detected in cultivated soybeans. Interestingly, one cultivated soybean had a desirable sugar profile with a high amount of sucrose (86%) and a low abundance of stachyose (9%). The correlation studies showed a positive correlation between oil and soluble sugars (R2 = 0.80) and negative correlations between methyl linolenate and soluble sugars (R2 = −0.79), oil (R2 = −0.94), and methyl oleate (R2 = −0.94) content. Both polar and non-polar metabolites showed significant differences in wild and cultivated soybeans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Estimation of Parameters for Gelatinization of Waxy Corn Starch
Foods 2019, 8(11), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110556 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
Starch gelatinization is an important process due to the prevalence of starch usage in industries such as cosmetics and food production. In this study, the gelatinization of waxy corn starch (WCS) was investigated with the goal of providing an option for the rapid [...] Read more.
Starch gelatinization is an important process due to the prevalence of starch usage in industries such as cosmetics and food production. In this study, the gelatinization of waxy corn starch (WCS) was investigated with the goal of providing an option for the rapid determination of starch gelatinization characteristics. The procedure used in the study was solely based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which is an established technique for the determination of thermal characteristics of starches. A sequence of experiments was conducted to determine the excess water condition, an estimate of the minimum gelatinization temperature, and gelatinization time. These parameters were found to be ≥65 wt.% water, 75–85 °C, and 10 min, respectively. The estimation of the minimum gelatinization temperature was determined from the thermal properties of the WCS as obtained by DSC. The obtained parameters resulted in complete WCS gelatinization, and, thus, the sequence of procedures used in the study could possibly be used for rapid waxy starch evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: Foods of Plant Origin
Foods 2019, 8(11), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110555 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
Plant food is usually rich in health-promoting ingredients such as polyphenols, carotenoids, betalains, glucosinolates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. However, pre- and post-harvest treatment, processing and storage can have significant effects on the concentration and composition of these bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, the plant food [...] Read more.
Plant food is usually rich in health-promoting ingredients such as polyphenols, carotenoids, betalains, glucosinolates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. However, pre- and post-harvest treatment, processing and storage can have significant effects on the concentration and composition of these bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, the plant food matrix in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and seeds is very different and can affect digestibility, bioavailability, processing properties and subsequently the nutritional value of the fresh and processed food. The Special Issue ‘Foods of Plant Origin’ covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant food by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
Open AccessArticle
Isolation of Penicillium citrinum from Roots of Clerodendron cyrtophyllum and Application in Biosynthesis of Aglycone Isoflavones from Soybean Waste Fermentation
Foods 2019, 8(11), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110554 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
Soybeans offer an abundant source of isoflavones, which confer useful bioactivities when existing in aglycone forms. The conversion of isoflavones into aglycones via fermentation of soybean products is often realized by β-glucosidase, an enzyme produced by fungi. In this study, a filamentous fungus, [...] Read more.
Soybeans offer an abundant source of isoflavones, which confer useful bioactivities when existing in aglycone forms. The conversion of isoflavones into aglycones via fermentation of soybean products is often realized by β-glucosidase, an enzyme produced by fungi. In this study, a filamentous fungus, Clerodendron cyrtophyllum, was isolated from root of Clerodendron cyrtophyllum Turcz, which was able to produce the highest activity of β-glucosidase up to 33.72 U/mL at 144 h during fermentation on Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB). The obtained fungus was grown on isoflavones-rich soybean extract to produce genistein and daidzein, achieving the conversion rate of 98.7%. Genistein and daidzein were isolated and purified by column chromatography using hexane/acetone (29:1/1:1), reaching purities of over 90% of total isoflavones, as identified and determined by TLC, LC-MS/MS, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. These results imply that the isolated P. citrinum is a potential fungal strain for industrial-scale production of genistein and daidzein from isoflavones-containing soybean extracts. These products may serve as potential raw materials for manufacture of functional foods that are based on aglycones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) Oil Affects the Immunophenotype via Reprogramming of Mitochondrial Respiration in Murine Macrophages
Foods 2019, 8(11), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110553 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil has been postulated to modulate inflammatory responses, but the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Based on recent studies demonstrating that mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming and immune responses are correlated, the current study sought to determine whether MCT [...] Read more.
Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil has been postulated to modulate inflammatory responses, but the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Based on recent studies demonstrating that mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming and immune responses are correlated, the current study sought to determine whether MCT oil controls inflammatory responses through modulation of mitochondria using both in vitro and in vivo models. The mitochondrial metabolic phenotypes of macrophages were assessed according to oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Inflammatory responses were assessed for production of cytokines and expression of activation markers. MCT oil was more rapidly oxidized as observed by increased OCR in macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was down-regulated and anti-inflammatory cytokine was elevated by MCT oil. In addition, classically activated M1 and alternatively activated M2 markers were reciprocally regulated by MCT intervention. Overall, up-regulated β-oxidation by MCT contributes to the anti-inflammatory M2-like status of macrophages, which may aid in the dietary prevention and/or amelioration of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Application of a New QuEChERS Method in UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to Detect Seven Biogenic Amines in Chinese Wines
Foods 2019, 8(11), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110552 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an improved, simple, and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of seven types (cadaverine, CAD; hexylamine, HEX; histamine, HIS; phenylethylamine, PEA; putrescine, PUT; tyramine, TYR) of biogenic amines (BAs) in wine matrices. For [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an improved, simple, and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of seven types (cadaverine, CAD; hexylamine, HEX; histamine, HIS; phenylethylamine, PEA; putrescine, PUT; tyramine, TYR) of biogenic amines (BAs) in wine matrices. For this reason, a modified QuEChERS combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) method was investigated. The optimization of UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS separation and QuEChERS procedure was performed. Under optimum conditions, the excellent chromatographic performance of the whole separation was accomplished within 6.3 min analyzing time. Meanwhile, the recoveries ranged from 77.2% to 101.7%, while relative standard deviation (RSD) remained between 0.0% and 9.4%. The limit of detection (LOD, 0.50–1.00 µg/L) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.65–3.30 µg/L) were lower than those permitted by legislation in food matrices, which demonstrated the high sensitivity and applicability of this efficient method. This validated method was also applied in a pilot study to analyze BAs in 81 wine samples from Hexi Corridor Region (Gansu Province, Northwest China), CAD, HEX, HIS, PEA, PUT, and TYR were detected to varying degrees in the samples. However, when compared with the existing standards, the BAs in all 81 wine samples did not exceed the prescribed limit value or toxic dose (2–40 mg/L). Moreover, a statistical approach was also conducted using Pearson correlation analysis, and to evaluate their concentrations in terms of wine parameters (storage time, grape variety, wine type, and basic physicochemical index). The results showed that, among the seven kinds of BAs, the concentration of HIS had a certain correlation with alcoholic degree and grape variety. In addition, the level of PEA had a certain correlation with the wine pH and wine storage time. It is worth noting that this seems to be the first report regarding the application of QuEChERS-UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS in the analysis of BAs in wine in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum)
Foods 2019, 8(11), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110551 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is an annual fast-growing underutilized pseudo cereal with a high percentage of starch content. In this study, djulis starch was extracted from the flour of dried grains by three different isolation procedures: (1) hydrochloric acid (HCl) isolation procedure [...] Read more.
Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.) is an annual fast-growing underutilized pseudo cereal with a high percentage of starch content. In this study, djulis starch was extracted from the flour of dried grains by three different isolation procedures: (1) hydrochloric acid (HCl) isolation procedure (HP); (2) deionized water isolation procedure (WP); and (3) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) isolation procedure (NP), followed by investigation of the physicochemical properties of the isolated djulis starch. The amylose content of HP, WP, and NP was 22.14%, 24.15%, and 22.43%, respectively. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological observation, djulis starch presented a polygonal shape with granule sizes of 0.56–1.96, 0.74–3.02, and 0.62–2.48 μm, respectively. Djulis starch showed the classification of typical A-type x-ray patterns, and the relative degree of crystallinity for HP, WP, and NP was 33.15%, 36.17%, and 37.42%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to determine the transition temperatures, transition range, and enthalpies of the gelatinization of starches. HP and WP isolated starch exhibited the highest ΔH 9.24 and 8.51 J/g, respectively, whereas NP starch showed the lowest ΔH of 6.95 J/g. The pasting temperatures of HP, WP, and NP isolated starch, which were analyzed by using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), were 71.70 °C, 72.80 °C, and 69.53 °C, respectively. The dependence of swelling power for the three isolated starches on temperature was tested at 10 °C with intervals between 60 °C and 90 °C. In short, the NP isolation procedure with a stable reaction is compelling from a technological point of view. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Anthocyanins—Nature’s Bold, Beautiful, and Health-Promoting Colors
Foods 2019, 8(11), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110550 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Anthocyanins are among the most interesting and vigorously studied plant compounds, representing a large class of over 700 polyphenolic pigments within the flavonoid family that exist ubiquitously in the human diet. They are “nature’s colors,” responsible for providing the beautiful red-orange to blue-violet [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are among the most interesting and vigorously studied plant compounds, representing a large class of over 700 polyphenolic pigments within the flavonoid family that exist ubiquitously in the human diet. They are “nature’s colors,” responsible for providing the beautiful red-orange to blue-violet hues present in many leaves, flowers, vegetables, and fruits, especially berries. The beginning of the 21st century has witnessed a renaissance in research activities on anthocyanins in several areas, mainly related to their potential health-promoting properties and their increased use as alternatives to synthetic food colors. There is increasingly convincing scientific evidence that supports both a preventative and therapeutic role of anthocyanins towards certain chronic disease states. Many anthocyanin-based extracts and juice concentrates from crop and/or food processing waste have become commercially available as colorants and/or value-added food ingredients. There is a large and evolving peer-reviewed literature on how anthocyanin chemistry and concentration may affect their coloring properties in food. Equally as important is the food matrix, which can have large impacts on anthocyanin color expression, stability and degradation, particularly regarding the applications of anthocyanins as food colorants and their health-promoting properties. This Special Edition of Foods, titled “Anthocyanins in Foods,” presents original research that extends our understanding of these exciting and complex compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins in Foods)
Open AccessArticle
Developing and Validating a Method for Separating Flavonoid Isomers in Common Buckwheat Sprouts Using HPLC-PDA
Foods 2019, 8(11), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110549 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Buckwheat sprouts that are synthesized during the germination process are rich in flavonoids, including orientin, vitexin, rutin, and their isomers (isoorientin, isovitexin, and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, respectively). The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate an analytical method for separating flavonoid [...] Read more.
Buckwheat sprouts that are synthesized during the germination process are rich in flavonoids, including orientin, vitexin, rutin, and their isomers (isoorientin, isovitexin, and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, respectively). The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate an analytical method for separating flavonoid isomers in common buckwheat sprout extract (CSE). Factors, such as range, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification, were evaluated for each standard using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On the basis of resolution and symmetry, a column temperature of 40 °C with 0.1% (v/v) acidic water and acetonitrile as mobile phases, at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1 were determined to be the optimal analytical conditions. Calibration curves for orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and rutin exhibited good linearity with correlation coefficients of 0.9999 over the 6.25–100.00 μg mL−1 range. Recovery values of 96.67–103.60% confirmed that the method was accurate for all flavonoids. The relative standard deviations of intra-day repeatability and inter-day reproducibility confirmed method preciseness, with values of less than 5.21% and 5.40%, respectively. The developed method was used to analyze flavonoids in CSE, with isomers satisfactorily separated and simultaneously quantified. We demonstrated that the developed HPLC method can be used to monitor flavonoids in buckwheat sprouts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Storage Stability of Texture and Sensory Properties of Yogurt with the Addition of Polymerized Whey Proteins
Foods 2019, 8(11), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110548 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Herein, we examined the possibility of producing probiotic yogurt with the addition of polymerized whey protein (PWP). It was determined that the yogurt was stable in terms of syneresis, texture, and sensory features. No spontaneous whey syneresis (SWS) was found in PWP yogurt [...] Read more.
Herein, we examined the possibility of producing probiotic yogurt with the addition of polymerized whey protein (PWP). It was determined that the yogurt was stable in terms of syneresis, texture, and sensory features. No spontaneous whey syneresis (SWS) was found in PWP yogurt during 21 days of refrigerated storage at 3 ± 0.5 °C. PWP yogurt had a 5.3% higher water retention capacity (WHC) than yogurt with whey protein concentrate (WPC). Compared with yogurt with unpolymerized protein, PWP yogurt had a higher absolute cohesiveness and viscosity index. The addition of whey protein concentrates to native and polymerized form resulted in longer maintenance of the original yogurt coherence than the control yogurt during storage. PWP yogurt had the same color saturation as the control yogurt. The polymerization of whey proteins resulted in a vanilla pudding aftertaste in yogurt and increased butter flavor 2.5-fold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessReview
Occurrence and Reduction of Biogenic Amines in Kimchi and Korean Fermented Seafood Products
Foods 2019, 8(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110547 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Biogenic amines produced during fermentation may be harmful when ingested in high concentrations. As current regulations remain insufficient to ensure the safety of fermented vegetable products, the current study determined the risks associated with the consumption of kimchi by evaluating the biogenic amine [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines produced during fermentation may be harmful when ingested in high concentrations. As current regulations remain insufficient to ensure the safety of fermented vegetable products, the current study determined the risks associated with the consumption of kimchi by evaluating the biogenic amine concentrations reported by various studies. Upon evaluation, some kimchi products were found to contain histamine and tyramine at potentially hazardous concentrations exceeding the recommended limit of 100 mg/kg for both histamine and tyramine. The biogenic amines may have originated primarily from metabolic activity by microorganisms during fermentation, as well as from Jeotgal (Korean fermented seafood) and Aekjeot (Korean fermented fish sauce) products commonly used as ingredients for kimchi production. Many studies have suggested that Jeotgal and Aekjeot may contribute to the histamine and tyramine content in kimchi. Microorganisms isolated from kimchi and Jeotgal have been reported to produce both histamine and tyramine. Despite the potential toxicological risks, limited research has been conducted on reducing the biogenic amine content of kimchi and Jeotgal products. The regulation and active monitoring of biogenic amine content during kimchi production appear to be necessary to ensure the safety of the fermented vegetable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines and Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 May Prevent Diet-Induced Nash Through Its Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Fibrotic Activities in the Liver
Foods 2019, 8(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110546 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive disease that occurs in the liver. As the number of people with NASH has increased, effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (AGA) is a mushroom native to Brazil and is considered a healthy [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive disease that occurs in the liver. As the number of people with NASH has increased, effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (AGA) is a mushroom native to Brazil and is considered a healthy food because of its purported health benefits, including its antioxidant properties. In this study, we focused on the oxidative stress that accompanies the onset of NASH and examined whether AGA can prevent NASH development through its antioxidant activity. We used a mouse model of NASH in which pathogenesis was promoted by dietary induction. Supplementation with AGA attenuated the development of hepatic fibrosis, which is a characteristic feature of late-stage NASH. This effect appeared to be mechanistically linked to an AGA-promoted reduction in hepatic oxidative stress. These results demonstrate a novel role for AGA in NASH prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Consumers’ Perceptions of Food: A Study of Apple Juice Using Sensory and Visual Attention Methods
Foods 2019, 8(11), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110545 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of intrinsic product characteristics and extrinsic packaging-related factors on the food quality perception. Sensory and visual attention methods were used to study how consumers perceive the quality of commercial apple juices from four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of intrinsic product characteristics and extrinsic packaging-related factors on the food quality perception. Sensory and visual attention methods were used to study how consumers perceive the quality of commercial apple juices from four product categories: clear juices from concentrate, cloudy juices from concentrate, pasteurized cloudy juices not from concentrate, and fresh juices. Laboratory tests included the assessment of sensory liking in blind and informed conditions and expected liking based on packages only. The results showed that brand and package information have a large impact on consumers’ sensory perceptions and generate high sensory expectations. An innovative visual attention tracking technique was used in online experiments to identify packages and label areas on individual packages, which attracted consumer attention. During an online shelf test, consumers mostly focused on not from concentrate juices from local producers, which were perceived as more natural, healthy, and expensive than juices reconstituted from concentrate. When individual labels were analyzed, consumers predominantly focused on nutritional data, brand name, and information about the type of product. The present results confirm a large impact of information and visual stimuli related to packaging on product perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Food Products)
Open AccessArticle
Development, Characterization, and Bioactivity of Non-Dairy Kefir-Like Fermented Beverage Based on Flaxseed Oil Cake
Foods 2019, 8(11), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110544 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
Flaxseed oil cake (FOC) was evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of a novel kefir-like fermented beverage. Three variants containing 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of FOC were inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25 °C for 24 [...] Read more.
Flaxseed oil cake (FOC) was evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of a novel kefir-like fermented beverage. Three variants containing 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) of FOC were inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25 °C for 24 h. After processing, beverages were stored in refrigerated conditions (6 °C) for 21 days. Changes in microbial population, pH, acidity, levels of proteins, polyphenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars were estimated. Additionally, viscosity, firmness, color, and antioxidant properties were determined. Results showed that lactic acid bacteria as well as yeast were capable of growing well in the FOC without any supplementation. During refrigerated storage, the viability of the microorganisms were over the recommended minimum level for kefir products. As a result of fermentation, the beverages showed excellent antioxidant activity. Because of the functional characteristics conferred to the FOC beverages, the use of kefir grains showed adequate potential for the industrial application. Therefore, this beverages could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for beneficial microflora consumption, especially by vegans and lactose-intolerant consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and NMR-Based Identification of the Immunomodulatory Isoflavone from the Roots of Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC
Foods 2019, 8(11), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110543 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
Uraria crinita is used as a functional food ingredient. Little is known about the association between its immunomodulatory activity and its metabolites. We applied a precise strategy for screening metabolites using immunomodulatory fractions from a U. crinata root methanolic extract (UCME) in combination [...] Read more.
Uraria crinita is used as a functional food ingredient. Little is known about the association between its immunomodulatory activity and its metabolites. We applied a precise strategy for screening metabolites using immunomodulatory fractions from a U. crinata root methanolic extract (UCME) in combination with bioactivity-guided fractionation and NMR-based identification. The fractions from UCME were evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity against the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). The role of the isoflavone genistein was indicated by the 1H NMR profiling of immunomodulatory subfractions (D-4 and D-5) and supported by the result that genistein-knockout subfractions (D-4 w/o and D-5 w/o) had a lower inhibitory activity compared to genistein-containing subfractions. This study suggests that genistein contributes to the immunomodulatory activity of UCME and will help in the standardization of functional food. Full article
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