Next Article in Journal
Changes in Metabolic Profiles of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Muscle during Cold Storage as a Freshness Evaluation Tool Based on GC-MS Metabolomics
Previous Article in Journal
Physicochemical, Sensorial and Microbiological Characterization of PoroCheese, an Artisanal Mexican Cheese Made from Raw Milk
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comprehensive Nutrition Review of Grain-Based Muesli Bars in Australia: An Audit of Supermarket Products
Open AccessArticle

Bread for the Aging Population: The Effect of a Functional Wheat–Lentil Bread on the Immune Function of Aged Mice

Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100510
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Grain-Based Foods)
A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, resistant starch, total polyphenols, lignans and the antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). The wheat–lentil bread had 30% more proteins than wheat bread (8.3%, as is), a more balanced amino acids composition, an almost double mineral (0.63%, as is) as well as total dietary fibre content (4.6%, as is), double the amount of polyphenols (939.1 mg GAE/100g on dry matter, d.m.), higher amounts and variety of lignans, and more than double the antioxidant capacity (71.6 µmoL/g d.m.). The in vivo effect of 60 days bread consumption on the immune response was studied by means of a murine model of elderly mice. Serum cytokines and intraepithelial lymphocyte immunophenotype from the mice intestine were analysed as markers of systemic and intestinal inflammatory status, respectively. Analysis of immune parameters in intraepithelial lymphocytes showed significant differences among the two types of bread indicating a positive effect of the wheat–lentil bread on the intestinal immune system, whereas both breads induced a reduction in serum IL-10. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat bread; lentil bread; bread composition; aged mice; immune function; intraepithelial lymphocytes; gut health wheat bread; lentil bread; bread composition; aged mice; immune function; intraepithelial lymphocytes; gut health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Carcea, M.; Turfani, V.; Narducci, V.; Durazzo, A.; Finamore, A.; Roselli, M.; Rami, R. Bread for the Aging Population: The Effect of a Functional Wheat–Lentil Bread on the Immune Function of Aged Mice. Foods 2019, 8, 510.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop