Special Issue "Qualitative and Nutritional Improvement of Cereal-Based Foods and Beverages"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonella Pasqualone
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Guest Editor
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: cereal science and technology; flour quality; quality of pasta and bakery products; baking systems of flatbreads; wheat phenolic compounds; volatile compounds; PDO bread
Dr. Carmine Summo
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Food Science and Technology Unit, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126, Bari, Italy
Interests: food science and technology; pulses and vegetables; functional foods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cereal-based foods and beverages include a wide array of products, varying greatly from one geographic area to another. Increased consumer awareness of the effects of food on health has made nutritional improvement an important goal of the food and beverage industry, including the cereal sector, to ensure compliance with current nutrition and health claims regulations.

This involves different strategies, such as the selection of raw materials, the reformulation of products, the introduction of functional ingredients, the application of mild processing technologies, the use of biotechnological approaches to increase the bioavailability of bioactive compounds, and the development of more effective packaging and conditioning systems.

All of these interventions, however, may alter the physico-chemical and sensory properties of final products, which, in turn, determine their quality. It is therefore necessary to achieve a balance between nutritional and quality modification, which does not exclude the possibility of communicating a “new quality” to consumers.

This Special Issue is therefore open to all contributions aimed at exploring alternative ways to innovate and improve cereal-based foods and beverages, an old—if not ancient—group of products that are still on our table every day.

Prof. Antonella Pasqualone
Dr. Carmine Summo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cereals
  • essential amino acids
  • essential fatty acids
  • dietary fiber
  • micronutrients
  • phytochemicals
  • antioxidant activity
  • texture
  • color
  • aroma

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sorghum–Insect Composites for Healthier Cookies: Nutritional, Functional, and Technological Evaluation
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101427 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a major health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Relying on unexploited and regionally available rich sources of proteins such as insects and sorghum might contribute towards addressing PEM among at-risk populations. Insects are high in nutrients, especially protein, and [...] Read more.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a major health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Relying on unexploited and regionally available rich sources of proteins such as insects and sorghum might contribute towards addressing PEM among at-risk populations. Insects are high in nutrients, especially protein, and are abundant in SSA. Sorghum is adapted to the tropical areas of SSA and as such it is an appropriate source of energy compared with temperate cereals like wheat. It is necessary to assess whether cookies fortified with sorghum and termite would be suitable for use in addressing PEM in SSA. Whole grain sorghum meal and termite meal were mixed at a 3:1 ratio (w/w sorghum:termite) to form a sorghum–termite meal blend. Composite cookies were prepared where the sorghum–termite blend partially substituted wheat flour at 20%, 40%, and 60% (sorghum–termite blend:wheat flour (w/w). The functional and nutritional qualities of the cookies were assessed. Compared with the control (100% wheat flour), the cookies fortified with sorghum and termite had about double the quantity of protein, minerals, and amino acids. However, with increased substitution level of the sorghum–termite blend, the spread factor of the cookies decreased. There is a potential to incorporate sorghum and termite in cookies for increased intake of several nutrients by communities that are vulnerable to nutrient deficiencies, especially PEM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Optimization of Djulis Sourdough Bread Using Taguchi Grey Relational Analysis
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091149 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bakery products made from naturally fermented sourdough show a diversified flavor and nutritional profile. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), known as red quinoa or Taiwan djulis, originally cultivated by Taiwanese indigenous people in mountain areas in eastern and southern Taiwan, has a high [...] Read more.
Bakery products made from naturally fermented sourdough show a diversified flavor and nutritional profile. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), known as red quinoa or Taiwan djulis, originally cultivated by Taiwanese indigenous people in mountain areas in eastern and southern Taiwan, has a high nutritional value and characteristic properties. In the present study, a new bakery product (djulis sourdough bread) was developed and a combination of the Taguchi method coupled with grey theory was utilized to optimize the baking parameters (product formulation). Five main factors, i.e., djulis sourdough (A), hulled djulis (B), oil type (C), a mixture of bread flour (wet gluten content of 29.0%) and a high-gluten flour (wet gluten content of 35.5%) (D), and honey (E), (each at four levels) were chosen for the Taguchi experiment design (L16(4)5). Dependent parameters were the data from texture profile analysis (brittleness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness), color analysis (L*, a*, and b*), and sensory evaluation (appearance, aroma, bitterness, sourness, chewiness, and overall acceptance) of the final product. Taguchi grey relational analysis successfully determined the optimal conditions based on combined parameters (5 factors), which highlighted the advantages of this innovative optimization technique. The result shows that the optimal formula for producing a djulis sourdough bread with the best texture, color, and sensory qualities was A3B1C1D2E2, i.e., 20% djulis sourdough, 0% addition of hulled djulis, 8% unsalted butter, 80% wheat flour + 20% high-gluten flour, and 10% honey, respectively. Such a novel application could be a reference for improving the quality of bakery products in the industry. Moreover, it seems that the new bakery product developed in this study has good potential to be commercially produced after further nutritional and economic analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Features and Bread-Making Performance of Wholewheat: Does the Milling System Matter?
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081035 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
Despite the interest in stone-milling, there is no information on the potential advantages of using the resultant wholegrain flour (WF) in bread-making. Consequently, nutritional and technological properties of WFs obtained by both stone- (SWF) and roller-milling (RWF) were assessed on four wheat samples, [...] Read more.
Despite the interest in stone-milling, there is no information on the potential advantages of using the resultant wholegrain flour (WF) in bread-making. Consequently, nutritional and technological properties of WFs obtained by both stone- (SWF) and roller-milling (RWF) were assessed on four wheat samples, differing in grain hardness and pigment richness. Regardless of the type of wheat, stone-milling led to WFs with a high number of particles ranging in size from 315 to 710 μm), whereas RWFs showed a bimodal distribution with large (>1000 μm) and fine (<250 μm) particles. On average, the milling system did not affect the proximate composition and the bioactive features of WFs. The gluten aggregation kinetics resulted in similar trends for all SWFs, with indices higher than for RWFs. The effect of milling on dough properties (i.e., mixing and leavening) was sample dependent. Overall, SWFs produced more gas, resulting in bread with higher specific volume. Bread crumb from SWF had higher lutein content in the wheat cv rich in xanthophylls, while bread from RWF of the blue-grained cv had a moderate but significantly higher content in esterified phenolic acids and total anthocyanins. In conclusion, there was no relevant advantage in using stone- as opposed to roller-milling (and vice versa). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Use of a Coffee Industry By-Product in a Cereal-Based Extruded Food Product
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081008 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
The evaluation of by-products to be added to food products is complex, as the residues must be analyzed to demonstrate their potential use as safe foods, as well as to propose the appropriate process and product for recycling. Since coffee is a very [...] Read more.
The evaluation of by-products to be added to food products is complex, as the residues must be analyzed to demonstrate their potential use as safe foods, as well as to propose the appropriate process and product for recycling. Since coffee is a very popular beverage worldwide, the coffee industry is responsible for generating large amounts of by-products, which include the coffee silverskin (CS), the only by-product of the roasting process. In this work, its characterization and food safety were evaluated by chemical composition assays, microbiological determinations, aflatoxin measurements and acute toxicity tests. The results showed that CS is safe for use in food, in addition to providing dietary fiber, protein and bioactive compounds. An extruded cereal-based ready-to-eat food product was developed through an extreme vertices mixture design, producing an extruded food product being a source of protein and with a high fiber content. Up to 15% of CS was incorporated in the extruded product. This work contributes to the establishment of routes for the valorization of CS; nevertheless, further research is necessary to demonstrate the sustainability of this food industry by-product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Agave Syrup as an Alternative to Sucrose in Muffins: Impacts on Rheological, Microstructural, Physical, and Sensorial Properties
Foods 2020, 9(7), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070895 - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Natural sweeteners, such as agave syrup, might be a healthy alternative to sucrose used in sweet bakery products linked to obesity. We evaluated the effect of sucrose replacement by agave syrup on rheological and microstructural properties of muffin batter and on physical and [...] Read more.
Natural sweeteners, such as agave syrup, might be a healthy alternative to sucrose used in sweet bakery products linked to obesity. We evaluated the effect of sucrose replacement by agave syrup on rheological and microstructural properties of muffin batter and on physical and sensorial properties of the baked product. Muffins were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of sucrose by agave syrup (AS) and partially hydrolyzed agave syrup (PHAS), and by adding xanthan gum and doubled quantities of leavening agents. Rheological and microstructural properties of batter during baking were analyzed over the range of 25–100 °C. In the muffins, the structure, texture, color, and sensory acceptance were studied. The combination of agave syrup with xanthan gum and doubled quantities of leavening agents affected (p < 0.05) rheological and microstructural properties of the batters and textural properties of the low-sucrose muffins compared to the controls. The increase in agave syrup levels resulted in a darker crumb and crust. Sensory evaluation showed that AS-75 and PHAS-75 were the best alternatives to the control samples. Our results suggest a plausible substitution of up to 75% of sucrose by agave syrup in preparation of muffins, with physical and sensorial characteristics similar to those of their sucrose-containing counterparts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Durum Wheat Breads Low in Sodium Using a Natural Low-Sodium Sea Salt
Foods 2020, 9(6), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060752 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Durum wheat is widespread in the Mediterranean area, mainly in southern Italy, where traditional durum wheat breadmaking is consolidated. Bread is often prepared by adding a lot of salt to the dough. However, evidence suggests that excessive salt in a diet is a [...] Read more.
Durum wheat is widespread in the Mediterranean area, mainly in southern Italy, where traditional durum wheat breadmaking is consolidated. Bread is often prepared by adding a lot of salt to the dough. However, evidence suggests that excessive salt in a diet is a disease risk factor. The aim of this work is to study the effect of a natural low-sodium sea salt (Saltwell®) on bread-quality parameters and shelf-life. Bread samples were prepared using different levels of traditional sea salt and Saltwell®. The loaves were packaged in modified atmosphere conditions (MAPs) and monitored over 90 days of storage. No significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in specific volumes and bread yield between the breads and over storage times, regardless of the type and quantity of salt used. Textural data, however, showed some significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) between the breads and storage times. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is considered, nowadays, as an emerging ubiquitous processing contaminant; bread with the lowest level of Saltwell® had the lowest HMF content, and during storage, a decrease content was highlighted. Sensory data showed that the loaves had a similar rating (p ≤ 0.05) and differed only in salt content before storage. This study has found that durum wheat bread can make a nutritional claim of being “low in sodium” and “very low in sodium”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Moringa oleifera L. Leaf Powder Addition on the Phenolic Bioaccessibility and on In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Durum Wheat Fresh Pasta
Foods 2020, 9(5), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050628 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fresh pasta was formulated by replacing wheat semolina with 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g (w/w) of Moringa oleifera L. leaf powder (MOLP). The samples (i.e., M0, M5, M10, and M15 as a function of the substitution level) were cooked [...] Read more.
Fresh pasta was formulated by replacing wheat semolina with 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g (w/w) of Moringa oleifera L. leaf powder (MOLP). The samples (i.e., M0, M5, M10, and M15 as a function of the substitution level) were cooked by boiling. The changes in the phenolic bioaccessibility and the in vitro starch digestibility were considered. On the cooked-to-optimum samples, by means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry, 152 polyphenols were putatively annotated with the greatest content recorded for M15 pasta, being 2.19 mg/g dry matter (p < 0.05). Multivariate statistics showed that stigmastanol ferulate (VIP score = 1.22) followed by isomeric forms of kaempferol (VIP scores = 1.19) and other phenolic acids (i.e., schottenol/sitosterol ferulate and 24-methylcholestanol ferulate) were the most affected compounds through the in vitro static digestion process. The inclusion of different levels of MOLP in the recipe increased the slowly digestible starch fractions and decreased the rapidly digestible starch fractions and the starch hydrolysis index of the cooked-to-optimum samples. The present results showed that MOLP could be considered a promising ingredient in fresh pasta formulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bio-Functional and Structural Properties of Pasta Enriched with a Debranning Fraction from Purple Wheat
Foods 2020, 9(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020163 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A colored and fiber-rich fraction from the debranning of purple wheat was incorporated at 25% into semolina- and flour-based pasta produced on a pilot-plant scale, with the aim of increasing anthocyanin and total phenolic content with respect to pasta obtained from whole pigmented [...] Read more.
A colored and fiber-rich fraction from the debranning of purple wheat was incorporated at 25% into semolina- and flour-based pasta produced on a pilot-plant scale, with the aim of increasing anthocyanin and total phenolic content with respect to pasta obtained from whole pigmented grains. The debranning fraction impaired the formation of disulfide-stabilized protein networks in semolina-based systems. Recovery of phenolics was impaired by the pasta making process, and cooking decreased the phenolic content in both enriched samples. Cooking-related losses in anthocyanins and total phenolics were similar, but anthocyanins in the cooked semolina-based pasta were around 20% of what was expected from the formulation. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) profiling of phenolics was carried out on extracts from either type of enriched pasta both before and after cooking and indicate possible preferential retention of specific compounds in each type of enriched pasta. Extracts from cooked samples of either enriched pasta were tested as inhibitors of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and uptake, as well as for their capacity of suppressing the response to inflammatory stimuli. Results of both biological tests indicate that the phenolics in extracts from both cooked pasta samples had inhibitory capacities higher than extracts of the original debranning fraction at identical concentrations of total bioactives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brosimum alicastrum Sw. (Ramón): An Alternative to Improve the Nutritional Properties and Functional Potential of the Wheat Flour Tortilla
Foods 2019, 8(12), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120613 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The wheat flour tortilla (WFT) is a Mexican food product widely consumed in the world, despite lacking fiber and micronutrients. Ramón seed flour (RSF) is an underutilized natural resource rich in fiber, minerals and bioactive compounds that can be used to improve properties [...] Read more.
The wheat flour tortilla (WFT) is a Mexican food product widely consumed in the world, despite lacking fiber and micronutrients. Ramón seed flour (RSF) is an underutilized natural resource rich in fiber, minerals and bioactive compounds that can be used to improve properties of starchy foods, such as WFT. The study evaluated the impact of partial replacement of wheat flour with RSF on the physicochemical, sensory, rheological and nutritional properties and antioxidant capacity (AC) of RSF-containing flour tortilla (RFT). Results indicated that RFT (25% RSF) had higher dietary fiber (4.5 times) and mineral (8.8%; potassium 42.8%, copper 33%) content than WFT. Two sensory attributes were significantly different between RTF and WFT, color intensity and rollability. RFT was soft and it was accepted by the consumer. Phenolic compounds (PC) and AC were higher in RFT (11.7 times, 33%–50%, respectively) than WFT. PC identification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) showed that phenolic acids esterified with quinic acid, such as chlorogenic and other caffeoyl and coumaroyl derivatives were the major PC identified in RSF, resveratrol was also detected. These results show that RSF can be used as an ingredient to improve nutritional and antioxidant properties of traditional foods, such as the WFT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Fermented Hemp, Chickpea and Milling By-Products to Improve the Nutritional Value of Semolina Pasta
Foods 2019, 8(12), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120604 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A biotechnological approach including enzymatic treatment (protease and xylanase) and lactic acid bacteria fermentation has been evaluated to enhance the nutritional value of semolina pasta enriched with hemp, chickpea and milling by-products. The intense (up to circa, (ca.) 70%) decrease in the peptide [...] Read more.
A biotechnological approach including enzymatic treatment (protease and xylanase) and lactic acid bacteria fermentation has been evaluated to enhance the nutritional value of semolina pasta enriched with hemp, chickpea and milling by-products. The intense (up to circa, (ca.) 70%) decrease in the peptide profile area and (up to two-fold) increase in total free amino acids, compared to the untreated raw materials, highlighted the potential of lactic acid bacteria to positively affect their in vitro protein digestibility. Fermented and unfermented ingredients have been characterized and used to fortify pasta made under pilot-plant scale. Due to the high contents of protein (ca. 13%) and fiber (ca. 6%) and according to the Regulation of the European Community (EC) No. 1924/2006 fortified pasta can be labelled as a “source of fiber” and a “source of protein”. The use of non-wheat flours increased the content of anti-nutritional factors as compared to the control pasta. Nevertheless, fermentation with lactic acid bacteria led to significant decreases in condensed tannins (ca. 50%), phytic acid and raffinose (ca. ten-fold) contents as compared to the unfermented pasta. Moreover, total free amino acids and in vitro protein digestibility values were 60% and 70%, respectively, higher than pasta made only with semolina. Sensory analysis highlighted a strong effect of the fortification on the sensory profile of pasta. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Addition of Apulian black Chickpea Flour on the Nutritional and Qualitative Properties of Durum Wheat-Based Bakery Products
Foods 2019, 8(10), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100504 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for [...] Read more.
Historically cultivated in Apulia (Southern Italy), Apulian black chickpeas are rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. This type of chickpea is being replaced by modern cultivars and is at risk of genetic erosion; therefore, it is important to explore its potential for new food applications. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of the addition of Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour on the nutritional and qualitative properties of durum wheat-based bakery products; namely bread, “focaccia” (an Italian traditional bakery product similar to pizza), and pizza crust. Composite meals were prepared by mixing Apulian black chickpea wholemeal flour with re-milled semolina at 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, and 40:60. The rheological properties, evaluated by farinograph, alveograph, and rheofermentograph, showed a progressive worsening of the bread-making attitude when increasing amounts of chickpea flour were added. The end-products expanded less during baking, and were harder and darker than the corresponding conventional products, as assessed both instrumentally and by sensory analysis. However, these negative features were balanced by higher contents of fibre, proteins, and bioactive compounds, as well as higher antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fresh Pasta Manufactured with Fermented Whole Wheat Semolina: Physicochemical, Sensorial, and Nutritional Properties
Foods 2019, 8(9), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090422 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fresh pasta (SP) was prepared by mixing semolina with liquid sourdough, whole wheat semolina based, and the effects of sourdough inclusion were evaluated against a control sample (CP) prepared using semolina and whole wheat semolina. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensorial analyses were performed on [...] Read more.
Fresh pasta (SP) was prepared by mixing semolina with liquid sourdough, whole wheat semolina based, and the effects of sourdough inclusion were evaluated against a control sample (CP) prepared using semolina and whole wheat semolina. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensorial analyses were performed on pasteurized fresh pasta, before and after cooking. The optimum cooking time was not affected by whole wheat sourdough, whereas differences were found in color, firmness, and cooking loss. Changes of in vitro digested starch fractions in SP pasta were affected by a higher cooking loss. Overall, SP samples were characterized by improved nutraceutical features, namely higher content of free essential amino acids and phenolic compounds, lower phytic acid content, and higher antioxidant activity. Sensory analyses (acceptability and check-all-that-apply (CATA) tests) showed significantly higher scores for the SP, and the differences were enhanced when the consumers were informed about the product composition and how it was manufactured. Consumers checked for more positive sensory parameters for the SP than the CP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Sensory Characteristics of Traditional and Novel Fortified Blended Foods Used in Supplementary Feeding Programs
Foods 2019, 8(7), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070261 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Despite the wide use of traditional non-extruded fortified blended foods (FBFs), such as corn soy blend plus (CSB+), in supplementary feeding programs, there is limited evidence of its effectiveness on improving nutritional outcomes and little information on actual sensory properties. Fifteen novel extruded [...] Read more.
Despite the wide use of traditional non-extruded fortified blended foods (FBFs), such as corn soy blend plus (CSB+), in supplementary feeding programs, there is limited evidence of its effectiveness on improving nutritional outcomes and little information on actual sensory properties. Fifteen novel extruded FBFs were developed with variations in processing and ingredients in order to improve the quality of food aid products based on the Food Aid Quality Review (FAQR) recommendations. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed to determine the effects of the processing parameters and ingredients on the sensory properties of traditional and novel FBFs. The extrusion process affected the aroma and flavor of the tested products. Novel FBFs from the extrusion process had more pronounced toasted characteristics, probably because of the high temperature used during extrusion. The ingredient composition of the FBFs also had a significant impact on the sensory properties of the products. The addition of sugar to novel FBFs leads to a significant increase in sweetness, which could improve acceptance. The level of lipids in binary blends appeared to be mainly responsible for the bitterness of the product. In addition, legumes, which were a primary ingredient, contributed to the beany characteristics of the products. The higher amounts of legume used in the formulations led to beany characteristics that could be perceived from the products and could be a negative trait depending on consumers’ prior use of legume-based products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Addition of Flaxseed and Amaranth on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Instant-Extruded Products
Foods 2019, 8(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060183 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The addition of flaxseed and amaranth on the physicochemical, functional, and microstructural changes of instant-extruded products was evaluated. Six mixtures with different proportions of amaranth (18.7–33.1%), flaxseed (6.6–9.3%), maize grits (55.6–67.3%) and minor ingredients (4.7%) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Insoluble and [...] Read more.
The addition of flaxseed and amaranth on the physicochemical, functional, and microstructural changes of instant-extruded products was evaluated. Six mixtures with different proportions of amaranth (18.7–33.1%), flaxseed (6.6–9.3%), maize grits (55.6–67.3%) and minor ingredients (4.7%) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Insoluble and soluble fiber contents in extrudates increased as the proportions of amaranth and flaxseed increased. However, the highest flaxseed proportion had the highest soluble fiber content (1.9%). Extruded products with the highest proportion of flaxseed and amaranth resulted in the highest dietary fiber content and hardness values (5.2 N), which was correlated with the microstructural analysis where the crystallinity increased, resulting in larger, and more compact laminar structure. The extruded products with the highest maize grits proportion had the highest viscosity, expansion, and water absorption indexes, and the lowest water solubility index values. The mixtures with amaranth (18.7–22.9%), flaxseed (8.6–9.3%), and maize grits (63.8–67.3%) resulted in extruded products with acceptable physicochemical and functional properties. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Current Functionality and Potential Improvements of Non-Alcoholic Fermented Cereal Beverages
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081031 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
Fermentation continues to be the most common biotechnological tool to be used in cereal-based beverages, as it is relatively simple and economical. Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and have become known for their sensory and health-promoting attributes. Considering the attractive sensory traits [...] Read more.
Fermentation continues to be the most common biotechnological tool to be used in cereal-based beverages, as it is relatively simple and economical. Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and have become known for their sensory and health-promoting attributes. Considering the attractive sensory traits and due to increased consumer awareness of the importance of healthy nutrition, the market for functional, natural, and non-alcoholic beverages is steadily increasing all over the world. This paper outlines the current achievements and technological development employed to enhance the qualitative and nutritional status of non-alcoholic fermented cereal beverages (NFCBs). Following an in-depth review of various scientific publications, current production methods are discussed as having the potential to enhance the functional properties of NFCBs and their safety, as a promising approach to help consumers in their efforts to improve their nutrition and health status. Moreover, key aspects concerning production techniques, fermentation methods, and the nutritional value of NFCBs are highlighted, together with their potential health benefits and current consumption trends. Further research efforts are required in the segment of traditional fermented cereal beverages to identify new potentially probiotic microorganisms and starter cultures, novel ingredients as fermentation substrates, and to finally elucidate the contributions of microorganisms and enzymes in the fermentation process. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Use of almond by-products to improve nutritional and functional properties of biscuits
Authors: Antonella Pasqualone
Affiliation: University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Food Science and Technology Unit, Bari, Italy

Title: Borș, a traditional cereal-based symbiotic beverage
Authors: Teodora Coldea
Affiliation: University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Title: Effect of bee products addition on the sensory and phenolic profiles of beer vinegar
Authors: Teodora Coldea
Affiliation: University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Title: Development of non-alcoholic malt-based beverages as source of bioactive compounds
Authors: Liana Salanță
Affiliation: University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Title: Bio-functional and molecular properties of pasta from pigmented wheat
Authors: Stefania Iametti
Affiliation: University of Milan, Department of Food, Environmental, and Nutritional Sciences, Milan, Italy

Title: Bread-making performance of wholegrain flour: does the milling system matter?
Authors: Alessandra Marti
Affiliation: University of Milan, Department of Food, Environmental, and Nutritional Sciences, Milan, Italy

Title: Industrial development of functional durum wheat semolina breads by sodium intake reduction: evaluation of quality parameters during storage
Authors: Alfio Spina
Affiliation: CREA-Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca per la Cerealicoltura e le Colture Industriali, Acireale, Italy

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