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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) An increasing amount of evidence points towards migraine being a response to cerebral energy [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Soluble CD163-Associated Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040940
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Elevated soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163) concentrations, a marker of macrophage activation, are associated with obesity. Weight reduction decreases circulating CD163 levels, and changes in sCD163 levels are associated with improved metabolic dysfunction. Currently, the relationship between sCD163 and diet remains unclear. [...] Read more.
Elevated soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163) concentrations, a marker of macrophage activation, are associated with obesity. Weight reduction decreases circulating CD163 levels, and changes in sCD163 levels are associated with improved metabolic dysfunction. Currently, the relationship between sCD163 and diet remains unclear. This study investigated dietary patterns associated with sCD163 concentrations and its predictive effect on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data on anthropometrics, blood biochemistry, and a food frequency questionnaire were collected from 166 Taiwanese adults. sCD163 levels independently predicted MetS (odds ratio (OR): 5.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.13~13.44, p < 0.001), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.03~4.64, p < 0.001), and central obesity (OR: 3.90; 95% CI: 1.78~8.55, p < 0.001), after adjusting for age and sex. An adjusted linear regression analysis revealed strong correlations between levels of sCD163 and aspartate transaminase (AST) (β = 0.250 (0.023~0.477), p < 0.05) and red blood cell aggregation (β = 0.332 (0.035~0.628), p < 0.05). sCD163-associated dietary pattern scores (high frequencies of consuming noodles and desserts, and eating at home, and a low intake frequency of steamed/boiled/raw food, white/light-green-colored vegetables, orange/red/purple-colored vegetables, dairy products, seafood, dark-green leafy vegetables, and soy products) were positively correlated with MetS, liver injury biomarkers, and sCD163 levels (all p for trend < 0.05). Individuals with the highest dietary pattern scores (tertile 3) had a 2.37-fold [OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.04~5.37, p < 0.05] higher risk of MetS compared to those with the lowest scores (tertile 1). Overall, the study findings suggest the importance of a healthy dietary pattern in preventing elevated sCD163 levels and diet-related chronic disease such as MetS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Fiber Cereal Intake on Satiety and Gastrointestinal Symptoms during Ramadan
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040939
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Fasting during Ramadan involves large changes in daily eating patterns which strongly impacts the daily biorhythm and challenges the regular function of the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to assess satiety, bowel habits, body composition, blood glycaemia, and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Fasting during Ramadan involves large changes in daily eating patterns which strongly impacts the daily biorhythm and challenges the regular function of the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to assess satiety, bowel habits, body composition, blood glycaemia, and blood lipidemia after the consumption of high fiber cereal at dawn (Sohor) during the month of Ramadan; (2) Methods: A two-arm randomized, controlled, single-blinded, parallel-design study was conducted in Ramadan month. Participants were randomized to consume either 90 g of high fiber cereal (11 g fiber/90 g) at Sohor for 20 consecutive days (intervention group, n = 45) or to maintain their habitual diet intake (control group; n = 36); (3) Results: The intervention group reported higher satiety rating scores, improved bowel habits and reduced bloating frequency after the 20-day intervention. Significantly higher intake of carbohydrates and dietary fiber were observed in the intervention group. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly lower among the intervention group compared to the control group (p-value = 0.043, and p-value = 0.033, respectively) at the end of the intervention. No significant differences in body weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, body mass index, blood glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed between the two groups; (4) Conclusions: Consuming high fiber cereal had a positive effect on health and well-being during the month of Ramadan with better satiety, improved bowel functions, and improved blood lipids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Association of Full Breastfeeding Duration with Postpartum Weight Retention in a Cohort of Predominantly Breastfeeding Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040938
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Full breastfeeding (FBF) is promoted as effective for losing pregnancy weight during the postpartum period. This study evaluated whether longer FBF is associated with lower maternal postpartum weight retention (PPWR) as compared to a shorter FBF duration. The MILK (Mothers and Infants Linked [...] Read more.
Full breastfeeding (FBF) is promoted as effective for losing pregnancy weight during the postpartum period. This study evaluated whether longer FBF is associated with lower maternal postpartum weight retention (PPWR) as compared to a shorter FBF duration. The MILK (Mothers and Infants Linked for Healthy Growth) study is an ongoing prospective cohort of 370 mother–infant dyads, all of whom fully breastfed their infants for at least 1 month. Breastfeeding status was subsequently self-reported by mothers at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Maternal PPWR was calculated as maternal weight measured at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum minus maternal prepregnancy weight. Using linear mixed effects models, by 6 months postpartum, adjusted means ± standard errors for weight retention among mothers who fully breastfed for 1–3 (3.40 ± 1.16 kg), 3–6 (1.41 ± 0.69 kg), and ≥6 months (0.97 ± 0.32 kg) were estimated. Compared to mothers who reported FBF for 1–3 months, those who reported FBF for 3–6 months and ≥6 months both had lower PPWR over the period from 1 to 6 months postpartum (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). However, PPWR from 3 to 6 months was not significantly different among those who reported FBF for 3–6 versus ≥6 months (p > 0.05). Interventions to promote FBF past 3 months may increase the likelihood of postpartum return to prepregnancy weight. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeinated Gel Ingestion Enhances Jump Performance, Muscle Strength, and Power in Trained Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040937
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the effects of caffeinated gel ingestion on neuromuscular performance in resistance-trained men. The participants (n = 17; mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 23 ± 2 years, height 183 ± 5 cm, body mass 83 ± 11 kg) completed two testing conditions that involved ingesting a caffeinated gel (300 mg of caffeine) or placebo. The testing outcomes included: (1) vertical jump height in the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); (2) knee extension and flexion peak torque and average power at angular velocities of 60°·s−1 and 180°·s−1; (3) barbell velocity in the bench press with loads corresponding to 50%, 75%, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); and (4) peak power output in a test on a rowing ergometer. Compared to the placebo, caffeine improved: (1) SJ (p = 0.039; Cohen’s d effect size (d) = 0.18; +2.9%) and CMJ height (p = 0.011; d = 0.18; +3.3%); (2) peak torque and average power in the knee extensors at both angular velocities (d ranged from 0.21 to 0.37; percent change from +3.5% to +6.9%), peak torque (p = 0.034; d = 0.24; +4.6%), and average power (p = 0.015; d = 0.32; +6.7%) at 60°·s−1 in the knee flexors; (3) barbell velocity at 50% 1RM (p = 0.021; d = 0.33; +3.5%), 75% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.42; +5.4%), and 90% 1RM (p < 0.001; d = 0.59, +12.0%). We conclude that the ingestion of caffeinated gels may acutely improve vertical jump performance, strength, and power in resistance-trained men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Hesperidin Alleviates Methotrexate-Induced Memory Deficits via Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040936
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used in cancer treatment. However, treatment with MTX reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to memory deficits. Hesperidin (Hsd) is a flavonoid glycoside that promotes anti-inflammation, acts as an antioxidant, and has neuroprotective properties. Consumption of Hsd [...] Read more.
Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used in cancer treatment. However, treatment with MTX reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to memory deficits. Hesperidin (Hsd) is a flavonoid glycoside that promotes anti-inflammation, acts as an antioxidant, and has neuroprotective properties. Consumption of Hsd enhances learning and memory. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Hsd against MTX-induced impairments of memory and neurogenesis; male Sprague Dawley rats were administered with a single dose of MTX (75 mg/kg) by intravenous (i.v.) injection on days 8 and 15 or Hsd (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 21 days. Memory was tested using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tasks. Immunofluorescence staining of Ki-67, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and doublecortin (DCX) was performed to assess cell proliferation, survival, and immature neurons. The data showed that Hsd and MTX did not disable locomotor ability. The MTX animals exhibited memory deficits in both memory tests. There were significant decreases in the numbers of cell proliferation, survival, and immature neurons in the MTX animals. However, co-administration with MTX and Hsd alleviated memory loss and neurogenesis decline. These results revealed that Hsd could protect against MTX side effects in the animals in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Cognition and Brain Integrity)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Association of Selenoprotein and Selenium Pathway Genotypes with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Interaction with Selenium Status
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040935
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were [...] Read more.
Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (PACT = 0.10; PACT significance threshold was P < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Selenium in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Antiperiodontitis Effects of Magnolia biondii Extract on Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040934
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Over the past decades, periodontitis has become a rising health problem and caused various diseases. In the many studies shows that some extracts and compound to the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. This study focuses on the effects of inhibition of gingival damage [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, periodontitis has become a rising health problem and caused various diseases. In the many studies shows that some extracts and compound to the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. This study focuses on the effects of inhibition of gingival damage and alveolar bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Magnolia biondii extract (MBE) against ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. A ligature was placed around the molar teeth for 8 weeks, and MBE was administered for 8 weeks. Gingival tissue damage and alveolar bone loss were measured by microcomputed tomography (CT) analysis and histopathological examination. Serum Interluekin-1 β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2), and receptor activator of nuclear factor–κB ligand (RANKL) levels were investigated using commercial kits to confirm the antiperiodontitis effects of MBE. We confirmed that ligature-induced periodontitis resulted in gingival tissue damage and alveolar bone loss. However, treatment for 8 weeks with MBE protected from periodontal tissue damage and downregulated serum inflammatory cytokine factors and RANKL levels. These results suggest that MBE exerts antiperiodontitis effects by inhibiting gingival tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss through regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in periodontitis-induced rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reproducibility and Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Assessment in Children Aged 7–9 Years in Spain
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040933
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine if the short semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a reliable and valid tool to assess the diet of Spanish children aged 7–9 years. We collected data from 156 children of the birth cohort INMA [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine if the short semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a reliable and valid tool to assess the diet of Spanish children aged 7–9 years. We collected data from 156 children of the birth cohort INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood)). Children’s parents or care-givers completed a 46-item FFQ on two occasions over a 9–12-month period about the children’s diet. To explore the reproducibility of the FFQ, the nutrient and food group intake collected from the both FFQs were compared, while validity was examined by contrasting the nutrient values from the FFQs and the average of three 24-hour dietary recalls (24hDRs) taken in this period, and also with the concentration of several vitamins in the blood (carotenoids, vitamin D and α-tocopherol). Pearson and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated. The average correlation coefficients for nutrient intake’s reproducibility was 0.41, ranging from 0.25 (calcium) to 0.65 (β-carotene), and for food group intake was 0.45, ranging from 0.18 (cereals) to 0.68 (sweetened beverages). Correlation coefficients slightly improved when we compared energy-adjusted intakes. The average correlation coefficients for validity against 24hDRs was 0.34 for energy-adjusted intakes, and 0.39 when de-attenuation coefficients were used. The validity coefficients against the blood concentrations of vitamins were 0.38 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.26 for lycopene, 0,23 for α-carotene and 0.15 for β-carotene, all of them statistically significant (p < 0.05). This study suggests that our brief FFQ is a suitable tool for the dietary assessment of a wide range of nutrients and food groups in children 7–9 years, despite the low to moderate reproducibility and validity observed for some nutrients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decreased Appetite is Associated with Sarcopenia-Related Outcomes in Acute Hospitalized Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040932
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Decreased appetite is one of the main risk factors of malnutrition. Little is known on how appetite changes during hospitalization and after discharge and how it relates with sarcopenia-related outcomes. We analyzed data of the Hospital-ADL study, a multicenter prospective cohort study that [...] Read more.
Decreased appetite is one of the main risk factors of malnutrition. Little is known on how appetite changes during hospitalization and after discharge and how it relates with sarcopenia-related outcomes. We analyzed data of the Hospital-ADL study, a multicenter prospective cohort study that followed 400 acutely hospitalized older adults (≥70 year). Appetite (SNAQ), handgrip strength (Jamar), muscle mass (BIA), mobility (DEMMI), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed within 48 h of admission, at discharge, and at one and three months post-discharge. The course of decreased appetite was analysed by Generalised Estimating Equations. Linear Mixed Model was used to analyse the associations between decreased appetite and the sarcopenia-related outcomes. Decreased appetite was reported by 51% at hospital admission, 34% at discharge, 28% one month post-discharge, and 17% three months post-discharge. Overall, decreased appetite was associated with lower muscle strength (β = −1.089, p = 0.001), lower mobility skills (β = −3.893, p < 0.001), and lower physical performance (β = −0.706, p < 0.001) but not with muscle mass (β = −0.023, p = 0.920). In conclusion, decreased appetite was highly prevalent among acute hospitalized older adults and remained prevalent, although less, after discharge. Decreased appetite was significantly associated with negative sarcopenia-related outcomes, which underlines the need for assessment and monitoring of decreased appetite during and post hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Older Individuals' Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Dietary Factors in Sulfur Metabolism and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040931
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The biogeography of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) suggests a proximal to distal concentration gradient of a toxin. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) [...] Read more.
The biogeography of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) suggests a proximal to distal concentration gradient of a toxin. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were considered the primary determinants of H2S production and clinical course of UC. The metabolic milieu in the lumen of the colon, however, is the result of a multitude of factors beyond dietary sulfur intake and SRB abundance. Here we present an updated formulation of the H2S toxin hypothesis for UC pathogenesis, which strives to incorporate the interdependency of diet composition and the metabolic activity of the entire colon microbial community. Specifically, we suggest that the increasing severity of inflammation along the proximal-to-distal axis in UC is due to the dilution of beneficial factors, concentration of toxic factors, and changing detoxification capacity of the host, all of which are intimately linked to the nutrient flow from the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
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Open AccessArticle
Local In Vivo Measures of Muscle Lipid and Oxygen Consumption Change in Response to Combined Vitamin D Repletion and Aerobic Training in Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040930
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular lipid (EMCL), and vitamin D deficiency are associated with muscle metabolic dysfunction. This study compared the change in [IMCL]:[EMCL] following the combined treatment of vitamin D and aerobic training (DAT) compared with vitamin D (D), aerobic training (AT), and control [...] Read more.
Intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular lipid (EMCL), and vitamin D deficiency are associated with muscle metabolic dysfunction. This study compared the change in [IMCL]:[EMCL] following the combined treatment of vitamin D and aerobic training (DAT) compared with vitamin D (D), aerobic training (AT), and control (CTL). Male and female subjects aged 60–80 years with a BMI ranging from 18.5–34.9 and vitamin D status of ≤32 ng/mL (25(OH)D) were recruited to randomized, prospective clinical trial double-blinded for supplement with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) (10,000 IU × 5 days/week) or placebo was provided for 13 weeks and treadmill aerobic training during week 13. Gastrocnemius IMCL and EMCL were measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MRI. Hybrid near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy measured hemodynamics. Group differences in IMCL were observed when controlling for baseline IMCL (p = 0.049). DAT was the only group to reduce IMCL from baseline, while a mean increase was observed in all other groups combined (p = 0.008). IMCL reduction and the corresponding increase in rVO2 at study end (p = 0.011) were unique to DAT. Vitamin D, when combined with exercise, may potentiate the metabolic benefits of exercise by reducing IMCL and increasing tissue-level VO2 in healthy, older adults. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Tea in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040929
Received: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Tea, including green tea made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and is consumed by more than two-thirds of the world population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tea in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2015 across Generations Is Associated with Birth Outcomes and Weight Status at Age 5 in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040928
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Maternal dietary quality during pregnancy is associated with offspring outcomes. These associations have not been examined in three-generation families. We investigated associations between parental and grandparental dietary quality, determined by healthy eating index (HEI)-2015, and offspring birth outcomes and weight status at age [...] Read more.
Maternal dietary quality during pregnancy is associated with offspring outcomes. These associations have not been examined in three-generation families. We investigated associations between parental and grandparental dietary quality, determined by healthy eating index (HEI)-2015, and offspring birth outcomes and weight status at age 5. The Lifeways cohort study in the Republic of Ireland comprises 1082 index-child’s mothers, 333 index-child’s fathers, and 707 grandparents. HEI-2015 scores were generated for all adults from prenatal dietary information collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In an adjusted model, greater adherence to the maternal HEI was associated with lower likelihood of low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50–0.99, p = 0.04). Similarly, maternal grandmothers (MGM) with higher HEI scores were less likely to have grandchildren with LBW (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.61–0.96, p = 0.04) and more likely to have macrosomia (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.22, p = 0.03). Higher paternal and paternal grandmothers (PGM) HEI scores were associated with lower likelihood of childhood obesity (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.30–0.94, p = 0.03) and overweight (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.22–0.99, p = 0.04), respectively. Mediation analysis showed significant direct relationship of MGM and PGM HEI scores on grandchildren’s birthweight and obesity, respectively. In conclusion, maternal line dietary quality appears to influence fetal growth whereas paternal line dietary quality appears to influence postnatal growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Naked Oat (Avena nuda L.) Oligopeptides: Immunomodulatory Effects on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Mice via Cytokine Secretion, Antibody Production, and Th Cells Stimulation
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040927
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of oligopeptides derived from oat (Avena nuda L.) (OOPs). Healthy female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to five groups, given deionized water (control) and 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight (BW) of [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of oligopeptides derived from oat (Avena nuda L.) (OOPs). Healthy female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to five groups, given deionized water (control) and 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight (BW) of OOPs daily by intragastric administration. Seven assays were performed to determine the immunomodulatory effects of OOPs on immune organ ratios, cellular and humoral immune responses, macrophage phagocytosis, and natural killer (NK) cell activity. Spleen T lymphocyte subpopulations (by flow cytometry), serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels (by multiplex sandwich immunoassays) were determined to evaluate how OOPs affected the immune system. Our results showed that OOPs could significantly improve innate and adaptive immune responses in mice through the enhancement of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis capacity, and NK cell activity. We concluded that the immunomodulatory effects might be attributed to increased T and Th cell percentages, serum interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1 α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretions as well as immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM productions. These results indicate that dietary OOPs could be considered as promising immunomodulators with dosages ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 g/kg BW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Effects of BMI on Brain Response to Odor in Olfactory, Reward and Memory Regions: Evidence from fMRI
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040926
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, motivating research into the underlying mechanisms. Olfaction is a powerful mediator of food consumption, and obesity has been associated with altered olfactory sensitivity. The current study used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the central [...] Read more.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, motivating research into the underlying mechanisms. Olfaction is a powerful mediator of food consumption, and obesity has been associated with altered olfactory sensitivity. The current study used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the central processing of odor in humans to gain insight into the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the neural processes involved in rating the pleasantness of a food odor during a hunger state and in a satiety state. We hypothesized that, during the hedonic evaluation of food odor, BMI would be associated with differences in brain activation within olfactory and higher order processing areas important for perception, reward, and memory. We report novel findings of a dissociation between the relationship between BMI and activation in reward areas and in olfactory and odor memory areas, i.e., activation in reward areas decreased as BMI increased, whereas activation in primary olfactory and memory regions increased as BMI increased. A greater BMI is associated with decreased activation in the reward and frontal regions, supporting a blunted reward response in obesity. These findings have important potential implications for decision making, response inhibition, and reward-based behaviors that may play key roles as causal and maintenance factors in obesity. In contrast, a greater BMI is associated with an increased activation in the primary olfactory and memory areas, which was observed during a hunger state. These results raise the speculative hypothesis that high BMI may be associated with hyperactivation in the olfactory and memory areas, and that over time, the resulting excitotoxic effects may contribute to neurodegenerative changes in these areas. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cognitive Training Therapy Improves the Effect of Hypocaloric Treatment on Subjects with Overweight/Obesity: A Randomised Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040925
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Obesity has been associated with impaired cognitive performance. This study aimed to determine whether improvements in cognitive function may contribute to higher weight loss in patients with obesity. In this randomised, 12-week trial, participants with overweight/obesity were randomised into a cognitive training intervention [...] Read more.
Obesity has been associated with impaired cognitive performance. This study aimed to determine whether improvements in cognitive function may contribute to higher weight loss in patients with obesity. In this randomised, 12-week trial, participants with overweight/obesity were randomised into a cognitive training intervention (Cognitive) group or a cognitive-behavioural (Control) group. In addition, both groups followed a hypocaloric dietary treatment. Cognitive functioning measurements and anthropometrical parameters were evaluated. All cognitive measures improved in the intervention group (p < 0.005 in all contrasts). In controls, significant improvements in attention, flexibility and task planning were also observed. Regarding anthropometrical parameters, the effect of the intervention in the cognitive group was higher for the total percentage of weight loss, body mass index (BMI), body fat and waist circumference. Biochemical parameters improved in both groups. Attending to our data, cognitive training was more effective that the hypocaloric intervention alone, partly related to an improvement in the working memory. Despite the shortage of training interventions for executive functions in the context of weight control, this type of combined intervention could establish the first steps towards a more appropriate intervention for patients with obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to Vitamin D Fortification Policy in Prenatal Life and the Risk of Childhood Asthma: Results from the D-Tect Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040924
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Prenatal vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with an increased risk of developing childhood asthma. Results from epidemiological studies are conflicting and limited by short follow-up and small sample sizes. The objective of this study was to examine if children born to women [...] Read more.
Prenatal vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with an increased risk of developing childhood asthma. Results from epidemiological studies are conflicting and limited by short follow-up and small sample sizes. The objective of this study was to examine if children born to women exposed to the margarine fortification policy with a small dose of extra vitamin D during pregnancy had a reduced risk of developing asthma until age 9 years, compared to children born to unexposed women. The termination of a Danish mandatory vitamin D fortification policy constituted the basis for the study design. We compared the risk of inpatient asthma diagnoses in all Danish children born two years before (n = 106,347, exposed) and two years after (n = 115,900, unexposed) the termination of the policy. The children were followed in the register from 0–9 years of age. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. The Hazard Ratio for the first inpatient asthma admission among exposed versus unexposed children was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.90–1.04). When stratifying by sex and age, 0–3 years old boys exposed to vitamin D fortification showed a lower asthma risk compared to unexposed boys (HR 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67–0.92). Prenatal exposure to margarine fortification policy with extra vitamin D did not affect the overall risk of developing asthma among children aged 0–9 years but seemed to reduce the risk among 0–3 years old boys. Taking aside study design limitations, this could be explained by different sensitivity to vitamin D from different sex-related asthma phenotypes in children with early onset, and sex differences in lung development or immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health)
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Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040923
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. These activities are dependent on the quantity and quality of the microbiota alongside its metabolic potential, which are dictated by a number of factors, including diet and host genetics. In this regard, the gut microbiome is malleable and varies significantly from host to host. These two features render the gut microbiome a candidate ‘organ’ for the possibility of precision microbiomics—the use of the gut microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to specific dietary constituents to generate precision diets and interventions for optimal health. With this in mind, this two-part review investigates the current state of the science in terms of the influence of diet and specific dietary components on the gut microbiota and subsequent consequences for health status, along with opportunities to modulate the microbiota for improved health and the potential of the microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to dietary components. In particular, in Part I, we examine the development of the microbiota from birth and its role in health. We investigate the consequences of poor-quality diet in relation to infection and inflammation and discuss diet-derived microbial metabolites which negatively impact health. We look at the role of diet in shaping the microbiome and the influence of specific dietary components, namely protein, fat and carbohydrates, on gut microbiota composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Weight Change and Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Postpartum Women with History of Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040922
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Weight gain after childbirth is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) development after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The level of weight loss achieved in diabetes prevention programs for women after GDM is often low but its effects on the cardiometabolic [...] Read more.
Weight gain after childbirth is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) development after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The level of weight loss achieved in diabetes prevention programs for women after GDM is often low but its effects on the cardiometabolic risk are not known. In a secondary analysis of a diabetes prevention program in postpartum women with history of gestational diabetes, we evaluated the effect of weight change on the cardiometabolic outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Of the 284 women randomized to the intervention arm, 206 with the final outcome measurements were included in the analyses. Participants were categorized into weight loss (>2 kg, n = 74), weight stable (±2 kg, n = 74) or weight gain (>2 kg, n = 58) groups. The weight loss group had significantly greater decrease in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) than the weight gain group (−0.1 + 0.4% vs. 0 + 0.4%, p = 0.049). The weight loss group had significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cholesterol than the other two groups (p < 0.05). The weight gain group had significantly greater increase in triglyceride and triglyceride:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compare with the other groups (p < 0.01). Overall, a small amount of weight loss and prevention of further weight gain was beneficial to the cardiometabolic outcomes of postpartum women after GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Gain)
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Open AccessArticle
Qualified Health Claim Language affects Purchase Intentions for Green Tea Products in the United States
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040921
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Qualified health claims (QHC) describe diet–disease relationships and summarize the quality and strength of evidence for a claim. Companies assert that QHCs increase sales and take legal action to ensure claims reflect their interests. Yet, there is no empirical evidence that QHCs influence [...] Read more.
Qualified health claims (QHC) describe diet–disease relationships and summarize the quality and strength of evidence for a claim. Companies assert that QHCs increase sales and take legal action to ensure claims reflect their interests. Yet, there is no empirical evidence that QHCs influence consumers. Using green tea as a case study, this study investigated the effects of QHCs on purchase intentions among adults 55 years and older living in the US. An online survey using a between-subjects design examined QHCs about the relationship between green tea and the reduced risk of breast and/or prostate cancer or yukichi fruit juice and the reduced risk of gastrocoridalis, a fictitious relationship. QHCs written by a green tea company generated greater perceptions of evidence for the relationship, greater confidence in green tea and cancer, and increased purchase intentions for green tea than other QHCs. Factors that mitigated the claim’s effects on purchase intentions are: Race/ethnicity; age; importance of health claims; supplement use; health; worry about health/becoming sick with cancer; worry that led to dietary change; green tea consumption; and familiarity with the green tea–cancer. Consumers who made health-related dietary change in the past year and consider health claims important indicated greater purchase intentions than others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims)
Open AccessArticle
Differences in Maternal Immunoglobulins within Mother’s Own Breast Milk and Donor Breast Milk and across Digestion in Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040920
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Maternal antibody transfer to the newborn provides essential support for the infant’s naïve immune system. Preterm infants normally receive maternal antibodies through mother’s own breast milk (MBM) or, when mothers are unable to provide all the milk required, donor breast milk (DBM). DBM [...] Read more.
Maternal antibody transfer to the newborn provides essential support for the infant’s naïve immune system. Preterm infants normally receive maternal antibodies through mother’s own breast milk (MBM) or, when mothers are unable to provide all the milk required, donor breast milk (DBM). DBM is pasteurized and exposed to several freeze–thaw cycles, which could reduce intact antibody concentration and the antibody’s resistance to digestion within the infant. Whether concentrations of antibodies in MBM and DBM differ and whether their survival across digestion in preterm infants differs remains unknown. Feed (MBM or DBM), gastric contents (MBM or DBM at 1-h post-ingestion) and stool samples (collected after a mix of MBM and DBM feeding) were collected from 20 preterm (26–36 weeks gestational age) mother–infant pairs at 8–9 and 21–22 days of postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for the concentration of secretory IgA (SIgA), total IgA (SIgA/IgA), total IgM (SIgM/IgM) and IgG. Total IgA, SIgA, total IgM and IgG concentrations were 55.0%, 71.6%, 98.4% and 41.1% higher in MBM than in DBM, and were 49.8%, 32.7%, 73.9% and 39.7% higher in gastric contents when infants were fed with MBM than when infants were fed DBM, respectively. All maternal antibody isotypes present in breast milk were detected in the infant stools, of which IgA (not sIgA) was the most abundant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biotin Is Required for the Zinc Homeostasis in the Skin
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040919
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Patients with biotin deficiency present symptoms that are similar to those in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica (inherent zinc deficiency). However, the association between biotin and zinc deficiency remains unknown. We have previously shown that epidermal keratinocytes of mice fed zinc-deficient (ZD) diets secreted [...] Read more.
Patients with biotin deficiency present symptoms that are similar to those in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica (inherent zinc deficiency). However, the association between biotin and zinc deficiency remains unknown. We have previously shown that epidermal keratinocytes of mice fed zinc-deficient (ZD) diets secreted more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than those of mice fed zinc-adequate (ZA) diets and that epidermal Langerhans cells are absent in ZD mice. Langerhans cells highly express CD39, which potently hydrolyzes ATP into adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Thus, a lack of Langerhans cells in ZD mice leads to non-hydrolysis of ATP, thereby leading to the development of ATP-mediated irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined if biotin-deficient (BD) mice showed the same underlying mechanisms as those in ZD mice. BD mice showed reduced serum zinc levels, disappearance of epidermal Langerhans cells, and enhanced ATP production in the skin. Consequently, irritant contact dermatitis was significantly enhanced and prolonged in BD mice. In conclusion, the findings of our study showed that biotin deficiency leads to zinc deficiency because of which patients with biotin deficiency show similar symptoms as those with acrodermatitis enteropathica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Iron Supplementation Influenced by Sub-Clinical Inflammation?: A Randomized Controlled Trial Among Adolescent Schoolgirls in Myanmar
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040918
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Iron absorption was impaired in the presence of sub-clinical inflammation (SCI) and might hamper the effect of iron supplementation. The purpose of the study was to identify the influence of SCI on iron supplementation. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted among [...] Read more.
Iron absorption was impaired in the presence of sub-clinical inflammation (SCI) and might hamper the effect of iron supplementation. The purpose of the study was to identify the influence of SCI on iron supplementation. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled experimental study was conducted among anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in Ayeyarwady region, Myanmar. A total of 402 schoolgirls were recruited from six schools screened from 1269 girls who were assigned into one of four groups: Folate group (2.5 mg of folate), Vitamin A group (15,000 IU of vitamin), Iron folate group (60 mg elemental iron and folate) and Iron, and vitamin A and folate group. Supplementation was done once a week for 12 weeks. Iron, vitamin A and inflammation were measured at the baseline, middle and endline. Changes in serum ferritin and body iron were significantly higher in the IFA and IFA + vitA among those without SCI. There was interaction between vitamin A and SCI on Hb changes. Analysis of GLM repeated measure showed interactions between treatment and SCI for hemoglobin and serum transferrin receptor. Those treated with vitamin A had better outcomes when there was SCI. Inflammation accompanied a negative effect on iron supplementation and vitamin A improved efficacy of iron supplementation in the presence of SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Operate by Different Mechanisms to Modulate Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulemia in fa/fa Zucker Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040917
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Hepatic steatosis, an early stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is commonly present in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is associated with reduced hepatic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) status that impacts on the anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing functions of n3-PUFA. Our [...] Read more.
Hepatic steatosis, an early stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is commonly present in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is associated with reduced hepatic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) status that impacts on the anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing functions of n3-PUFA. Our objective was to directly compare plant- and marine-based n3-PUFA (α-linoleic acid (ALA)), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for their effects on hepatic steatosis, markers of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, and insulinemia in obese rats. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided diets containing ALA, EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (LA, n6-PUFA) for eight weeks and compared to baseline fa/fa rats and lean Zucker rats fed LA-rich diet for eight weeks. Both DHA and EPA groups had liver lipid similar to baseline, however, DHA was more effective than EPA for reducing hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), increasing the proportion of smaller lipid droplets, reversing early fibrotic damage, and reducing fasting hyperinsulinemia. EPA was more effective for reducing FoxO1. Dietary ALA did not attenuate hepatic steatosis, most inflammatory markers or FAS. In summary, amongst the n3-PUFA, DHA was the most effective for elevating hepatic DHA levels, and preventing progression of hepatic steatosis via reductions in FAS and a marker of fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Mean Dietary Salt Intake in Vanuatu: A Population Survey of 755 Participants on Efate Island
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040916
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Non-communicable diseases are responsible for 63% of global deaths, with a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular-disease-related deaths worldwide, and approximately 1.7 million deaths are directly attributable to excess salt intake annually. There has been [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases are responsible for 63% of global deaths, with a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular-disease-related deaths worldwide, and approximately 1.7 million deaths are directly attributable to excess salt intake annually. There has been little research conducted on the level of salt consumption amongst the population of Vanuatu. Based on data from other Pacific Island countries and knowledge of changing regional diets, it was predicted that salt intake would exceed the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended maximum of 5 g per day. The current study aimed to provide Vanuatu with a preliminary baseline assessment of population salt intake on Efate Island. A cross-sectional survey collected demographic, clinical, and urine data from participants aged 18 to 69 years in rural and urban communities on Efate Island in October 2016 and February 2017. Mean salt intake was determined to be 7.2 (SD 2.3) g/day from spot urine samples, and 5.9 (SD 3.6) g/day from 24-h urine samples, both of which exceed the WHO recommended maximum. Based on the spot urine samples, males had significantly higher salt intake than females (7.8 g compared to 6.5 g; p < 0.001) and almost 85% of the population consumed more than the WHO recommended maximum daily amount. A coordinated government strategy is recommended to reduce salt consumption, including fiscal policies, engagement with the food industry, and education and awareness-raising to promote behavior change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Capsaicin Analogues Derived from n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reduce Inflammatory Activity of Macrophages and Stimulate Insulin Secretion by β-Cells In Vitro
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040915
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
In this study, two capsaicin analogues, N-eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), were enzymatically synthesized from their corresponding n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both dietary relevant components. The compounds significantly reduced [...] Read more.
In this study, two capsaicin analogues, N-eicosapentaenoyl vanillylamine (EPVA) and N-docosahexaenoyl vanillylamine (DHVA), were enzymatically synthesized from their corresponding n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both dietary relevant components. The compounds significantly reduced the production of some lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (CCL20) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2), by RAW264.7 macrophages. Next to this, only EPVA increased insulin secretion by pancreatic INS-1 832/13 β-cells, while raising intracellular Ca2+ and ATP concentrations. This suggests that the stimulation of insulin release occurs through an increase in the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in the first phase, while is calcium-mediated in the second phase. Although it is not yet known whether EPVA is endogenously produced, its potential therapeutic value for diabetes treatment merits further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Insulin Resistance–Beyond Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Topically Applied Wikstroemia dolichantha Diels on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Symptoms in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040914
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Plants of the genus Wikstroemia are traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases like bronchitis and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the anti-atopic effects of an EtOH extract of Wikstroemia dolichantha (WDE) on oxazolone- and DNCB (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene)-induced dermatitis in mice were investigated. Both [...] Read more.
Plants of the genus Wikstroemia are traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases like bronchitis and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the anti-atopic effects of an EtOH extract of Wikstroemia dolichantha (WDE) on oxazolone- and DNCB (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene)-induced dermatitis in mice were investigated. Both ears of BALB/c mice were exposed to oxazolone, and dorsal skins of SKH-1 hairless mice were sensitized with DNCB to induce acute eczematous atopic skin lesions. 1% WDE was applied daily to oxazolone- and DNCB-induced AD mice for two or three weeks, respectively. Total IL-4 and IgE concentrations in serum, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were assessed. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used to determine the composition of WDE. Dermal application of 1% WDE grossly and histopathologically improved oxazolone- and DNCB-induced AD skin symptoms. Epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration were significantly lower in animals treated with WDE than in vehicle controls. Furthermore, in addition to reducing DNCB-induced increases in serum IL-4 (interleukin 4) and IgE (immunoglobulin E) levels, WDE also decreased TEWL and increased skin hydration (indicative of improved skin barrier function). The four flavonoids taxifolin, aromadendrin, padmatin and chamaejasmine were tentatively identified in WDE by HPLC-DAD/QTOF-MS. The above results show WDE protected against oxazolone- and DNCB-induced AD in mice by down-regulating the TH2-associated cytokine IL-4 and improving skin barrier function and suggest WDE might be useful for the management of atopic dermatitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Choline Database to Estimate Australian Population Intakes
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040913
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
The AUSNUT 2011–13 food composition database was expanded to include Australian choline values. The development began with a systematic literature review of published studies. Analytical data from the food studies were extracted and aligned with their equivalent AUSNUT food identification code. Global food [...] Read more.
The AUSNUT 2011–13 food composition database was expanded to include Australian choline values. The development began with a systematic literature review of published studies. Analytical data from the food studies were extracted and aligned with their equivalent AUSNUT food identification code. Global food composition databases containing choline values were matched to the remaining AUSNUT food codes, following the FAO INFOODS food matching guidelines, including adjustments for moisture and protein composition. Composite foods, and not further-specified foods, were developed using the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) recipe files. The completed choline database was then employed to analyse the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–12, with population and sampling weightings applied. Survey respondents were classified into categories based on their level of choline intake and compared with the Australian Adequate Intake levels. Food sources of intake were also explored. Multiple linear regression models were developed for food group contributors to choline intake. Mean choline intakes varied from 151.50 mg for pregnant 14–18 years old, to 310.54 mg for 19–64 year old males. Less than 10% of the population by age and gender were achieving the Adequate Intake for choline. Eggs and their contributing food groups were the top ranked food sources of choline for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Informatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Pancreatic Fat Content Following Diet-Induced Weight Loss
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040912
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Obesity can lead to ectopic pancreatic fat accumulation and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Smaller intervention trials have shown a decrease in pancreatic fat content (PFC) with weight loss, and we intended to investigate the effects of weight loss on [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity can lead to ectopic pancreatic fat accumulation and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Smaller intervention trials have shown a decrease in pancreatic fat content (PFC) with weight loss, and we intended to investigate the effects of weight loss on PFC in a larger trial. Methods: Data from the HELENA-Trial, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) among 137 non-diabetic obese adults were used. The study cohort was classified into 4 quartiles based on weight change between baseline and 12 weeks post-intervention. Changes in PFC (baseline, 12 weeks and 50 weeks post-intervention) upon weight loss were analyzed by linear mixed models. Spearman’s coefficients were used to obtain correlations between anthropometric parameters, blood biochemical markers, and PFC. Results: At baseline, PFC only showed a significant correlation with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = 0.41). Relative changes in PFC were significantly (p = 0.01) greater in Q4 (−30.8 ± 5.7%) than in Q1 (1.3 ± 6.7%). These differences remained similar after one year. However, when adjusting the statistical analyses for changes in VAT, the differences in PFC between Q1 and Q4 were no longer statistically significant. Conclusion: Weight loss is associated with a decrease in PFC. However, the reduction of PFC is not independent from reductions in VAT. Unlike VAT, PFC was not associated with metabolic biomarkers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Calcium Intake and Hypertension: Importance of Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040911
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
The relationship among dietary calcium, hypertension and vitamin D status currently remains unclear. This population-based cross-sectional study examined the association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension and the influence of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Japanese subjects. A total of 619 [...] Read more.
The relationship among dietary calcium, hypertension and vitamin D status currently remains unclear. This population-based cross-sectional study examined the association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension and the influence of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in Japanese subjects. A total of 619 subjects aged from 40 years were recruited. Dietary intake was measured using a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Hypertension was defined as the use of antihypertensive medication or a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were used as the biomarker of vitamin D status. The prevalence of hypertension and low serum 25(OH)D levels (<20 ng/mL) were 55 and 32%, respectively. Dietary calcium intake inversely correlated with hypertension in subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels higher than 20 ng/mL (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.991, 0.999) but it was not significant in those with serum 25(OH)D levels of 20 ng/mL or lower. Furthermore, dietary vitamin D intake correlated with serum concentrations of 25(OH)D after adjustments for various confounding factors. The present results demonstrate that the regular consumption of calcium may contribute to the prevention and treatment of hypertension in subjects with a non-vitamin D deficiency and also that dietary vitamin D intake may effectively prevents this deficiency. Full article
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