Next Article in Journal
Theobromine Improves Working Memory by Activating the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF Pathway in Rats
Next Article in Special Issue
Natural Dietary Supplementation of Curcumin Protects Mice Brains against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration and Memory Impairment via Nrf2/TLR4/RAGE Signaling
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Surgical Patients Subjected to CIPA Nutrition Screening and Treatment versus Standard Care
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Chinese Herbal Formula PAPZ Ameliorates Behavioral Abnormalities in Depressive Mice
Open AccessReview

From Probiotics to Psychobiotics: Live Beneficial Bacteria Which Act on the Brain-Gut Axis

1
INRA, Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France
2
Department of Microbiology, Center of Basic Science, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico
3
Neurosciences Division, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara 44340, Jalisco, Mexico
4
Department of Computer Sciences, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44430, Jalisco, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040890
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Central Nervous System)
There is an important relationship between probiotics, psychobiotics and cognitive and behavioral processes, which include neurological, metabolic, hormonal and immunological signaling pathways; the alteration in these systems may cause alterations in behavior (mood) and cognitive level (learning and memory). Psychobiotics have been considered key elements in affective disorders and the immune system, in addition to their effect encompassing the regulation of neuroimmune regulation and control axes (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or HPA, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis or SAM and the inflammatory reflex) in diseases of the nervous system. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent findings about psychobiotics, the brain-gut axis and the immune system. The review focuses on a very new and interesting field that relates the microbiota of the intestine with diseases of the nervous system and its possible treatment, in neuroimmunomodulation area. Indeed, although probiotic bacteria will be concentrated after ingestion, mainly in the intestinal epithelium (where they provide the host with essential nutrients and modulation of the immune system), they may also produce neuroactive substances which act on the brain-gut axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; microbiota; beneficial bacteria; psychobiotics; human health probiotics; microbiota; beneficial bacteria; psychobiotics; human health
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bermúdez-Humarán, L.G.; Salinas, E.; Ortiz, G.G.; Ramirez-Jirano, L.J.; Morales, J.A.; Bitzer-Quintero, O.K. From Probiotics to Psychobiotics: Live Beneficial Bacteria Which Act on the Brain-Gut Axis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 890.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop