Next Article in Journal
Effect of High Fiber Cereal Intake on Satiety and Gastrointestinal Symptoms during Ramadan
Next Article in Special Issue
Prenatal Intervention with Partial Meal Replacement Improves Micronutrient Intake of Pregnant Women with Obesity
Previous Article in Journal
Caffeinated Gel Ingestion Enhances Jump Performance, Muscle Strength, and Power in Trained Men
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differences in Maternal Immunoglobulins within Mother’s Own Breast Milk and Donor Breast Milk and across Digestion in Preterm Infants
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Association of Full Breastfeeding Duration with Postpartum Weight Retention in a Cohort of Predominantly Breastfeeding Women

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis, MN 55425, USA
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Department of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 938;
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
PDF [370 KB, uploaded 25 April 2019]


Full breastfeeding (FBF) is promoted as effective for losing pregnancy weight during the postpartum period. This study evaluated whether longer FBF is associated with lower maternal postpartum weight retention (PPWR) as compared to a shorter FBF duration. The MILK (Mothers and Infants Linked for Healthy Growth) study is an ongoing prospective cohort of 370 mother–infant dyads, all of whom fully breastfed their infants for at least 1 month. Breastfeeding status was subsequently self-reported by mothers at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Maternal PPWR was calculated as maternal weight measured at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum minus maternal prepregnancy weight. Using linear mixed effects models, by 6 months postpartum, adjusted means ± standard errors for weight retention among mothers who fully breastfed for 1–3 (3.40 ± 1.16 kg), 3–6 (1.41 ± 0.69 kg), and ≥6 months (0.97 ± 0.32 kg) were estimated. Compared to mothers who reported FBF for 1–3 months, those who reported FBF for 3–6 months and ≥6 months both had lower PPWR over the period from 1 to 6 months postpartum (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). However, PPWR from 3 to 6 months was not significantly different among those who reported FBF for 3–6 versus ≥6 months (p > 0.05). Interventions to promote FBF past 3 months may increase the likelihood of postpartum return to prepregnancy weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: full breastfeeding; postpartum; weight retention; obesity full breastfeeding; postpartum; weight retention; obesity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tahir, M.J.; Haapala, J.L.; Foster, L.P.; Duncan, K.M.; Teague, A.M.; Kharbanda, E.O.; McGovern, P.M.; Whitaker, K.M.; Rasmussen, K.M.; Fields, D.A.; Harnack, L.J.; Jacobs, D.R., Jr.; Demerath, E.W. Association of Full Breastfeeding Duration with Postpartum Weight Retention in a Cohort of Predominantly Breastfeeding Women. Nutrients 2019, 11, 938.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top