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Uncontrolled Eating during Pregnancy Predicts Fetal Growth: The Healthy Mom Zone Trial

1
Center for Childhood Obesity Research, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
3
Exercise Psychology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
4
Diagnostic Medical Sonography, South Hills School of Business and Technology, State College, PA 16801, USA
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
6
Department of Maternal & Fetal Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
7
Control Systems Engineering Laboratory, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040899
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
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Abstract

Excess maternal weight gain during pregnancy elevates infants’ risk for macrosomia and early-onset obesity. Eating behavior is also related to weight gain, but the relationship to fetal growth is unclear. We examined whether Healthy Mom Zone, an individually tailored, adaptive gestational weight gain intervention, and maternal eating behaviors affected fetal growth in pregnant women (n = 27) with a BMI > 24. At study enrollment (6–13 weeks gestation) and monthly thereafter, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was completed. Ultrasounds were obtained monthly from 14–34 weeks gestation. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Higher baseline levels of uncontrolled eating predicted faster rates of fetal growth in late gestation. Cognitive restraint was not associated with fetal growth, but moderated the effect of uncontrolled eating on fetal growth. Emotional eating was not associated with fetal growth. Among women with higher baseline levels of uncontrolled eating, fetuses of women in the control group grew faster and were larger in later gestation than those in the intervention group (study group × baseline uncontrolled eating × gestational week interaction, p = 0.03). This is one of the first intervention studies to use an individually tailored, adaptive design to manage weight gain in pregnancy to demonstrate potential effects on fetal growth. Results also suggest that it may be important to develop intervention content and strategies specific to pregnant women with high vs. low levels of disinhibited eating. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; gestational weight gain intervention; eating behavior; restraint; disinhibition; uncontrolled and emotional eating; fetal growth; overweight and obesity; generalized linear models pregnancy; gestational weight gain intervention; eating behavior; restraint; disinhibition; uncontrolled and emotional eating; fetal growth; overweight and obesity; generalized linear models
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Savage, J.S.; Hohman, E.E.; McNitt, K.M.; Pauley, A.M.; Leonard, K.S.; Turner, T.; Pauli, J.M.; Gernand, A.D.; Rivera, D.E.; Symons Downs, D. Uncontrolled Eating during Pregnancy Predicts Fetal Growth: The Healthy Mom Zone Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 899.

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