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Topical Collection "Bioactive Nanoparticles"

A topical collection in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This collection belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Bing Yan

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: 86-0531-88380029
Interests: nanomedicine; nanotoxicity; cancer therapy; drug discovery; drug resistance; combinatorial chemistry; analytical sciences

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production and applications of nanomaterials in industry is still increasing. Nanomaterials will also play an important role in medicine. Furthermore, there are more than 1800 marketed nanomaterial-based consumer products. Therefore, how nanomaterials diagnose and treat diseases, and how they perturb normal biological systems and cause toxicity, will become top concerns. In recent years, researchers have been actively engaged in such investigations. At the same time, novel nanomaterials, technologies, and methods are being developed for a wide range of applications. Since we started the Special Issue “Bioactive Nanoparticles”, four Special Issues have been successfully published, owing to the enormous respons from researchers. Starting from 2015, the topic of “Bioactive Nanoparticles” will become a special topic collection to be published in IJMS. As with previous issues, the collection will include research papers and review articles, reflecting the most recent progress and solutions to challenges in this dynamic research area.

Dr. Bing Yan
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • nanoparticle protein interactions
  • nanoparticle cell interaction
  • cancer-targeting nanoparticle
  • nanoparticle for drug delivery
  • nano-imaging agent
  • toxicity of nanoparticle or nanomaterials

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (141 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2009

Open AccessArticle
Transformation of Construction Cement to a Self-Healing Hybrid Binder
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122948
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
A new biomimetic strategy to im prove the self-healing properties of Portland cement is presented that is based on the application of the biogenic inorganic polymer polyphosphate (polyP), which is used as a cement admixture. The data show that synthetic linear polyp, with [...] Read more.
A new biomimetic strategy to im prove the self-healing properties of Portland cement is presented that is based on the application of the biogenic inorganic polymer polyphosphate (polyP), which is used as a cement admixture. The data show that synthetic linear polyp, with an average chain length of 40, as well as natural long-chain polyP isolated from soil bacteria, has the ability to support self-healing of this construction material. Furthermore, polyP, used as a water-soluble Na-salt, is subject to Na+/Ca2+ exchange by the Ca2+ from the cement, resulting in the formation of a water-rich coacervate when added to the cement surface, especially to the surface of bacteria-containing cement/concrete samples. The addition of polyP in low concentrations (<1% on weight basis for the solids) not only accelerated the hardening of cement/concrete but also the healing of microcracks present in the material. The results suggest that long-chain polyP is a promising additive that increases the self-healing capacity of cement by mimicking a bacteria-mediated natural mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Toxic Effects of Low-Level Long-Term Inhalation Exposures of Rats to Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071778
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Rats were exposed to nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NP) inhalation at 0.23 ± 0.01 mg/m3 for 4 h a day 5 times a week for up to 10 months. The rat organism responded to this impact with changes in cytological and some biochemical [...] Read more.
Rats were exposed to nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NP) inhalation at 0.23 ± 0.01 mg/m3 for 4 h a day 5 times a week for up to 10 months. The rat organism responded to this impact with changes in cytological and some biochemical characteristics of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid along with a paradoxically little pronounced pulmonary pathology associated with a rather low chronic retention of nanoparticles in the lungs. There were various manifestations of systemic toxicity, including damage to the liver and kidneys; a likely allergic syndrome as indicated by some cytological signs; transient stimulation of erythropoiesis; and penetration of nickel into the brain from the nasal mucous membrane along the olfactory pathway. Against a picture of mild to moderate chronic toxicity of nickel, its in vivo genotoxic effect assessed by the degree of DNA fragmentation in nucleated blood cells (the RAPD test) was pronounced, tending to increasing with the length of the exposure period. When rats were given orally, in parallel with the toxic exposure, a set of innocuous substances with differing mechanisms of expected bioprotective action, the genotoxic effect of NiO-NPs was found to be substantially attenuated. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Single Particle Tracking of Upconverting Nanoparticles in Living Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061424
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are inorganic nanomaterials in which the lanthanide cations embedded in the host matrix can convert incident near-infrared light to visible or ultraviolet light. These particles are often used for long-term and real-time imaging because they are extremely stable even [...] Read more.
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are inorganic nanomaterials in which the lanthanide cations embedded in the host matrix can convert incident near-infrared light to visible or ultraviolet light. These particles are often used for long-term and real-time imaging because they are extremely stable even when subjected to continuous irradiation for a long time. It is now possible to image their movement at the single particle level with a scale of a few nanometers and track their trajectories as a function of time with a scale of a few microseconds. Such UCNP-based single-particle tracking (SPT) technology provides information about the intracellular structures and dynamics in living cells. Thus far, most imaging techniques have been built on fluorescence microscopic techniques (epifluorescence, total internal reflection, etc.). However, two-dimensional (2D) images obtained using these techniques are limited in only being able to visualize those on the focal planes of the objective lens. On the contrary, if three-dimensional (3D) structures and dynamics are known, deeper insights into the biology of the thick cells and tissues can be obtained. In this review, we introduce the status of the fluorescence imaging techniques, discuss the mathematical description of SPT, and outline the past few studies using UCNPs as imaging probes or biologically functionalized carriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicological Evaluation of SiO2 Nanoparticles by Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040882
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
PDF Full-text (2763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing, the potential toxicity and behavior of NPs in living systems need to be better understood. Our goal was to evaluate the developmental toxicity and bio-distribution of two different sizes of fluorescently-labeled SiO2 NPs, 25 [...] Read more.
As the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing, the potential toxicity and behavior of NPs in living systems need to be better understood. Our goal was to evaluate the developmental toxicity and bio-distribution of two different sizes of fluorescently-labeled SiO2 NPs, 25 and 115 nm, with neutral surface charge or with different surface functionalization, rendering them positively or negatively charged, in order to predict the effect of NPs in humans. We performed a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) by exposing the embryos to SiO2 NPs starting from six hours post fertilization (hpf). Survival rate, hatching time, and gross morphological changes were assessed at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hpf. We evaluated the effect of NPs on angiogenesis by counting the number of sub-intestinal vessels between the second and seventh intersegmental vessels and gene expression analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors at 72 hpf. SiO2 NPs did not show any adverse effects on survival rate, hatching time, gross morphology, or physiological angiogenesis. We found that SiO2 NPs were trapped by the chorion up until to the hatching stage. After chemical removal of the chorion (dechorionation), positively surface-charged SiO2 NPs (25 nm) significantly reduced the survival rate of the fish compared to the control group. These results indicate that zebrafish chorion acts as a physical barrier against SiO2 NPs, and removing the chorions in ZFET might be necessary for evaluation of toxicity of NPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Imaging of Metastatic Cancer Cells in Sentinel Lymph Nodes using Affibody Probes and Possibility of a Theranostic Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020427
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The accurate detection of lymph node metastases is essential for treatment success in early-stage malignant cancer. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the most effective procedure for detecting small or micrometastases that are undetectable by conventional imaging modalities. To demonstrate a new approach [...] Read more.
The accurate detection of lymph node metastases is essential for treatment success in early-stage malignant cancer. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the most effective procedure for detecting small or micrometastases that are undetectable by conventional imaging modalities. To demonstrate a new approach for developing a more efficient SLN biopsy procedure, we reported a two-stage imaging method combining lymphoscintigraphy and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging to depict metastatic cancer cells in SLNs in vivo. Furthermore, the theranostic potential of the combined procedure was examined by cell culture and xenograft mouse model. Anti-HER2 and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) affibody probes were used for NIR fluorescence imaging. Strong NIR fluorescence signal intensity of the anti-EGFR affibody probe was observed in SAS cells (EGFR positive). Radioactivity in the SLNs was clearly observed in the in vivo studies. High anti-EGFR affibody NIR fluorescence intensity was observed in the metastatic lymph nodes in mice. The addition of the IR700-conjugated anti-EGFR affibody to the culture medium decreased the proliferation of SAS cells. Decreased proliferation was shown in Ki-67 immunohistochemistry in xenograft tumors. Our data suggest that a two-stage combined imaging method using lymphoscintigraphy and affibody probes may offer the direct visualization of metastatic lymph nodes as an easily applied technique in SLN biopsy. Although further animal studies are required to assess the effect of treating lymphatic metastasis in this approach, our study results provide a foundation for the further development of this promising imaging and treatment strategy for earlier lymph node metastasis detection and treatment. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2009

Open AccessReview
Applications of Noble Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124031
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles have unique, size-dependent properties, which means they are widely used in various branches of industry. The ability to control the properties of nanoparticles makes these nanomaterials very interesting for medicine and pharmacology. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is associated with the [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles have unique, size-dependent properties, which means they are widely used in various branches of industry. The ability to control the properties of nanoparticles makes these nanomaterials very interesting for medicine and pharmacology. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is associated with the design of specific nanostructures, which can be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. There are a lot of applications of nanoparticles, e.g., as drug delivery systems, radiosensitizers in radiation or proton therapy, in bioimaging, or as bactericides/fungicides. This paper aims to introduce the characteristics of noble metal-based nanoparticles with particular emphasis on their applications in medicine and related sciences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Food Matrix–ZnO Nanoparticle Interactions Affect Protein Conformation, but May not Be Biological Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123926
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
Because of their nutritional value, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are applied as a dietary source of zinc, by direct addition to complex, multiple-component food matrices. The thereby occurring interactions of NPs with food matrices may have biological or toxic effects. In particular, [...] Read more.
Because of their nutritional value, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are applied as a dietary source of zinc, by direct addition to complex, multiple-component food matrices. The thereby occurring interactions of NPs with food matrices may have biological or toxic effects. In particular, NP interactions with food protein can lead to structural deformation of the latter, potentially changing its digestive efficiency and gastrointestinal absorption. In this study, interactions between ZnO NPs and a representative complex protein food matrix, skim milk, were compared with those between NPs and individual components of this food matrix (i.e., protein, saccharide, and mineral). The effects of the interactions on biological responses were investigated in terms of cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, intestinal transport, structural deformation for proteins, and digestive efficiency. The results demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs were strongly influenced by the protein matrix type, leading to an increased dispersion stability in the complex protein matrix. However, these interactions did not affect cell proliferation, membrane damage, cellular uptake, intestinal transportation, or protein digestive efficiency, although a slight conformational change of proteins was observed in the presence of ZnO NPs. In conclusion, no toxic effects were observed, suggesting the safety of NPs when added to complex food matrices. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bioactive Nanoparticles for Cancer Immunotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123877
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 December 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, immunotherapy is considered to be one of the effective treatment modalities for cancer. All the developments and discoveries in this field up to the recent Nobel Prize add to the interest for research into this vast area of study. Targeting tumor environment [...] Read more.
Currently, immunotherapy is considered to be one of the effective treatment modalities for cancer. All the developments and discoveries in this field up to the recent Nobel Prize add to the interest for research into this vast area of study. Targeting tumor environment as well as the immune system is a suitable strategy to be applied for cancer treatment. Usage of nanoparticle systems for delivery of immunotherapeutic agents to the body being widely studied and found to be a promising area of research to be considered and investigated further. Nanoparticles for immunotherapy would be one of the effective treatment options for cancer therapy in the future due to their high specificity, efficacy, ability to diagnose, imaging, and therapeutic effect. Among the many nanoparticle systems, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, gold nanoparticles, iron oxide, dendrimers, and artificial exosomes are widely used for immunotherapy of cancer. Moreover, the combination therapy found to be the more effective way of treating the tumor. Here, we review the current trends in nanoparticle therapy and efficiency of these nanosystems in delivering antigens, adjuvants, therapeutic drugs, and other immunotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the currently available bioactive nanoparticle systems for cancer immunotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chitosan Hydrogel Beads Functionalized with Thymol-Loaded Solid Lipid–Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103112
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the innovative and multifunctional nanoparticles–hydrogel nanocomposites made with chitosan hydrogel beads and solid lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (SLPN) were prepared through conjugation between SLPN and chitosan beads. The SLPNs were first fabricated via coating the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-emulsified solid lipid [...] Read more.
In this study, the innovative and multifunctional nanoparticles–hydrogel nanocomposites made with chitosan hydrogel beads and solid lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (SLPN) were prepared through conjugation between SLPN and chitosan beads. The SLPNs were first fabricated via coating the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-emulsified solid lipid nanoparticles with oxidized dextran. The aldehyde groups of the oxidized dextran on the surface of the SLPN enabled an in situ conjugation with the chitosan beads through the Schiff base linkage. The obtained nano-on-beads composite exhibited a spherical shape with a homogeneous size distribution. The successful conjugation of SLPN on the chitosan beads was confirmed by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope. The effects of the beads dosage (50, 100, 200, and 300 beads) and the incubation duration (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min) on the conjugation efficiency of SLPN onto the beads were comprehensively optimized. The optimal formulations were found to be a 200 bead dosage, with 30–90 min incubation duration groups. The optimal formulations were then used to encapsulate thymol, an antibacterial agent, which was studied as a model compound. After encapsulation, the thymol exhibited sustained release profiles in the phosphate buffer saline. The as-prepared nanoparticles–hydrogel nanocomposites reported in this proof-of-concept study hold promising features as a controlled-release antibacterial approach for improving food safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Endocytosis in the Transdermal Penetration Mechanism of Ketoprofen Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072138
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously designed a novel transdermal formulation containing ketoprofen solid nanoparticles (KET-NPs formulation), and showed that the skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation was higher than that of a transdermal formulation containing ketoprofen microparticles (KET-MPs formulation). However, the precise mechanism for the skin [...] Read more.
We previously designed a novel transdermal formulation containing ketoprofen solid nanoparticles (KET-NPs formulation), and showed that the skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation was higher than that of a transdermal formulation containing ketoprofen microparticles (KET-MPs formulation). However, the precise mechanism for the skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation was not clear. In this study we investigated whether energy-dependent endocytosis relates to the transdermal delivery from a 1.5% KET-NPs formulation. Transdermal formulations were prepared by a bead mill method using additives including methylcellulose and carbopol 934. The mean particle size of the ketoprofen nanoparticles was 98.3 nm. Four inhibitors of endocytosis dissolved in 0.5% DMSO (54 μM nystatin, a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor; 40 μM dynasore, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor; 2 μM rottlerin, a macropinocytosis inhibitor; 10 μM cytochalasin D, a phagocytosis inhibitor) were used in this study. In the transdermal penetration study using a Franz diffusion cell, skin penetration through rat skin treated with cytochalasin D was similar to the control (DMSO) group. In contrast to the results for cytochalasin D, skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation was significantly decreased by treatment with nystatin, dynasore or rottlerin with penetrated ketoprofen concentration-time curves (AUC) values 65%, 69% and 73% of control, respectively. Furthermore, multi-treatment with all three inhibitors (nystatin, dynasore and rottlerin) strongly suppressed the skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation with an AUC value 13.4% that of the control. In conclusion, we found that caveolae-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are all related to the skin penetration from the KET-NPs formulation. These findings provide significant information for the design of nanomedicines in transdermal formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver Nanoparticles: Two-Faced Neuronal Differentiation-Inducing Material in Neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051470
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously demonstrated the potential of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the induction of neuronal differentiation of human neuroblastoma, SH-SY5Y cells; we aimed herein to unveil its molecular mechanism in comparison to the well-known neuronal differentiation-inducing agent, all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). AgNP-treated [...] Read more.
We have previously demonstrated the potential of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the induction of neuronal differentiation of human neuroblastoma, SH-SY5Y cells; we aimed herein to unveil its molecular mechanism in comparison to the well-known neuronal differentiation-inducing agent, all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). AgNP-treated SH-SY5Y cells showed significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, stronger mitochondrial membrane depolarization, lower dual-specificity phosphatase expression, higher extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, lower AKT phosphorylation, and lower expression of the genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes than RA-treated cells. Notably, pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly abolished AgNP-induced neuronal differentiation, but not in that induced by RA. ERK inhibition, but not AKT inhibition, suppresses neurite growth that is induced by AgNP. Taken together, our results uncover the pivotal contribution of ROS in the AgNP-induced neuronal differentiation mechanism, which is different from that of RA. However, the negative consequence of AgNP-induced neurite growth may be high ROS generation and the downregulation of the expression of the genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes, which prompts the future consideration and an in-depth study of the application of AgNP-differentiated cells in neurodegenerative disease therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Amelogenin Coating of a Nano-Modified Titanium Surface on Bioactivity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051274
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interactions between implants and host tissues depend on several factors. In particular, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that the surface texture of an implant influences the response of the surrounding cells. The purpose of this study is to develop new [...] Read more.
The interactions between implants and host tissues depend on several factors. In particular, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that the surface texture of an implant influences the response of the surrounding cells. The purpose of this study is to develop new implant materials aiming at the regeneration of periodontal tissues as well as hard tissues by coating nano-modified titanium with amelogenin, which is one of the main proteins contained in Emdogain®. We confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance evaluation that amelogenin is easy to adsorb onto the nano-modified titanium surface as a coating. Scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses confirmed that amelogenin coated the nano-modified titanium surface following alkali-treatment. In vitro evaluation using rat bone marrow and periodontal ligament cells revealed that the initial adhesion of both cell types and the induction of hard tissue differentiation such as cementum were improved by amelogenin coating. Additionally, the formation of new bone in implanted surrounding tissues was observed in in vivo evaluation using rat femurs. Together, these results suggest that this material may serve as a new implant material with the potential to play a major role in the advancement of clinical dentistry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Osteogenic Activity of Titanium Implants Coated by Pulsed Laser Deposition with a Thin Film of Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041127
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (38053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To enhance biocompatibility, osteogenesis, and osseointegration, we coated titanium implants, by krypton fluoride (KrF) pulsed laser deposition, with a thin film of fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA). Coating was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), while physicochemical properties were evaluated [...] Read more.
To enhance biocompatibility, osteogenesis, and osseointegration, we coated titanium implants, by krypton fluoride (KrF) pulsed laser deposition, with a thin film of fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA). Coating was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), while physicochemical properties were evaluated by attenuated reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Calcium deposition, osteocalcin production, and expression of osteoblast genes were significantly higher in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells seeded on FHA-coated titanium than in cells seeded on uncoated titanium. Implantation into rat femurs also showed that the FHA-coated material had superior osteoinductive and osseointegration activity in comparison with that of traditional implants, as assessed by microcomputed tomography and histology. Thus, titanium coated with FHA holds promise as a dental implant material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
HER2-Targeted Multifunctional Silica Nanoparticles Specifically Enhance the Radiosensitivity of HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030908
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effects of targeted functionalized silica nanoparticles on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Better control of the local concentration of silica nanoparticles may facilitate their use as an adjuvant in conjunction with ionizing radiation to target cancer cells while preventing damage [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of targeted functionalized silica nanoparticles on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Better control of the local concentration of silica nanoparticles may facilitate their use as an adjuvant in conjunction with ionizing radiation to target cancer cells while preventing damage to normal cells. Hyperbranched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) was grafted onto the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles to functionalize them. The PAMAM-coated silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) were then conjugated with fluorescent dyes. Anti-HER2 antibodies were covalently attached to the labeled PCSNs. The HER2-overexpressing SK-BR3 breast cancer cell line was incubated in medium containing the PCSN probes. After incubation; the cells were exposed to X-ray radiation. Cells were counted in all samples using cell proliferation assays; and apoptotic cells were detected. The cell survival results showed that the combination of the targeted PCSN probes and radiation reduced the survival rate of SK-BR3 cells to a greater extent than when either PCSN probes, PCSNs or radiation were applied individually. The results also showed an increase in apoptosis in the SK-BR3 cells that internalized the PCSN probes and were then irradiated. Based on these data, PCSN probes act as specific radiosensitizing agents for HER2-overexpressing cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Subchronic Toxicity of Aluminum (III), Titanium (IV) and Silicon (IV) Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Alleviation with a Complex of Bioprotectors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030837
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stable suspensions of metal/metalloid oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure elemental aluminum, titanium or silicon under a layer of deionized water were used separately, or in three binary combinations, or in a ternary combination to induce subchronic intoxications in [...] Read more.
Stable suspensions of metal/metalloid oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure elemental aluminum, titanium or silicon under a layer of deionized water were used separately, or in three binary combinations, or in a ternary combination to induce subchronic intoxications in rats. To this end, the MeO-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 18 times during 6 weeks before measuring a large number of functional, biochemical, morphological and cytological indices for the organism’s status. In many respects, the Al2O3-NP was found to be the most toxic species alone and the most dangerous component of the combinations studied. Mathematical modeling with the help of the Response Surface Methodology showed that, as well as in the case of any other binary toxic combinations previously investigated by us, the organism’s response to a simultaneous exposure to any two of the MeO-NP species under study was characterized by a complex interaction between all possible types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity or superadditivity of unidirectional action and different variants of opposite effects) depending on which outcome this type was estimated for and on effect and dose levels. With any third MeO-NP species acting in the background, the type of combined toxicity displayed by the other two remained virtually the same or changed significantly, becoming either more or less unfavorable. Various harmful effects produced by the (Al2O3-NP + TiO2-NP + SiO2-NP)-combination, including its genotoxicity, were substantially attenuated by giving the rats per os during the entire exposure period a complex of innocuous bioactive substances expected to increase the organism’s antitoxic resistance. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticle-Induced Cell Death and Potential Applications in Nanomedicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030754
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell death is crucial to human health and is related to various serious diseases. Therefore, generation of new cell death regulators is urgently needed for disease treatment. Nanoparticles (NPs) are now routinely used in a variety of fields, including consumer products and medicine. [...] Read more.
Cell death is crucial to human health and is related to various serious diseases. Therefore, generation of new cell death regulators is urgently needed for disease treatment. Nanoparticles (NPs) are now routinely used in a variety of fields, including consumer products and medicine. Exhibiting stability and ease of decoration, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used in diagnosis and disease treatment. Upon entering the human body, GNPs contact human cells in the blood, targeting organs and the immune system. This property results in the disturbance of cell function and even cell death. Therefore, GNPs may act as powerful cell death regulators. However, at present, we are far from establishing a structure–activity relationship between the physicochemical properties of GNPs and cell death, and predicting GNP-induced cell death. In this review, GNPs’ size, shape, and surface properties are observed to play key roles in regulating various cell death modalities and related signaling pathways. These results could guide the design of GNPs for nanomedicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Nano-Ginseng” for Enhanced Cytotoxicity AGAINST Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020627
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Panax ginseng has high medicinal and health values. However, the various and complex components of ginseng may interact with each other, thus reducing and even reversing therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel “nano-ginseng” with definite ingredients, ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng has high medicinal and health values. However, the various and complex components of ginseng may interact with each other, thus reducing and even reversing therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel “nano-ginseng” with definite ingredients, ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol nanoparticles (Rb1/PPD NPs), completely based on the protopanaxadiol-type extracts. The optimized nano-formulations demonstrated an appropriate size (~110 nm), high drug loading efficiency (~96.8%) and capacity (~27.9 wt %), long half-time in systemic circulation (nine-fold longer than free PPD), better antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, higher accumulation at the tumor site and reduced damage to normal tissues. Importantly, this process of “nano-ginseng” production is a simple, scalable, green economy process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Interactions between ZnO Nanoparticles and Saccharides on Biological Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020486
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as a Zn supplement, because Zn plays a role in many cellular and immune functions but public concern about their potentially undesirable effects on the human body is growing. When NPs are added in food [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as a Zn supplement, because Zn plays a role in many cellular and immune functions but public concern about their potentially undesirable effects on the human body is growing. When NPs are added in food matrices, interactions between NPs and food components occur, which can affect biological systems. In this study, interactions between ZnO NPs and saccharides were investigated by measuring changes in hydrodynamic radius, zeta potential and solubility and by quantifying amounts of adsorbed saccharides on NPs; acacia honey, sugar mixtures (containing equivalent amounts of fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose) and monosaccharide solutions were used as model compounds. Biological responses of NPs dispersed in different saccharides were also evaluated in human intestinal cells and rats in terms of cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, intestinal transport and oral absorption. The results demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii and zeta potentials of NPs were highly affected by saccharides. In addition, trace nutrients influenced NP/saccharide interactions and interactive effects between saccharides on the interactions were found. NPs in all saccharides increased inhibition of cell proliferation and enhanced cellular uptake. Oral absorption of NPs was highly enhanced by 5% glucose, which is in-line with intestinal transport result. These findings show that ZnO NPs interact with saccharides and these interactions affects biological responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amorphous, Smart, and Bioinspired Polyphosphate Nano/Microparticles: A Biomaterial for Regeneration and Repair of Osteo-Articular Impairments In-Situ
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020427
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Using femur explants from mice as an in vitro model, we investigated the effect of the physiological polymer, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), on differentiation of the cells of the bone marrow in their natural microenvironment into the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In the form [...] Read more.
Using femur explants from mice as an in vitro model, we investigated the effect of the physiological polymer, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), on differentiation of the cells of the bone marrow in their natural microenvironment into the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. In the form of amorphous Ca-polyP nano/microparticles, polyP retains its function to act as both an intra- and extracellular metabolic fuel and a stimulus eliciting morphogenetic signals. The method for synthesis of the nano/microparticles with the polyanionic polyP also allowed the fabrication of hybrid particles with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid, a drug used in therapy of bone metastases in cancer patients. The results revealed that the amorphous Ca-polyP particles promote the growth/viability of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of the bone marrow cells in rat femur explants, as revealed by an upregulation of the expression of the transcription factors SOX9 (differentiation towards osteoblasts) and RUNX2 (chondrocyte differentiation). In parallel to this bone anabolic effect, incubation of the femur explants with these particles significantly reduced the expression of the gene encoding the osteoclast bone-catabolic enzyme, cathepsin-K, while the expression of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase remained unaffected. The gene expression data were supported by the finding of an increased mineralization of the cells in the femur explants in response to the Ca-polyP particles. Finally, we show that the hybrid particles of polyP complexed with zoledronic acid exhibit both the cytotoxic effect of the bisphosphonate and the morphogenetic and mineralization inducing activity of polyP. Our results suggest that the Ca-polyP nano/microparticles are not only a promising scaffold material for repairing long bone osteo-articular damages but can also be applied, as a hybrid with zoledronic acid, as a drug delivery system for treatment of bone metastases. The polyP particles are highlighted as genuine, smart, bioinspired nano/micro biomaterials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Surface Functionalization and Targeting Strategies of Liposomes in Solid Tumor Therapy: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010195
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can [...] Read more.
Surface functionalization of liposomes can play a key role in overcoming the current limitations of nanocarriers to treat solid tumors, i.e., biological barriers and physiological factors. The phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) containing anticancer agents produce fewer side effects than non-liposomal anticancer formulations, and can effectively target the solid tumors. This article reviews information about the strategies for targeting of liposomes to solid tumors along with the possible targets in cancer cells, i.e., extracellular and intracellular targets and targets in tumor microenvironment or vasculature. Targeting ligands for functionalization of liposomes with relevant surface engineering techniques have been described. Stimuli strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques have been reviewed. Finally, current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes have been discussed. Full article
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2017

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Open AccessArticle
Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles Suspension Injection in Intravenously Exposed Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122562
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanoparticles suspension injection (CNSI) has been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node mapping, and its new applications in drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on have been extensively investigated. To develop new clinical applications, the toxicity of CNSI after intravenous exposure [...] Read more.
Carbon nanoparticles suspension injection (CNSI) has been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node mapping, and its new applications in drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on have been extensively investigated. To develop new clinical applications, the toxicity of CNSI after intravenous exposure should be thoroughly investigated to ensure its safe use. Herein, we studied the bioaccumulation of CNSI in reticuloendothelial system (RES) organs and the corresponding toxicity to mice. After the intravenous injection of CNSI, no abnormal behavior of mice was observed during the 28-day observation period. The body weight increases were similar among the exposed groups and the control group. The parameters of hematology and serum biochemistry remained nearly unchanged, with very few of them showing significant changes. The low toxicity of CNSI was also reflected by the unchanged histopathological characteristics of these organs. The injection of CNSI did not induce higher apoptosis levels either. The slight oxidative stress was observed in RES organs at high dosages at day 7 post-exposure. The implication to the clinical applications and toxicological evaluations of carbon nanomaterials is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxicity of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112454
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although nanotoxicology has become a large research field, assessment of cytotoxicity is often reduced to analysis of one cell line only. Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is complex and should, preferentially, be evaluated in several cell lines with different methods and on multiple nanoparticle batches. [...] Read more.
Although nanotoxicology has become a large research field, assessment of cytotoxicity is often reduced to analysis of one cell line only. Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is complex and should, preferentially, be evaluated in several cell lines with different methods and on multiple nanoparticle batches. Here we report the toxicity of poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles in 12 different cell lines after synthesizing and analyzing 19 different nanoparticle batches and report that large variations were obtained when using different cell lines or various toxicity assays. Surprisingly, we found that nanoparticles with intermediate degradation rates were less toxic than particles that were degraded faster or more slowly in a cell-free system. The toxicity did not vary significantly with either the three different combinations of polyethylene glycol surfactants or with particle size (range 100–200 nm). No acute pro- or anti-inflammatory activity on cells in whole blood was observed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102078
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies [...] Read more.
The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply. Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods). Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. While some literature describes the challenges and opportunities to overcome the technical issues related to food industry legal guidelines, there is a lack of reviews of the current trials to overcome technological limitations related to sample preparation and microbial detection via nano and micro technologies. In this review, we primarily explore current analytical technologies, including metallic and magnetic nanomaterials, optics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy. These techniques rely on the early detection of pathogens via enhanced analytical sensitivity and specificity. In order to introduce the potential combination and comparative analysis of various advanced methods, we also reference a novel sample preparation protocol that uses microbial concentration and recovery technologies. This technology has the potential to expedite the pre-enrichment step that precedes the detection process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Targeted Delivery of siRNA with pH-Responsive Hybrid Gold Nanostars for Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102029
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we report the engineering of gold nanostars (GNS) to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) into HepG2 cells. The ligand DG-PEG-Lipoic acid (LA)-Lys-9R (hydrazone) was designed to functionalize GNS, and create the nanoparticles named as 9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone). In the ligand, 2-deoxyglucose [...] Read more.
In this work, we report the engineering of gold nanostars (GNS) to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) into HepG2 cells. The ligand DG-PEG-Lipoic acid (LA)-Lys-9R (hydrazone) was designed to functionalize GNS, and create the nanoparticles named as 9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone). In the ligand, 2-deoxyglucose (DG) is the targeting molecule, polyethylene glycol (PEG) helps to improve the dispersity and biocompatibility, 9-poly-d-arginine (9R) is employed to provide a positive surface charge and adsorb negative siRNA, and hydrazone bonds are pH-responsive and can avoid receptor-mediated endosomal recycling. Compared to GNS alone, 9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone) showed superior transfection efficiency. The expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in HepG2 and SGC7901 cells were significantly suppressed by siRNA/9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone) complex. Notably, 9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone) possessed low cytotoxicity even at high concentrations in both normal cells and tumor cells. The combination treatment of siRNA/9R/DG-GNS (hydrazone) complex inhibited the cell growth rate by more than 75%. These results verified that the pH-responsive GNS complex is a promising siRNA delivery system for cancer therapy, and it is anticipated that near-infrared absorbing GNS with good photothermal conversion efficiency can be potentially used for photothermal therapy of tumors. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Mariko Nishizaki, et al. Bioactivity of NANOZR Induced by Alkali Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 780
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18092009
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
We would like to submit the following correction to the published paper [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Therapeutic Efficacy of the Novel Stimuli-Sensitive Nano-Ferritins Containing Doxorubicin in a Head and Neck Cancer Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071555
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 15 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Doxorubicin is employed alone or in combination for the treatment of several hematological and solid malignancies; despite its efficacy, there are associated cardiotoxicity limits both in its application in patients with heart disease risk factors and also in its long-term use. HFt-MP-PAS40 is [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin is employed alone or in combination for the treatment of several hematological and solid malignancies; despite its efficacy, there are associated cardiotoxicity limits both in its application in patients with heart disease risk factors and also in its long-term use. HFt-MP-PAS40 is a genetically engineered human ferritin heavy chain (HFt)-based construct able to efficiently entrap and deliver doxorubicin to cancer cells. HF-MP-PAS contains a short motif sequence (defined as MP) responsive to proteolytic cleavage by tumor matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), located between each HFt subunit and a masking polypeptide sequence rich in proline (P), alanine (A), and serine (S) residues (PAS). This carrier displayed excellent therapeutic efficacy in a xenogenic pancreatic cancer model in vivo, leading to a significant increase in overall animal survival in treated mice. Herein, we describe the HFt-MP-PAS40-Dox efficacy against squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) with the goal of validating the application of our nano-drug for the treatment of different solid tumors. In addition, a tolerability study in healthy mice was also performed. The results indicate that HFt-MP-PAS40-Dox produced increased anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo in comparison to the free drug in several HNSCC cell lines. In the acute toxicity studies, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of HFt-MP-PAS40-Dox was about 3.5 higher than the free drug: 25 mg/kg versus 7 mg/kg doxorubicin equivalents. Importantly, evaluation of heart tissues provided evidence that doxorubicin is less cardio-toxic when encapsulated inside the ferritin carrier. In conclusion, HFt-MP-PAS40-Dox may be administered safely at higher doses compared with the free drug, resulting in superior efficacy to control HNSCC malignancies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071462
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP) treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in [...] Read more.
The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP) treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Nanotube-Ti mesh coated with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) was manufactured by an anodizing and a sintering method, respectively. An 8 mm diameter defect was created on each acetabulum of eight rabbits, then treated by grafting materials and covered by Ti meshes. At four and eight weeks, postoperatively, biopsies were performed for histomorphometric analyses. The newly-formed bone layers under cyclic precalcified anodized Ti (CP-AT) meshes were superior with regard to the mineralized area at both four and eight weeks, as compared with that under untreated Ti meshes. Active bone regeneration at 2–4 weeks was stronger than at 6–8 weeks, particularly with treated biphasic ceramic (p < 0.05). CP improved the bioactivity of Ti meshes and biphasic grafting materials. Moreover, the precalcified nanotubular Ti meshes could enhance early contact bone formation on the mesh and, therefore, may reduce the collapse of Ti meshes into the defect, increasing the sufficiency of acetabular reconstruction. Finally, cyclic precalcification did not affect bone regeneration by biphasic grafting materials in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevention of Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein-Induced Endothelial Cell Injury by DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD Nanoparticles Combined with Ultrasound
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040815
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
In general, atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation. Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis, but it was not considered for long-term administration on account of a poor pharmacokinetic profile and adverse side effects. Nanoparticles in which drugs can be [...] Read more.
In general, atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation. Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis, but it was not considered for long-term administration on account of a poor pharmacokinetic profile and adverse side effects. Nanoparticles in which drugs can be dissolved, encapsulated, entrapped or chemically attached to the particle surface have abilities to incorporate dexamethasone and to be used as controlled or targeted drug delivery system. Long circulatory polymeric nanoparticles present as an assisting approach for controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated drug at the atherosclerotic site. Polymeric nanoparticles combined with ultrasound (US) are widely applied in cancer treatment due to their time applications, low cost, simplicity, and safety. However, there are few studies on atherosclerosis treatment using polymeric nanoparticles combined with US. In this study, targeted dexamethasone acetate (DA)-loaded poly (lactide-glycolide)-polyethylene glycol-cRGD (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) nanoparticles (DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs) were prepared by the emulsion-evaporation method using cRGD modified PLGA-PEG polymeric materials (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) prepared as the carrier. The average particle size of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs was 221.6 ± 0.9 nm. Morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical and uniformly dispersed. In addition, the DA released profiles suggested that ultrasound could promote drug release from the nanocarriers and accelerate the rate of release. In vitro, the cellular uptake process of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)@DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US into the damaged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) indicated that US promoted rapid intracellular uptake of [email protected] PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs. The cell viability of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US reached 91.9% ± 0.2%, which demonstrated that DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US had a positive therapeutic effect on damaged HUVECs. Overall, DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs in combination with US may provide a promising drug delivery system to enhance the therapeutic effects of these chemotherapeutics at the cellular level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioactivity of NANOZR Induced by Alkali Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040780
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, zirconia has been a recognized implant material in clinical dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the performance of an alkali-modified ceria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (NANOZR) implant by assessing surface morphology and composition, wettability, bovine [...] Read more.
In recent years, zirconia has been a recognized implant material in clinical dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the performance of an alkali-modified ceria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (NANOZR) implant by assessing surface morphology and composition, wettability, bovine serum albumin adsorption rate, rat bone marrow (RBM) cell attachment, and capacity for inducing bone differentiation. NANOZR surfaces without and with alkali treatment served as the control and test groups, respectively. RBM cells were seeded in a microplate with the implant and cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, and their differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) production, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. The alkali-treated NANOZR surface increased ALP activity, OCN production, calcium deposition, and osteogenesis-related gene expression in attached RBM cells. These data suggest that alkali treatment enhances the osteogenesis-inducing capacity of NANOZR implants and may therefore improve their biointegration into alveolar bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030569
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance [...] Read more.
Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance by numerous human and animal bacterial pathogens. As a result, an increasing number of microorganisms are resistant to multiple antibiotics causing continuing economic losses in dairy farming. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative, cost-effective, and efficient antimicrobial agents that overcome antimicrobial resistance. Here, AgNPs synthesized using the bio-molecule quercetin were characterized using various analytical techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were highly spherical in shape and had an average size of 11 nm. We evaluated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against two MDR pathogenic bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from milk samples produced by mastitis-infected goats. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that AgNPs exert antibacterial effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results from the present study demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and leakage of proteins and sugars in bacterial cells. Results of the present study showed that AgNP-treated bacteria had significantly lower lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to the control. Furthermore, AgNP-treated bacteria showed downregulated expression of glutathione (GSH), upregulation of glutathione S-transferase (GST), and downregulation of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These physiological and biochemical measurements were consistently observed in AgNP-treated bacteria, thereby suggesting that AgNPs can induce bacterial cell death. Thus, the above results represent conclusive findings on the mechanism of action of AgNPs against different types of bacteria. This study also demonstrates the promising use of nanoparticles as antibacterial agents for use in the biotechnology and biomedical industry. Furthermore, this study is the first to propose the mode of action of AgNPs against MDR pathogens isolated from goats infected with subclinical mastitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters in Cancer Cells: Cellular Uptake, Toxicity, and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020378
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, photoluminescent gold nanoclusters have attracted considerable interest in both fundamental biomedical research and practical applications. Due to their ultrasmall size, unique molecule-like optical properties, and facile synthesis gold nanoclusters have been considered very promising photoluminescent agents for biosensing, bioimaging, and [...] Read more.
In recent years, photoluminescent gold nanoclusters have attracted considerable interest in both fundamental biomedical research and practical applications. Due to their ultrasmall size, unique molecule-like optical properties, and facile synthesis gold nanoclusters have been considered very promising photoluminescent agents for biosensing, bioimaging, and targeted therapy. Yet, interaction of such ultra-small nanoclusters with cells and other biological objects remains poorly understood. Therefore, the assessment of the biocompatibility and potential toxicity of gold nanoclusters is of major importance before their clinical application. In this study, the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of bovine serum albumin-encapsulated (BSA-Au NCs) and 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES)capped photoluminescent gold nanoclusters (Au-MES NCs) were investigated. The results showed that BSA-Au NCs accumulate in cells in a similar manner as BSA alone, indicating an endocytotic uptake mechanism while ultrasmall Au-MES NCs were distributed homogeneously throughout the whole cell volume including cell nucleus. The cytotoxicity of BSA-Au NCs was negligible, demonstrating good biocompatibility of such BSA-protected Au NCs. In contrast, possibly due to ultrasmall size and thin coating layer, Au-MES NCs exhibited exposure time-dependent high cytotoxicity and higher reactivity which led to highly increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The results demonstrate the importance of the coating layer to biocompatibility and toxicity of ultrasmall photoluminescent gold nanoclusters. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Current State of Nanoparticle-Induced Macrophage Polarization and Reprogramming Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020336
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macrophages are vital regulators of the host defense in organisms. In response to different local microenvironments, resting macrophages (M0) can be polarized into different phenotypes, pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2), and perform different roles in different physiological or pathological conditions. Polarized macrophages can [...] Read more.
Macrophages are vital regulators of the host defense in organisms. In response to different local microenvironments, resting macrophages (M0) can be polarized into different phenotypes, pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2), and perform different roles in different physiological or pathological conditions. Polarized macrophages can also be further reprogrammed by reversing their phenotype according to the changed milieu. Macrophage polarization and reprogramming play essential roles in maintaining the steady state of the immune system and are involved in the processes of many diseases. As foreign substances, nanoparticles (NPs) mainly target macrophages after entering the body. NPs can perturb the polarization and reprogramming of macrophages, affect their immunological function and, therefore, affect the pathological process of disease. Optimally-designed NPs for the modulation of macrophage polarization and reprogramming might provide new solutions for treating diseases. Systematically investigating how NPs affect macrophage polarization is crucial for understanding the regulatory effects of NPs on immune cells in vivo. In this review, macrophage polarization by NPs is summarized and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Biological Activities of Metallic Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010120
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (6680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS produced by metallic NPs correlates with particle size, shape, surface area, and chemistry. ROS possess multiple functions in cellular biology, with ROS generation a key factor in metallic NP-induced toxicity, as well as modulation of cellular signaling involved in cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review, we briefly explained NP classes and their biomedical applications and describe the sources and roles of ROS in NP-related biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we also described the roles of metal NP-induced ROS generation in stem cell biology. Although the roles of ROS in metallic NP-related biological functions requires further investigation, modulation and characterization of metallic NP-induced ROS production are promising in the application of metallic NPs in the areas of regenerative medicine and medical devices. Full article
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2016

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Open AccessArticle
Multifunctional Composite Microcapsules for Oral Delivery of Insulin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010054
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we designed and developed a new drug delivery system of multifunctional composite microcapsules for oral administration of insulin. Firstly, in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency, insulin was complexed with functional sodium deoxycholate to form insulin-sodium deoxycholate complex using hydrophobic [...] Read more.
In this study, we designed and developed a new drug delivery system of multifunctional composite microcapsules for oral administration of insulin. Firstly, in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency, insulin was complexed with functional sodium deoxycholate to form insulin-sodium deoxycholate complex using hydrophobic ion pairing method. Then the complex was encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles by emulsion solvent diffusion method. The PLGA nanoparticles have a mean size of 168 nm and a zeta potential of −29.2 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was increased to 94.2% for the complex. In order to deliver insulin to specific gastrointestinal regions and reduce the burst release of insulin from PLGA nanoparticles, hence enhancing the bioavailability of insulin, enteric targeting multifunctional composite microcapsules were further prepared by encapsulating PLGA nanoparticles into pH-sensitive hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate (HP55) using organic spray-drying method. A pH-dependent insulin release profile was observed for this drug delivery system in vitro. All these strategies help to enhance the encapsulation efficiency, control the drug release, and protect insulin from degradation. In diabetic fasted rats, administration of the composite microcapsules produced a great enhancement in the relative bioavailability, which illustrated that this formulation was an effective candidate for oral insulin delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122077
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used [...] Read more.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells) and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP). The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells) and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells). These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111936
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the [...] Read more.
The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091534
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
Cited by 211 | PDF Full-text (4821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in [...] Read more.
Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Prostate-Specific Membrane-Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Micelle-Encapsulating Wogonin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation via Inducing Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050676
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor for which there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we developed a targeted strategy for prostate-specific membrane-antigen (PSMA)-positive PCa in vitro based on 2-(3-((S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)ureido) pentanedioic acid (ACUPA) modified polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Cholesterol micelles [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor for which there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we developed a targeted strategy for prostate-specific membrane-antigen (PSMA)-positive PCa in vitro based on 2-(3-((S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)ureido) pentanedioic acid (ACUPA) modified polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Cholesterol micelles containing wogonin (WOG), which was named ACUPA-M-WOG. ACUPA-M-WOG was conventionally prepared using a self-assembling method, which produced stable particle size and ζ potential. Moreover, ACUPA-M-WOG showed good drug encapsulating capacity and drug release profiles. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) results suggested that ACUPA modified PEG-Cholesterol micelles could effectively enhance the drug uptake on PSMA(+) PCa cells, and the cytotoxicity of ACUPA-M-WOG was stronger than other controls according to in vitro cellular proliferation and apoptosis assays, separately through methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of ACUPA-M-WOG’s effects on human PSMA(+) PCa were investigated, and were mainly the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. The Western blot results suggested that ACUPA-M-WOG could enhance the WOG-induced apoptosis, which was mainly via the intrinsic signaling pathway rather than the extrinsic signaling pathway. In conclusion, ACUPA-M-WOG was successfully developed for WOG-selective delivery to PSMA(+) PCa cells and had stronger inhibition than free drugs, which might make it an effective strategy for PSMA(+) PCa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040550
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 [...] Read more.
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030380
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in [...] Read more.
The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox) was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Behavior of Fungal Extracellular Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030329
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a Fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °C for 96 h. The biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Structural confirmation was [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a Fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °C for 96 h. The biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Structural confirmation was evident from the characteristic X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, high-resolution transmission electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and the particle size analyzer. The Ag nanoparticles were of dimension 40 ± 5 nm and spherical in shape. The study mainly focused on using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to examine the cytotoxic activities of fungal synthesized Ag nanoparticles on a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 cell, which featured remarkable vacuolation, thus indicating a potent cytotoxic activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silica Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Autophagy but Not Apoptosis in the MRC-5 Cell Line
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29398-29416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226171
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (11313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Our study showed a decreased cell viability and the induction of cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products after 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as a decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and protein sulfhydryl groups. The protein expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 decreased at all time intervals, while the level of protein Hsp70 remained unchanged during the exposure. Similarly, the expression of p53, MDM2 and Bcl-2 was significantly decreased for all time intervals, while the expression of Bax, a marker for apoptosis, was insignificantly downregulated. These results correlated with the increase of pro-caspase 3 expression. The role of autophagy in cellular response to SiO2 NPs was demonstrated by a fluorescence-labeled method and by an increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Taken together, our data suggested that SiO2 NPs induced ROS-mediated autophagy in MRC-5 cells as a possible mechanism of cell survival. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intravenous Administration of Cilostazol Nanoparticles Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Stroke in a Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29329-29344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226166
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It was reported that cilostazol (CLZ) suppressed disruption of the microvasculature in ischemic areas. In this study, we have designed novel injection formulations containing CLZ nanoparticles using 0.5% methylcellulose, 0.2% docusate sodium salt, and mill methods (CLZnano dispersion; particle size 81 ± [...] Read more.
It was reported that cilostazol (CLZ) suppressed disruption of the microvasculature in ischemic areas. In this study, we have designed novel injection formulations containing CLZ nanoparticles using 0.5% methylcellulose, 0.2% docusate sodium salt, and mill methods (CLZnano dispersion; particle size 81 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D.), and investigated their toxicity and usefulness in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury model (MCAO/reperfusion mice). The pharmacokinetics of injections of CLZnano dispersions is similar to that of CLZ solutions prepared with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and no changes in the rate of hemolysis of rabbit red blood cells, a model of cell injury, were observed with CLZnano dispersions. In addition, the intravenous injection of 0.6 mg/kg CLZnano dispersions does not affect the blood pressure and blood flow, and the 0.6 mg/kg CLZnano dispersions ameliorate neurological deficits and ischemic stroke in MCAO/reperfusion mice. It is possible that the CLZnano dispersions will provide effective therapy for ischemic stroke patients, and that injection preparations of lipophilic drugs containing drug nanoparticles expand their therapeutic usage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27967-27977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126066
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) [...] Read more.
The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co3O4 > NiO > TiO2. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%–92% and 78%–82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%–95% and 72%–94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safety Profile of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanofabrics for Indoor Formaldehyde Degradation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27721-27729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126055
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35) fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded [...] Read more.
Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) are synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded onto the surface of polyester-cotton (65/35) fabrics. The nanofabrics degrade formaldehyde at an efficiency of 77% in eight hours with visible light irradiation or 97% with UV light. The loaded TNPs display very little release from nanofabrics (~0.0%) during a standard fastness to rubbing test. Assuming TNPs may fall off nanofabrics during their life cycles, we also examine the possible toxicity of TNPs to human cells. We found that up to a concentration of 220 μg/mL, they do not affect viability of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 macrophages and human liver and kidney cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pooling and Analysis of Published in Vitro Data: A Proof of Concept Study for the Grouping of Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26211-26236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125954
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The study aim was to test the applicability of pooling of nanomaterials-induced in vitro data for identifying the toxic capacity of specific (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 and carbon nanotubes, [CNT]) nanoparticles (NP) and to test the usefulness [...] Read more.
The study aim was to test the applicability of pooling of nanomaterials-induced in vitro data for identifying the toxic capacity of specific (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, CeO2 and carbon nanotubes, [CNT]) nanoparticles (NP) and to test the usefulness for grouping purposes. Publication selection was based on specific criteria regarding experimental conditions. Two relevant biological endpoints were selected; generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and viability above 90%. The correlations of the ROS ratios with the NP parameters’ size, concentration, and exposure time were analysed. The obtained data sets were then analysed with multiple regression analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey post-hoc test. The results show that this method is applicable for the selected metal oxide NP, but might need reconsideration and a larger data set for CNT. Several statistically significant correlations and results were obtained, thus validating the method. Furthermore, the relevance of the combination of ROS release with a cell viability test was shown. The data also show that it is advisable to compare ROS production of professional phagocytic with non-phagocytic cells. In conclusion, this is the first systematic analysis showing that pooling of available data into groups is a useful method for evaluation of data regarding NP induced toxicity in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25214-25233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161025214
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (4290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the [...] Read more.
Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg) or proline (rGO + Pro). The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Growth and Biofilm Formation after Treatment with Antibiotics and SeNPs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24656-24672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161024656
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (2118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Due to its resistance, it is difficult to manage the infections caused by this strain. We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs)—ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin—and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with these ATBs. The results suggest the strong inhibition effect of SeNPs in complexes with conventional ATBs. Using the impedance method, a higher disruption of biofilms was observed after the application of ATB complexes with SeNPs compared to the group exposed to ATBs without SeNPs. The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99% ± 7% for S. aureus and up to 94% ± 4% for MRSA) after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79% ± 5% and MRSA up to 16% ± 2% only. The obtained results provide a basis for the use of SeNPs as a tool for the treatment of bacterial infections, which can be complicated because of increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional ATB drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Analysis of Crystalline R(+)-α-Lipoic Acid-α-cyclodextrin Complex Based on Microscopic and Spectroscopic Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24614-24628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161024614
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
R(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) is a naturally-occurring substance, and its protein-bound form plays significant role in the energy metabolism in the mitochondria. RALA is vulnerable to a variety of physical stimuli, including heat and UV light, which prompted us to study the stability [...] Read more.
R(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) is a naturally-occurring substance, and its protein-bound form plays significant role in the energy metabolism in the mitochondria. RALA is vulnerable to a variety of physical stimuli, including heat and UV light, which prompted us to study the stability of its complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). In this study, we have prepared and purified a crystalline RALA-αCD complex and evaluated its properties in the solid state. The results of 1H NMR and PXRD analyses indicated that the crystalline RALA-αCD complex is a channel type complex with a molar ratio of 2:3 (RALA:α-CD). Attenuated total reflection/Fourier transform infrared analysis of the complex showed the shift of the C=O stretching vibration of RALA due to the formation of the RALA-αCD complex. Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed the significant weakness of the S–S and C–S stretching vibrations of RALA in the RALA-αCD complex implying that the dithiolane ring of RALA is almost enclosed in glucose ring of α-CD. Extent of this effect was dependent on the direction of the excitation laser to the hexagonal morphology of the crystal. Solid-state NMR analysis allowed for the chemical shift of the C=O peak to be precisely determined. These results suggested that RALA was positioned in the α-CD cavity with its 1,2-dithiolane ring orientated perpendicular to the plane of the α-CD ring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Liver Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs) Due to Oxidative Stress in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23279-23299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161023279
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (3218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the applications of quantum dots (QDs) expanding, many studies have described the potential adverse effects of QDs, yet little attention has been paid to potential toxicity of QDs in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
With the applications of quantum dots (QDs) expanding, many studies have described the potential adverse effects of QDs, yet little attention has been paid to potential toxicity of QDs in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs in mice and murine hepatoma cells alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12). CdTe QDs administration significantly increased the level of lipid peroxides marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in the livers of treated mice. Furthermore, CdTe QDs caused cytotoxicity in AML 12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was likely mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of apoptosis. An increase in ROS generation with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the pro-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and a decrease in the anti-apoptosis gene Bax, suggested that a mitochondria mediated pathway was involved in CdTe QDs’ induced apoptosis. Finally, we showed that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) deficiency blocked induced oxidative stress to protect cells from injury induced by CdTe QDs. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in the activation of Nrf2 signaling that confers protection against CdTe QDs-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II) Oxide and Manganese(II, III) Oxide Nanoparticles’ Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22555-22583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160922555
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (3514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean (±s.d.) diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected [...] Read more.
Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean (±s.d.) diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP) to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC) comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment) of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn3O4-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn3O4-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn3O4-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Parathyroid Hormone-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles in Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20492-20510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920492
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, containing human parathyroid hormone (PTH (1–34)), prepared by a modified double emulsion-solvent diffusion-evaporation method, were incorporated in porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds. The PTH-loaded nanoparticles (NPTH) were characterised in terms of morphology, size, protein loading, release kinetics [...] Read more.
Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, containing human parathyroid hormone (PTH (1–34)), prepared by a modified double emulsion-solvent diffusion-evaporation method, were incorporated in porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds. The PTH-loaded nanoparticles (NPTH) were characterised in terms of morphology, size, protein loading, release kinetics and in vitro assessment of biological activity of released PTH and cytocompatibility studies against clonal human osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Structural integrity of incorporated and released PTH from nanoparticles was found to be intact by using Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE. In vitro PTH release kinetics from PLGA nanoparticles were characterised by a burst release followed by a slow release phase for 3–4 weeks. The released PTH was biologically active as evidenced by the stimulated release of cyclic AMP from hFOB cells as well as increased mineralisation studies. in vitro and cell studies demonstrated that the PTH bioactivity was maintained during the fabrication of PLGA nanoparticles and upon release. Finally, a content of 33.3% w/w NPTHs was incorporated in CH-G scaffolds, showing an intermittent release during the first 10 days and, followed by a controlled release over 28 days of observation time. The increased expression of Alkaline Phosphatase levels on hFOB cells further confirmed the activity of intermittently released PTH from scaffolds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Hybrid Nanomaterial Based on Self-Assembly of Cyclodextrins and Cobalt Prussian Blue Analogue Nanocubes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 14594-14607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160714594
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Supramolecular self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a useful approach to developing new functional nanomaterials. In this work, we used a cobalt Prussian blue analogue (PBA, Co3[Co(CN)6]2) compound and a β-cyclodextrin (CD) macrocycle to develop a novel [...] Read more.
Supramolecular self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a useful approach to developing new functional nanomaterials. In this work, we used a cobalt Prussian blue analogue (PBA, Co3[Co(CN)6]2) compound and a β-cyclodextrin (CD) macrocycle to develop a novel host-guest PBA-CD nanomaterial. The preparation of the functional magnetic material involved the self-assembly of CD molecules onto a PBA surface by a co-precipitation method. According to transmission electronic microscopy results, PBA-CD exhibited a polydisperse structure composed of 3D nanocubes with a mean edge length of 85 nm, which became shorter after CD incorporation. The supramolecular arrangement and structural, crystalline and thermal properties of the hybrid material were studied in detail by vibrational and electronic spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction. The cyclic voltammogram of the hybrid material in a 0.1 mol·L−1 NaCl supporting electrolyte exhibited a quasi-reversible redox process, attributed to Co2+/Co3+ conversion, with an E1/2 value of 0.46 V (vs. SCE), with higher reversibility observed for the system in the presence of CD. The standard rate constants for PBA and PBA-CD were determined to be 0.07 and 0.13 s−1, respectively, which suggests that the interaction between the nanocubes and CD at the supramolecular level improves electron transfer. We expect that the properties observed for the hybrid material make it a potential candidate for (bio)sensing designs with a desirable capability for drug delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped CdTe/CdSe Near-Infrared Quantum Dots for Cell Imaging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11500-11508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160511500
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
These glutathione (GSH)-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). [...] Read more.
These glutathione (GSH)-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Results revealed that the QD nanoparticles exhibited good dispersity, a uniform size distribution and tunable fluorescence emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In addition, these nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and photoluminescence in cell imaging. In particular, this type of core/shell NIR QDs may have potential applications in molecular imaging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9484-9503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059484
Received: 15 March 2015 / Revised: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but [...] Read more.
Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of MgO Nanoparticles and Their Effect on the Expression of ROS Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7551-7564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047551
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water-dispersible MgO nanoparticles were tested to investigate their cytotoxic effects on oxidative stress gene expression. In this in vitro study, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase, were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (molecular level) and [...] Read more.
Water-dispersible MgO nanoparticles were tested to investigate their cytotoxic effects on oxidative stress gene expression. In this in vitro study, genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase, were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reactions (molecular level) and molecular beacon technologies (cellular level). The monodispersed MgO nanoparticles, 20 nm in size, were used to treat human cancer cell lines (liver cancer epithelial cells) at different concentrations (25, 75 and 150 µg/mL) and incubation times (24, 48 and 72 h). Both the genetic and cellular cytotoxic screening methods produced consistent results, showing that GST and catalase ROS gene expression was maximized at 150 µg/mL nanoparticle treatment with 48 h incubation. However, the genotoxic effect of MgO nanoparticles was not significant compared with control experiments, which indicates its significant potential applications in nanomedicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Investigation of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates for Controlled Release Doxorubicin: Effect of Degree of Substitution of Deoxycholic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7195-7209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047195
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD) chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as the model [...] Read more.
Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD) chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS) of deoxycholic acid (DOCA) were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin–mediated cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tumour Cell Membrane Poration and Ablation by Pulsed Low-Intensity Electric Field with Carbon Nanotubes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 6890-6901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16046890
Received: 3 February 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 26 March 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroporation is a physical method to increase permeabilization of cell membrane by electrical pulses. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can potentially act like “lighting rods” or exhibit direct physical force on cell membrane under alternating electromagnetic fields thus reducing the required field strength. A cell [...] Read more.
Electroporation is a physical method to increase permeabilization of cell membrane by electrical pulses. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can potentially act like “lighting rods” or exhibit direct physical force on cell membrane under alternating electromagnetic fields thus reducing the required field strength. A cell poration/ablation system was built for exploring these effects of CNTs in which two-electrode sets were constructed and two perpendicular electric fields could be generated sequentially. By applying this system to breast cancer cells in the presence of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), the effective pulse amplitude was reduced to 50 V/cm (main field)/15 V/cm (alignment field) at the optimized pulse frequency (5 Hz) of 500 pulses. Under these conditions instant cell membrane permeabilization was increased to 38.62%, 2.77-fold higher than that without CNTs. Moreover, we also observed irreversible electroporation occurred under these conditions, such that only 39.23% of the cells were viable 24 h post treatment, in contrast to 87.01% cell viability without presence of CNTs. These results indicate that CNT-enhanced electroporation has the potential for tumour cell ablation by significantly lower electric fields than that in conventional electroporation therapy thus avoiding potential risks associated with the use of high intensity electric pulses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Silk Fibroin-Based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4880-4903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034880
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 1 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (1425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein-based biomacromolecule with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. The development of SF-based nanoparticles for drug delivery have received considerable attention due to high binding capacity for various drugs, controlled drug release properties and mild preparation conditions. By [...] Read more.
Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein-based biomacromolecule with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. The development of SF-based nanoparticles for drug delivery have received considerable attention due to high binding capacity for various drugs, controlled drug release properties and mild preparation conditions. By adjusting the particle size, the chemical structure and properties, the modified or recombinant SF-based nanoparticles can be designed to improve the therapeutic efficiency of drugs encapsulated into these nanoparticles. Therefore, they can be used to deliver small molecule drugs (e.g., anti-cancer drugs), protein and growth factor drugs, gene drugs, etc. This paper reviews recent progress on SF-based nanoparticles, including chemical structure, properties, and preparation methods. In addition, the applications of SF-based nanoparticles as carriers for therapeutic drugs are also reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nanoparticles of Copper Stimulate Angiogenesis at Systemic and Molecular Level
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4838-4849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034838
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 3 March 2015
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (2972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper is a key element affecting blood vessel growth and muscle development. However, the ions released from Cu salts are toxic. Given their specific physicochemical properties, nanoparticles of Cu (NanoCu) may have different bioactivity and affect the development of blood vessel and muscles [...] Read more.
Copper is a key element affecting blood vessel growth and muscle development. However, the ions released from Cu salts are toxic. Given their specific physicochemical properties, nanoparticles of Cu (NanoCu) may have different bioactivity and affect the development of blood vessel and muscles in a different manner than Cu salts. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of NanoCu on embryo development and angiogenesis at the systemic and molecular level, in experiments using a chick embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into a control group, and groups injected with a placebo, CuSO4 or NanoCu. Embryo development at the whole body level and molecular indices using an embryo chorioallantoic membrane model were measured during embryogenesis. The present study indicated for the first time that NanoCu have pro-angiogenic properties at the systemic level, to a greater degree than CuSO4 salt. The properties of NanoCu were confirmed at the molecular level, demonstrating significant effects on mRNA concentration and on mRNA gene expression of all pro-angiogenic and pro-proliferative genes measured herein. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Development of Biodegradable Nanocarriers Loaded with a Monoclonal Antibody
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3990-3995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023990
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 21 January 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Treatments utilizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics against intracellular protein-protein interactions in cancer cells have been hampered by several factors, including poor intracellular uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation. Our current work examines the feasibility of encapsulating monoclonal antibodies within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Treatments utilizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics against intracellular protein-protein interactions in cancer cells have been hampered by several factors, including poor intracellular uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation. Our current work examines the feasibility of encapsulating monoclonal antibodies within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles using a water/oil/water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. This method can be used to prepare protective polymeric nanoparticles for transporting functional antibodies to the cytoplasmic compartment of cancer cells. Nanoparticles were formulated and then characterized using a number of physical and biological parameters. The average nanoparticle size ranged from 221 to 252 nm with a low polydispersity index. Encapsulation efficiency of 16%–22% and antibody loading of 0.3%–1.12% were observed. The antibody molecules were released from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner and upon release maintained functionality. Our studies achieved successful formulation of antibody loaded polymeric nanoparticles, thus indicating that a PLGA-based antibody nanoformulation is a promising intracellular delivery vehicle for a large number of new intracellular antibody targets in cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Promote Cementoblast Differentiation and Mineralization through the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3188-3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023188
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excretion of cementum by cementoblasts on the root surface is a process indispensable for the formation of a functional periodontal ligament. This study investigated whether carboxyl group-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) could enhance differentiation and mineralization of mammalian cementoblasts (OCCM-30) and the possible [...] Read more.
Excretion of cementum by cementoblasts on the root surface is a process indispensable for the formation of a functional periodontal ligament. This study investigated whether carboxyl group-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) could enhance differentiation and mineralization of mammalian cementoblasts (OCCM-30) and the possible signaling pathway involved in this process. Cementoblasts were incubated with various doses of MWCNT-COOH suspension. Cell viability was detected, and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observed both the nanomaterials and the growth of cells cultured with the materials. Alizarin red staining was used to investigate the formation of calcium deposits. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect cementoblast differentiation and the underlying mechanisms through the expression of the osteogenic genes and the downstream effectors of the TGF-β/Smad signaling. The results showed that 5 µg/mL MWCNT-COOH had the most obvious effects on promoting differentiation without significant toxicity. Alp, Ocn, Bsp, Opn, Col1 and Runx2 gene expression was up-regulated. Smad2 and Smad3 mRNA was up-regulated, while Smad7 was first down-regulated on Day 3 and later up-regulated on Day 7. The elevated levels of phospho-Smad2/3 were also confirmed by western blot. In sum, the MWCNT-COOH promoted cementoblast differentiation and mineralization, at least partially, through interactions with the TGF-β/Smad pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Synthesis of a Maghemite/Gold Hybrid Nanoparticle System as a Magnetic Carrier for the Transport of Platinum-Based Metallotherapeutics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2034-2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16012034
Received: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The preparation and thorough characterization of a hybrid magnetic carrier system for the possible transport of activated platinum-based anticancer drugs, as demonstrated for cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], CDDP), are described. The final functionalized mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system consists of [...] Read more.
The preparation and thorough characterization of a hybrid magnetic carrier system for the possible transport of activated platinum-based anticancer drugs, as demonstrated for cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], CDDP), are described. The final functionalized mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system consists of maghemite/gold nanoparticles (mag/Au) coated by lipoic acid (HLA; LA stands for deprotonated form of lipoic acid) and functionalized by activated cisplatin in the form of cis-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)2]2+ (CDDP*). The relevant techniques (XPS, EDS, ICP-MS) proved the incorporation of the platinum-containing species on the surface of the studied hybrid system. HRTEM, TEM and SEM images showed the nanoparticles as spherical with an average size of 12 nm, while their superparamagnetic feature was proven by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the case of mag/Au, mag/Au–HLA and mag/Au–LA–CDDP*, weaker magnetic interactions among the Fe3+ centers of maghemite, as compared to maghemite nanoparticles (mag), were detected, which can be associated with the non-covalent coating of the maghemite surface by gold. The pH and time-dependent stability of the mag/Au–LA–CDDP* system in different media, represented by acetate (pH 5.0), phosphate (pH 7.0) and carbonate (pH 9.0) buffers and connected with the release of the platinum-containing species, showed the ability of CDDP* to be released from the functionalized nanosystem. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms and Implications of Dual-Acting Methotrexate in Folate-Targeted Nanotherapeutic Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1772-1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16011772
Received: 23 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rational design of a nanoplatform in drug delivery plays a crucial role in determining its targeting specificity and efficacy in vivo. A conventional approach relies on the surface conjugation of a nanometer-sized particle with two functionally distinct types of molecules, one [...] Read more.
The rational design of a nanoplatform in drug delivery plays a crucial role in determining its targeting specificity and efficacy in vivo. A conventional approach relies on the surface conjugation of a nanometer-sized particle with two functionally distinct types of molecules, one as a targeting ligand, and the other as a therapeutic agent to be delivered to the diseased cell. However, an alternative simplified approach can be used, in which a single type of molecule displaying dual function as both a targeting ligand and therapeutic agent is conjugated to the nanoparticle. In this review, we evaluate the validity of this new strategy by using methotrexate, which displays multifunctional mechanisms of action. Methotrexate binds to the folate receptor, a surface biomarker frequently overexpressed in tumor cells, and also inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme critical for cell survival and division. Thus we describe a series of fifth generation poly(amido amine) dendrimers conjugated with methotrexate, and discuss several lines of evidence supporting the efficacy of this new platform strategy based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, enzyme activity assays, and cell-based studies with folate receptor (+) KB cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pulicaria glutinosa Extract: A Toolbox to Synthesize Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanocomposites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1131-1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16011131
Received: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 29 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A green, one-step approach for the preparation of graphene/Ag nanocomposites (PE-HRG-Ag) via simultaneous reduction of both graphene oxide (GRO) and silver ions using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract (PE) as reducing agent is reported. The plant extract functionalizes the surfaces of highly reduced graphene [...] Read more.
A green, one-step approach for the preparation of graphene/Ag nanocomposites (PE-HRG-Ag) via simultaneous reduction of both graphene oxide (GRO) and silver ions using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract (PE) as reducing agent is reported. The plant extract functionalizes the surfaces of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) which helps in conjugating the Ag NPs to HRG. Increasing amounts of Ag precursor enhanced the density of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on HRG. The preparation of PE-HRG-Ag nanocomposite is monitored by using ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The as-prepared PE-HRG-Ag nanocomposities display excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, and significantly increased the intensities of the Raman signal of graphene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Application of a Label-Free Fluorescence Method for Determining the Composition of Gold Nanoparticle–Protein Conjugates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 907-923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010907
Received: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 31 December 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A method was developed for determining the composition of the conjugates between gold nanoparticles and proteins based on the intrinsic fluorescence of unbound protein molecules. The fluorescence was evaluated after separation of the conjugates from the reaction mixture by centrifugation. Gold nanoparticles obtained [...] Read more.
A method was developed for determining the composition of the conjugates between gold nanoparticles and proteins based on the intrinsic fluorescence of unbound protein molecules. The fluorescence was evaluated after separation of the conjugates from the reaction mixture by centrifugation. Gold nanoparticles obtained using the citrate technique (average diameter 24 nm) were conjugated at pH 5.4 with the following four proteins: human immunoglobulin G (IgG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), recombinant streptococcal protein G (protein G), and Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI). The compositions of these conjugates were determined using the developed method. The conjugate compositions were dependent on the concentration of the added protein, and in all cases reached saturation. The equilibrium dissociation constants of the gold nanoparticle conjugates with IgG, BSA, protein G, STI in the initial section of the concentration dependence curve were 4, 6, 10, and 15 nM, respectively. Close to saturation, the corresponding values were 25, 76, 175, and 100 nM, respectively. The maximal binding capacities of a single gold nanoparticle for IgG, BSA, Protein G, and STI were 52, 90, 500, and 550, respectively, which agrees well with the hypothesis of monolayer immobilization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effect of Bolus Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Bleomycin-Induced Secretion of Pro-Fibrotic Cytokines without Lasting Fibrotic Changes in Murine Lungs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 660-676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010660
Received: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various products, and the safety evaluation of this manufactured material is important. The present study investigated the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various products, and the safety evaluation of this manufactured material is important. The present study investigated the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by constant subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin (BLM). Female C57BL/6Jcl mice were divided into BLM-treated and non-treated groups. In each treatment group, 0, 10, 20 or 30 µg of ZnO nanoparticles were delivered into the lungs through pharyngeal aspiration. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lungs were sampled at Day 10 or 14 after administration. Pulmonary exposure by a single bolus of ZnO nanoparticles resulted in severe, but transient inflammatory infiltration and thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs, along with the increase of total and differential cell counts in BLAF. The BALF level of interleukin (IL)-1β and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased at Day 10 and 14, respectively. At Day 10, the synergistic effect of BLM and ZnO exposure was detected on IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in BALF. The present study demonstrated the synergistic effect of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and subcutaneous infusion of BLM on the secretion of pro-fibrotic cytokines in the lungs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Potential of Liposomes with Carbonic Anhydrase IX to Deliver Anticancer Ingredients to Cancer Cells in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 230-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010230
Received: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug delivery nanocarriers, especially targeted drug delivery by liposomes are emerging as a class of therapeutics for cancer. Early research results suggest that liposomal therapeutics enhanced efficacy, while simultaneously reducing side effects, owing to properties such as more targeted localization in tumors and [...] Read more.
Drug delivery nanocarriers, especially targeted drug delivery by liposomes are emerging as a class of therapeutics for cancer. Early research results suggest that liposomal therapeutics enhanced efficacy, while simultaneously reducing side effects, owing to properties such as more targeted localization in tumors and active cellular uptake. Here, we highlight the features of immunoliposomes that distinguish them from previous anticancer therapies, and describe how these features provide the potential for therapeutic effects that are not achievable with other modalities. While a large number of studies has been published, the emphasis here is placed on the carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and the conjugated liposomes that are likely to open a new chapter on drug delivery system by using immunoliposomes to deliver anticancer ingredients to cancer cells in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Systemic Delivery of Protein Nanocages Bearing CTT Peptides for Enhanced Imaging of MMP-2 Expression in Metastatic Tumor Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 148-158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010148
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in metastatic cancer tissue, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is a potential target for tumor imaging in vivo. Here, we describe a metastatic cancer cell-targeted protein nanocage. An MMP-2-binding peptide, termed CTT peptide (CTTHWGFTLC), was conjugated [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in metastatic cancer tissue, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is a potential target for tumor imaging in vivo. Here, we describe a metastatic cancer cell-targeted protein nanocage. An MMP-2-binding peptide, termed CTT peptide (CTTHWGFTLC), was conjugated to the surface of a naturally occurring heat shock protein nanocage by genetic modification. The engineered protein nanocages showed a binding affinity for MMP-2 and selective uptake in cancer cells that highly expressed MMP-2 in vitro. In near-infrared fluorescence imaging, the nanocages showed specific and significant accumulation in tumor tissue after intravenous injection in vivo. These protein nanocages conjugated with CTT peptide could be potentially applied to a noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence detection method for imaging gelatinase activity in metastatic tumors in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PLGA Biodegradable Nanoparticles Containing Perphenazine or Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride: Effect of Formulation and Release
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23909-23923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223909
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (4227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our study, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with perphenazine (PPH) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-HCl) were formulated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effect of various processing variables, including PLGA concentration, theoretical drug loading, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and the power of sonication were [...] Read more.
In our study, poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with perphenazine (PPH) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-HCl) were formulated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effect of various processing variables, including PLGA concentration, theoretical drug loading, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and the power of sonication were assessed systematically to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency and to minimize the nanoparticles size. By the optimization formulation process, the nanoparticles were obtained in submicron size from 325.5 ± 32.4 to 374.3 ± 10.1 nm for nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presented smooth surface and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles loaded with PPH and CPZ-HCl were 83.9% and 71.0%, respectively. The drug loading were 51.1% and 39.4% for PPH and CPZ-HCl, respectively. Lyophilized nanoparticles with different PLGA concentration 0.8%, 1.3% and 1.6% (w/v) in formulation process were evaluated for in vitro release in phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4) by using dialysis bags. The release profile for both drugs have shown that the rate of PPH and CPZ-HCl release were dependent on a size and amount of drugs in the nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Induced Cytotoxicity of Doxorubicin by Using Apoferritin and Liposomal Cages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22960-22977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151222960
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (3483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug, however, its toxicity is a significant limitation in therapy. Encapsulation of doxorubicin inside liposomes or ferritin cages decreases cardiotoxicity while maintaining anticancer potency. We synthesized novel apoferritin- and liposome-encapsulated forms of doxorubicin (“Apodox” and “lip-8-dox”) and compared [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug, however, its toxicity is a significant limitation in therapy. Encapsulation of doxorubicin inside liposomes or ferritin cages decreases cardiotoxicity while maintaining anticancer potency. We synthesized novel apoferritin- and liposome-encapsulated forms of doxorubicin (“Apodox” and “lip-8-dox”) and compared its toxicity with doxorubicin and Myocet on prostate cell lines. Three different prostatic cell lines PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP were chosen. The toxicity of the modified doxorubicin forms was compared to conventional doxorubicin using the MTT assay, real-time cell impedance-based cell growth method (RTCA), and flow cytometry. The efficiency of doxorubicin entrapment was 56% in apoferritin cages and 42% in the liposome carrier. The accuracy of the RTCA system was verified by flow-cytometric analysis of cell viability. The doxorubicin half maximal inhibition concentrations (IC50) were determined as 170.5, 234.0, and 169.0 nM for PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP, respectively by RTCA. Lip8-dox is less toxic on the non-tumor cell line PNT1A compared to doxorubicin, while still maintaining the toxicity to tumorous cell lines similar to doxorubicin or epirubicin (IC50 = 2076.7 nM for PNT1A vs. 935.3 and 729.0 nM for 22Rv1 and LNCaP). Apodox IC50 was determined as follows: 603.1, 1344.2, and 931.2 nM for PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22563-22579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151222563
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing