Next Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Development of MicroRNA-Based SSR Markers in Medicago truncatula with Their Transferability Analysis and Utilization in Related Legume Species
Next Article in Special Issue
Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Carbon Nanoparticles Suspension Injection in Intravenously Exposed Mice
Previous Article in Journal
In-Depth Glyco-Peptidomics Approach Reveals Unexpected Diversity of Glycosylated Peptides and Atypical Post-Translational Modifications in Dendroaspis angusticeps Snake Venom
Previous Article in Special Issue
Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2454;

Cytotoxicity of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles

SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Sem Sælands vei 2A, 7034 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital—The Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0379 Oslo, Norway
Center for Cancer Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0379 Oslo, Norway
Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 8905 MH, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3387 KB, uploaded 20 November 2017]   |  


Although nanotoxicology has become a large research field, assessment of cytotoxicity is often reduced to analysis of one cell line only. Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is complex and should, preferentially, be evaluated in several cell lines with different methods and on multiple nanoparticle batches. Here we report the toxicity of poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles in 12 different cell lines after synthesizing and analyzing 19 different nanoparticle batches and report that large variations were obtained when using different cell lines or various toxicity assays. Surprisingly, we found that nanoparticles with intermediate degradation rates were less toxic than particles that were degraded faster or more slowly in a cell-free system. The toxicity did not vary significantly with either the three different combinations of polyethylene glycol surfactants or with particle size (range 100–200 nm). No acute pro- or anti-inflammatory activity on cells in whole blood was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; PACA; cytotoxicity; nanotoxicology; high-throughput screening nanoparticles; PACA; cytotoxicity; nanotoxicology; high-throughput screening

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sulheim, E.; Iversen, T.-G.; To Nakstad, V.; Klinkenberg, G.; Sletta, H.; Schmid, R.; Hatletveit, A.R.; Wågbø, A.M.; Sundan, A.; Skotland, T.; Sandvig, K.; Mørch, Ý. Cytotoxicity of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2454.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top