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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123926

Protein Food Matrix–ZnO Nanoparticle Interactions Affect Protein Conformation, but May not Be Biological Responses

1
Major of Food Science & Technology, Division of Applied Food System, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul 01797, Korea
2
Center for Nano-Bio Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 34113, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

Because of their nutritional value, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are applied as a dietary source of zinc, by direct addition to complex, multiple-component food matrices. The thereby occurring interactions of NPs with food matrices may have biological or toxic effects. In particular, NP interactions with food protein can lead to structural deformation of the latter, potentially changing its digestive efficiency and gastrointestinal absorption. In this study, interactions between ZnO NPs and a representative complex protein food matrix, skim milk, were compared with those between NPs and individual components of this food matrix (i.e., protein, saccharide, and mineral). The effects of the interactions on biological responses were investigated in terms of cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, intestinal transport, structural deformation for proteins, and digestive efficiency. The results demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs were strongly influenced by the protein matrix type, leading to an increased dispersion stability in the complex protein matrix. However, these interactions did not affect cell proliferation, membrane damage, cellular uptake, intestinal transportation, or protein digestive efficiency, although a slight conformational change of proteins was observed in the presence of ZnO NPs. In conclusion, no toxic effects were observed, suggesting the safety of NPs when added to complex food matrices. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles; interaction; protein; structural deformation; cytotoxicity; uptake; digestive efficiency zinc oxide nanoparticles; interaction; protein; structural deformation; cytotoxicity; uptake; digestive efficiency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bae, S.-H.; Yu, J.; Lee, T.G.; Choi, S.-J. Protein Food Matrix–ZnO Nanoparticle Interactions Affect Protein Conformation, but May not Be Biological Responses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3926.

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