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Open AccessArticle

Toxic Effects of Low-Level Long-Term Inhalation Exposures of Rats to Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles

1
The Medical Research Center for Prophylaxis and Health Protection in Industrial Workers, 30 Popov Str., 620014 Ekaterinburg, Russia
2
The Ural State Medical University, 17 Klyuchevskaya Str., 620109 Ekaterinburg, Russia
3
The Institute of Natural Sciences, the Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071778
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
Rats were exposed to nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NP) inhalation at 0.23 ± 0.01 mg/m3 for 4 h a day 5 times a week for up to 10 months. The rat organism responded to this impact with changes in cytological and some biochemical characteristics of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid along with a paradoxically little pronounced pulmonary pathology associated with a rather low chronic retention of nanoparticles in the lungs. There were various manifestations of systemic toxicity, including damage to the liver and kidneys; a likely allergic syndrome as indicated by some cytological signs; transient stimulation of erythropoiesis; and penetration of nickel into the brain from the nasal mucous membrane along the olfactory pathway. Against a picture of mild to moderate chronic toxicity of nickel, its in vivo genotoxic effect assessed by the degree of DNA fragmentation in nucleated blood cells (the RAPD test) was pronounced, tending to increasing with the length of the exposure period. When rats were given orally, in parallel with the toxic exposure, a set of innocuous substances with differing mechanisms of expected bioprotective action, the genotoxic effect of NiO-NPs was found to be substantially attenuated. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles; inhalation exposure; pulmonary responses; systemic toxicity; genotoxicity; bioprotectors nickel oxide nanoparticles; inhalation exposure; pulmonary responses; systemic toxicity; genotoxicity; bioprotectors
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Sutunkova, M.P.; Solovyeva, S.N.; Minigalieva, I.A.; Gurvich, V.B.; Valamina, I.E.; Makeyev, O.H.; Shur, V.Y.; Shishkina, E.V.; Zubarev, I.V.; Saatkhudinova, R.R.; Klinova, S.V.; Tsaregorodtseva, A.E.; Korotkov, A.V.; Shuman, E.A.; Privalova, L.I.; Katsnelson, B.A. Toxic Effects of Low-Level Long-Term Inhalation Exposures of Rats to Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1778.

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