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Open AccessArticle

In Vivo Immunotoxicity of [email protected](Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 as Dual-Modality Nanoprobes

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13649-13662;
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2014)
We have successfully synthesized SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 nanocomposites as a potential dual-modality nanoprobe for molecular imaging in vitro. However, their immunotoxicity assessment in vivo remains unknown. In this article, the in vitro biocompatibility of our dual-modality nanoprobes was assayed in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo immunotoxicity was investigated by monitoring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and cytokines in Balb/c mice. The data show that the in vitro biocompatibility was satisfactory. In addition, the immunotoxicity data revealed there are no significant changes in the expression levels of CD11b and CD71 between the nanoprobe group and the Gd in a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator (Gd-DTPA) group 24 h after injection in Balb/c mice (p > 0.05). Importantly, there are significant differences in the expression levels of CD206 and CD25 as well as the secretion of IL-4 and the generation of ROS 24 h after injection (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that few nanoprobes were localized in the phagosomes of liver and lung. In conclusion, the toxic effects of our nanoprobes may mainly result from the aggregation of particles in phagosomes. This accumulation may damage the microstructure of the cells and generate oxidative stress reactions that further stimulate the immune response. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the in vivo immunotoxicity of these rare earth-based biomaterials at the molecular level before molecular imaging in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotoxicity; reactive oxygen species; nanoprobe; gadolinium; europium; molecular imaging immunotoxicity; reactive oxygen species; nanoprobe; gadolinium; europium; molecular imaging
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Tian, X.; Li, E.; Yang, F.; Peng, Y.; Zhu, J.; He, F.; Chen, X. In Vivo Immunotoxicity of [email protected](Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 as Dual-Modality Nanoprobes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13649-13662.

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