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Special Issue "Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue)"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2011).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Bing Yan
Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
Interests: nanomedicine; nanotoxicity; cancer therapy; drug discovery; drug resistance; combinatorial chemistry; analytical sciences
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials will potentially play an important role in medicine. However, we need to investigate both medicinal benefits and possible toxicity effects of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the increased manufacturing of nanomaterials and the marketing of nanomaterial-based consumer products all raised health concerns. In recent years, researchers are actively engaged in investigating how nanomaterials transport medicines or genes into targeted cells and how nanomaterials interact with protein signaling pathways, interfere cellular functions and various biological machineries. At the same time, technologies and methods are developed to make more biocompatible nanoparticles for medicinal and imaging application. This special issue includes research reports and review articles reflecting progresses and challenges in the dynamic research area.

Dr. Bing Yan
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • nanoparticle protein interactions
  • nanoparticle cell interaction
  • cancer-targeting nanoparticle
  • nanoparticle for drug delivery
  • nano-imaging agent
  • toxicity of nanoparticle or nanomaterials

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6194-6225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096194 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 15
Abstract
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
Interaction of Human Serum Album and C60 Aggregates in Solution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 4964-4974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12084964 - 04 Aug 2011
Cited by 44
Abstract
An important property of C60 in aquatic ecotoxicology is that it can form stable aggregates with nanoscale dimensions, namely nC60. Aggregation allows fullerenes to remain suspended for a long time, and the reactivity of individual C60 is substantially altered [...] Read more.
An important property of C60 in aquatic ecotoxicology is that it can form stable aggregates with nanoscale dimensions, namely nC60. Aggregation allows fullerenes to remain suspended for a long time, and the reactivity of individual C60 is substantially altered in this aggregate form. Herein, we investigated the interaction of nC60 and human serum album (HSA) using the methods of fluorescence, fluorescence dynamics, circular dichroism (CD), and site marker competitive experiments. We proposed a binding model consistent with the available experimental results for the interactions of nC60 with HSA. During the interaction process, the structure and conformation of HSA were affected, leading to functional changes of drug binding sites of HSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Anti-Tumoral Activity of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin Conjugated Nanoparticles by Targeting with Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Peptide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4591-4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074591 - 15 Jul 2011
Cited by 33
Abstract
Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in [...] Read more.
Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in many cancer cells as compared to normal cells, LHRH was used as the targeting ligand in this study. LHRH was conjugated to MTX-HSA nanoparticles via a cross-linker. Three types of LHRH targeted nanoparticles with a mean particle size between 120–138 nm were prepared. The cytotoxicity of LHRH targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were determined on the LHRH positive and negative cell lines. The internalization of the targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles in LHRH receptor positive and negative cells was investigated using flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the LHRH targeted nanoparticles on the LHRH receptor positive cells were significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. LHRH targeted nanoparticles were also internalized by LHRH receptor positive cells significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. There were no significant differences between the uptake of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles to the LHRH receptor negative cells. The active targeting procedure using LHRH targeted MTX-HSA nanoparticles could increase the anti-tumoral activity of MTX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Preparation Method for Camptothecin (CPT) Loaded Folic Acid Conjugated Dextran Tumor-Targeted Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4237-4249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074237 - 28 Jun 2011
Cited by 27
Abstract
In this study, folic-dextran-camptothecin (Fa-DEX-CPT) tumor-targeted nanoparticles were produced with a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) technique by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and carbon dioxide as an antisolvent. A factorial design was used to reveal the effect of various process parameters on [...] Read more.
In this study, folic-dextran-camptothecin (Fa-DEX-CPT) tumor-targeted nanoparticles were produced with a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) technique by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent and carbon dioxide as an antisolvent. A factorial design was used to reveal the effect of various process parameters on the mean particle size (MPS) and morphology of the particles formed. Under the optimum operation conditions, Fa-DEX-CPT nanoparticles with a MPS of 182.21 nm were obtained. Drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency were 62.13% and 36.12%, respectively. It was found that the concentrations of the camptothecin (CPT) and dextran solution had a major influence upon morphology and shape of the final product. In addition, the samples were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) with the purpose of developing a suitable targeted drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
Release of Bacteriocins from Nanofibers Prepared with Combinations of Poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2158-2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12042158 - 29 Mar 2011
Cited by 53
Abstract
Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and bacteriocin ST4SA produced by Enterococcus mundtii, were electrospun into nanofibers prepared from different combinations of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Both peptides were released from the [...] Read more.
Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and bacteriocin ST4SA produced by Enterococcus mundtii, were electrospun into nanofibers prepared from different combinations of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Both peptides were released from the nanofibers with a high initial burst and retained 88% of their original antimicrobial activity at 37 °C. Nanofibers have the potential to serve as carrier matrix for bacteriocins and open a new field in developing controlled antimicrobial delivery systems for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Investigation of Reversible Nanoscale Surface Size Dependent Protein Conjugation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 2348-2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms10052348 - 20 May 2009
Cited by 10
Abstract
1-40 coated 20 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles exhibit a reversible color change as pH is externally altered between pH 4 and 10. This reversible process may contain important information on the initial reversible step reported for the fibrillogenesis of Aβ (a hallmark [...] Read more.
1-40 coated 20 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles exhibit a reversible color change as pH is externally altered between pH 4 and 10. This reversible process may contain important information on the initial reversible step reported for the fibrillogenesis of Aβ (a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease). We examined this reversible color change by microscopic investigations. AFM images on graphite surfaces revealed the morphology of Aβ aggregates with gold colloids. TEM images clearly demonstrate the correspondence between spectroscopic features and conformational changes of the gold colloid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for the Preparation of Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 2336-2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms10052336 - 19 May 2009
Cited by 8
Abstract
The goal of present work was to investigate the use of bioerodible polymeric nanoparticles as carriers of retinoic acid (RA), which is known to induce differentiation of several cell lines into neurons. A novel method, named “Colloidal-Coating”, has been developed for the preparation [...] Read more.
The goal of present work was to investigate the use of bioerodible polymeric nanoparticles as carriers of retinoic acid (RA), which is known to induce differentiation of several cell lines into neurons. A novel method, named “Colloidal-Coating”, has been developed for the preparation of nanoparticles based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride and butyl vinyl ether (VAM41) loaded with RA. Nanoparticles with an average diameter size of 70 nm and good morphology were prepared. The activity of the encapsulated RA was evaluated on SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, which are known to undergo inhibition of proliferation and neuronal differentiation upon treatment with RA. The activity of RA was not affected by the encapsulation and purification processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant-Induced Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2091-2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022091 - 16 Feb 2012
Cited by 67
Abstract
Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in [...] Read more.
Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
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Open AccessReview
Enabling Anticancer Therapeutics by Nanoparticle Carriers: The Delivery of Paclitaxel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4395-4413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074395 - 07 Jul 2011
Cited by 48
Abstract
Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to [...] Read more.
Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to enable drug delivery due to their low toxicity, sustained drug release, molecular targeting, and additional therapeutic and imaging functions. This review takes paclitaxel as an example and compares different nanoparticle-based delivery systems for their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessReview
Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(6), 3888-3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12063888 - 10 Jun 2011
Cited by 55
Abstract
Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessReview
Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Gene Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(6), 3705-3722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12063705 - 07 Jun 2011
Cited by 89
Abstract
Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle technology is being incorporated into many areas of molecular science and biomedicine. Because nanoparticles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including the circulatory system and cells, they have been and continue to be exploited for basic biomedical research as well as clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. For example, nanoparticles hold great promise for enabling gene therapy to reach its full potential by facilitating targeted delivery of DNA into tissues and cells. Substantial progress has been made in binding DNA to nanoparticles and controlling the behavior of these complexes. In this article, we review research on binding DNAs to nanoparticles as well as our latest study on non-viral gene delivery using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessReview
Nanomedicine: Application Areas and Development Prospects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3303-3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12053303 - 19 May 2011
Cited by 74
Abstract
Nanotechnology, along with related concepts such as nanomaterials, nanostructures and nanoparticles, has become a priority area for scientific research and technological development. Nanotechnology, i.e., the creation and utilization of materials and devices at nanometer scale, already has multiple applications in electronics and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology, along with related concepts such as nanomaterials, nanostructures and nanoparticles, has become a priority area for scientific research and technological development. Nanotechnology, i.e., the creation and utilization of materials and devices at nanometer scale, already has multiple applications in electronics and other fields. However, the greatest expectations are for its application in biotechnology and health, with the direct impact these could have on the quality of health in future societies. The emerging discipline of nanomedicine brings nanotechnology and medicine together in order to develop novel therapies and improve existing treatments. In nanomedicine, atoms and molecules are manipulated to produce nanostructures of the same size as biomolecules for interaction with human cells. This procedure offers a range of new solutions for diagnoses and “smart” treatments by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms. It will enhance the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and cardiovascular diseases. Preventive medicine may then become a reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessReview
Regulation of Enzyme Activity through Interactions with Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4198-4209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms10104198 - 28 Sep 2009
Cited by 85
Abstract
The structure and function of an enzyme can be altered by nanoparticles (NPs). The interaction between enzyme and NPs is governed by the key properties of NPs, such as structure, size, surface chemistry, charge and surface shape. Recent representative studies on the NP-enzyme [...] Read more.
The structure and function of an enzyme can be altered by nanoparticles (NPs). The interaction between enzyme and NPs is governed by the key properties of NPs, such as structure, size, surface chemistry, charge and surface shape. Recent representative studies on the NP-enzyme interactions and the regulation of enzyme activity by NPs with different size, composition and surface modification are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
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