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Open AccessArticle

Combined Subchronic Toxicity of Aluminum (III), Titanium (IV) and Silicon (IV) Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Alleviation with a Complex of Bioprotectors

1
The Medical Research Center for Prophylaxis and Health Protection in Industrial Workers, 30 Popov Str., Ekaterinburg 620014, Russia
2
The Institute of Natural Sciences, The Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620000, Russia
3
The Central Research Laboratory, The Ural State Medical University, 17 Klyuchevskaya Str., Ekaterinburg 620109, Russia
4
Institute of Industrial Ecology, the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 20 Sofia Kovalevskaya Str., Ekaterinburg 620990, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030837
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
Stable suspensions of metal/metalloid oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure elemental aluminum, titanium or silicon under a layer of deionized water were used separately, or in three binary combinations, or in a ternary combination to induce subchronic intoxications in rats. To this end, the MeO-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 18 times during 6 weeks before measuring a large number of functional, biochemical, morphological and cytological indices for the organism’s status. In many respects, the Al2O3-NP was found to be the most toxic species alone and the most dangerous component of the combinations studied. Mathematical modeling with the help of the Response Surface Methodology showed that, as well as in the case of any other binary toxic combinations previously investigated by us, the organism’s response to a simultaneous exposure to any two of the MeO-NP species under study was characterized by a complex interaction between all possible types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity or superadditivity of unidirectional action and different variants of opposite effects) depending on which outcome this type was estimated for and on effect and dose levels. With any third MeO-NP species acting in the background, the type of combined toxicity displayed by the other two remained virtually the same or changed significantly, becoming either more or less unfavorable. Various harmful effects produced by the (Al2O3-NP + TiO2-NP + SiO2-NP)-combination, including its genotoxicity, were substantially attenuated by giving the rats per os during the entire exposure period a complex of innocuous bioactive substances expected to increase the organism’s antitoxic resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; subchronic effects; comparative and combined toxicity; bioprotectors nanoparticles; subchronic effects; comparative and combined toxicity; bioprotectors
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Minigalieva, I.A.; Katsnelson, B.A.; Privalova, L.I.; Sutunkova, M.P.; Gurvich, V.B.; Shur, V.Y.; Shishkina, E.V.; Valamina, I.E.; Makeyev, O.H.; Panov, V.G.; Varaksin, A.N.; Bushueva, T.V.; Sakhautdinova, R.R.; Klinova, S.V.; Solovyeva, S.N.; Meshtcheryakova, E.Y. Combined Subchronic Toxicity of Aluminum (III), Titanium (IV) and Silicon (IV) Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Alleviation with a Complex of Bioprotectors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 837.

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