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Eng. Proc., 2021, ICEPE 2021

The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment

Gujrat, Pakistan | 11–12 November 2021

Volume Editor: 
Shahid Iqbal, University of Gujrat, Pakistan

Number of Papers: 110
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment was held at the University of Gujrat on 11–12 November 2021. The conference was organized by the University of Gujrat, in [...] Read more.
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S3. Energy Efficiency

4 pages, 4418 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flow Control in Passive 3D Paper-Based Microfluidic Pump by Variable Porosity
by Syed Farhad Shah, Gohar Hussain and Ali Turab Jafry
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012003 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Active pumps are often used in microfluidic devices for programmable fluid flowrate in a microchannel. Active pumps have some drawbacks due to their large size and requirement of external power. To overcome them, a new class of passive pumps based on capillary action [...] Read more.
Active pumps are often used in microfluidic devices for programmable fluid flowrate in a microchannel. Active pumps have some drawbacks due to their large size and requirement of external power. To overcome them, a new class of passive pumps based on capillary action in cellulose material, known as paper-based microfluidic pumps, has recently been explored. In this study, fluid flow in 3D paper-based pumps was investigated using flowrate measurements in microchannels. In order to develop 3D cylindrical pumps, Whatman filter paper grade 1 was shredded, mixed with water, molded and dried. The patterned serpentine channel was created using a CO2 Laser Cutting/Engraving machine. The 3D paper-based pump was integrated with microfluidic channel. The effect of paper pumps of different porosities on the fluid flowrate through a serpentine microchannel was investigated. It was found that flowrate of the fluid flowing through the channel increases with an increase in the pump’s porosity. Moreover, these pumps have the ability to transport larger volumes of liquid with improved flowrate, programmability and control, in addition to being inexpensive and simple to design and fabricate. These 3D pumps will help researchers move closer to developing an effective miniaturized diagnostic platform for point-of-care (POC) diagnostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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S6. Renewable Energies and Technologies

4 pages, 1396 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Shedding Light on Phase Stability and Surface Engineering of Formamidinium Lead Iodide (FaPbI3) Thin Films for Solar Cells
by Julia Marí-Guaita, Amal Bouich and Bernabé Marí
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012001 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
In this work, FAPbI3 thin films with different antisolvents (toluene, diethyl ether and chlorobenzene) were successfully elaborated by the spin coating technique to study the influence of the different antisolvents in the films. The crystal structure, surface morphology and optical properties were [...] Read more.
In this work, FAPbI3 thin films with different antisolvents (toluene, diethyl ether and chlorobenzene) were successfully elaborated by the spin coating technique to study the influence of the different antisolvents in the films. The crystal structure, surface morphology and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) photoluminescence and UV–visible spectrometry. According to XRD, the crystalline structure of FAPbI3 was found in the orientation of the (110) plane, and it is observed that the type of antisolvent content in the absorber layer plays an important role in the growth and stabilization of the film. Here, chlorobenzene leads to a smooth and homogenous surface, a large grain size and a pinhole-free perovskite film. Additionally, the optical analysis revealed that the band gap is in the range from 1.55 to 1.57 eV. Furthermore, in an approximately 60% humidity environment and after two weeks, the stability and absorption of FaPbI3 showed low degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 892 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Levelized Cost Based Economic Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Conversion Technologies in Pakistan
by Ubaid Zia, Hina Aslam, Waqas Awan, Muhammad Zulfiqar and Awais Awan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012002 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Regarding the bridging of the existing gap around the economic assessment of waste-to-energy (WTE) conversion technologies in Pakistan, this study performs a techno-economic assessment of energy generation through both the thermal and biochemical processes. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) serves as the [...] Read more.
Regarding the bridging of the existing gap around the economic assessment of waste-to-energy (WTE) conversion technologies in Pakistan, this study performs a techno-economic assessment of energy generation through both the thermal and biochemical processes. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) serves as the fundamental parameter for analyzing the economic viability of these processes and their comparison with other energy generation processes. Based on the results, essential components of a bioenergy supply chain have been identified, through which the levelized cost can be lowered significantly. Furthermore, it has been defined as: What should be the role of key stakeholders for mobilizing the finance towards the bioenergy infrastructure development in Pakistan? Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1626 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Optimal Aspect Ratio and Optimal Number of Fins for Thermal Performance of Finned-Concentric-Tube Thermal Energy Storage
by Jawad Rabbi, Muhammad Asif and Wajeeha Bibi
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012004 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 997
Abstract
This research focuses on the enhancement of the heat transfer in the concentric tube type of thermal energy storage (TES). The collective influence of the aspect ratio and number of fins is investigated. First, an optimal aspect ratio of the concentric tube TES [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the enhancement of the heat transfer in the concentric tube type of thermal energy storage (TES). The collective influence of the aspect ratio and number of fins is investigated. First, an optimal aspect ratio of the concentric tube TES is found. Additionally, then, the optimal number of fins is found. This combined optimal configuration of TES is then compared with concentric tube TES without. Liquid fraction of the combined optimal configuration was increased by 100% for case of charging as compared to TES without fins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 731 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy Efficiency Ratio Analysis of Half Cycle Air-Conditioners Using Liquified Petroleum Gas
by Atif Muzaffar, Muhammad Tayyab, Ahmad Abbas and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012005 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Alternative fuels have proven to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impact of road transportation. On the other hand, the increasing use of air conditioning has declined the fuel economy of passenger vehicles. Half-cycle air conditioning systems (HCACSs) can address this [...] Read more.
Alternative fuels have proven to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impact of road transportation. On the other hand, the increasing use of air conditioning has declined the fuel economy of passenger vehicles. Half-cycle air conditioning systems (HCACSs) can address this concern of the declining fuel economy by using the fuel as a refrigerant. One of the candidates to be considered as refrigerants in HCACSs is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Under various conditions, LPG in the liquid state is injected into the evaporator of an HCACS. At the end of the evaporation process, LPG vapors can be directed for the combustion taking place in devices such as generators, automobiles, and cooking stoves. The present study investigates the performance of three in-housed manufactured evaporators having staggered and/or aligned tube arrangements with variable tube sizes, numbers of fins, fin spacings, and fin materials. As a refrigerant, LPG, having 65% propane and 35% butane, was passed through three evaporators. The energy efficiency ratios (EERs) were indirectly measured for evaporative pressures of 132, 168, and 201 kPa, with mass flow rates of 0.6, 0.75, and 0.9 g/s, respectively, when the fan speed interacting with the evaporators was varied. The results revealed that the aligned configuration with the same tube and fin material performed better even at low fan speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 3402 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computational Analysis of VAWT Micro Wind Farm for Urban Rooftops
by Tahir Abbas Jauhar, Sajjad Miran, Waseem Arif, Asad Muneer and Zara Mukaddas
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012006 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Technological advancements have improved energy efficiency and increased energy requirements requiring improved energy density solutions to optimally utilize the existing landscape. The renewable energy density of urban rooftops can be increased by introducing micro wind farms consisting of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). [...] Read more.
Technological advancements have improved energy efficiency and increased energy requirements requiring improved energy density solutions to optimally utilize the existing landscape. The renewable energy density of urban rooftops can be increased by introducing micro wind farms consisting of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). VAWTs do not require directed flow thus a feasible choice. In this paper, the preliminary study for parametric design of horizontal distance between two identical Savonius wind turbines is presented. Three different simulations were performed to reveal important insights about this problem with an inlet velocity of 2 m/s. The results suggest 3D analysis for accurate insights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 1753 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
IOT Based Fault Detection and Protection of Power Transformer in the Smart Grid
by Muhammad Kashif Sattar, Muhammad Waseem, Saqib Fayyaz, Riffat Kalsoom, Hafiz Ashiq Hussain and Muhammad Shahzar Saddique
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012007 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4093
Abstract
This paper presents a novel Arduino-based fault detection and protection system for power transformers. Power transformers are an integral component of the power system infrastructure. Power transformers are present in such a significant number in the power architecture that any alteration in its [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel Arduino-based fault detection and protection system for power transformers. Power transformers are an integral component of the power system infrastructure. Power transformers are present in such a significant number in the power architecture that any alteration in its operation effects the whole power system. The optimal operation of the transformer depends upon its operating condition; for this reason, its monitoring and protection are very important. Currently, power transformers employ differential relays to ensure optimal operation, but differential relays are unable to ascertain conditions such as overloading and intra turn faults. In this paper, Arduino was used to monitor transformer operation instead of differential relays and generate tripping or alert signals based on sensed values. Arduino autonomously sensed the current, voltage, and temperature values of the power transformer round the clock and handled any fault by comparing preset values of these parameters. In addition, the differential relay functionality of fault detection was implemented in the Arduino environment. Whenever a fault occurred, Arduino sent the fault signal to a Wi-Fi module, which was then displayed in the Blynk app. The practical implementation of this proposed system was tested, and its operation was found to be effective in fault detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1853 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Study of Evaporation Modelling for Different Fuels at High Operating Conditions in a Diesel Engine
by Ali Raza, Sajjad Miran, Tayyab Ul Islam, Kishwat IJaz Malik, Zunaira-Tu-Zehra and Marva Hadia
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012008 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 974
Abstract
A fuel injection system in a diesel engine has different processes that affect the complete burning of the fuel in the combustion chamber. These include the primary and secondary breakups of liquid fuel droplets and evaporation. In the present paper, evaporation of two [...] Read more.
A fuel injection system in a diesel engine has different processes that affect the complete burning of the fuel in the combustion chamber. These include the primary and secondary breakups of liquid fuel droplets and evaporation. In the present paper, evaporation of two different diesel fuels has been modelled numerically. Evaporation of n-heptane and n-decane is governed by the conservation equations of mass, energy, momentum, and species transport. Results have been plotted by varying the droplet diameter and temperature. It was observed that droplet size, temperature of droplets, and ambient temperature have notable effect on the evaporation time of diesel fuel droplets in the engine cylinder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 483 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Marine Predator Algorithm in Solving the Problem of Directional Overcurrent Relay in Electrical Power System
by Abdul Wadood, Shahbaz Khan, Bakht Muhammad Khan, Husan Ali and Zabdur Rehman
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012009 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
In electrical power systems, directional overcurrent relay (DOCR) coordination is assumed to be an essential component of the system for protection purposes. To diminish and reduce power losses, the coordination between these relays ought to be kept at an ideal value to minimalize [...] Read more.
In electrical power systems, directional overcurrent relay (DOCR) coordination is assumed to be an essential component of the system for protection purposes. To diminish and reduce power losses, the coordination between these relays ought to be kept at an ideal value to minimalize the overall operating time of all primary-relay shortcoming situations. The coordination of DOCR is a complex and profoundly compelling nonlinear problem. The objective function is to minimalize the overall total operating time of all essential relays to minimize inordinate breakdown and interference. Coordination is performed using the marine predator algorithm (MPA), inspired by a widespread foraging strategy, namely Lévy and Brownian movements, to search for global optimal solutions in order to resolve the DOCRs coordination issue. The results acquired from MPA are equated with other state-of-the-art algorithms, and it was observed that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 786 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Environmental Profiling of Green Educational Building Using Life Cycle Assessment
by Talha Bin Farooq and Muhammad Bilal Sajid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012010 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Over the last twenty years, architects and designers have been working towards minimizing the impact that buildings have on the environment. In spite of the fact that many architects claim their buildings are environment-friendly, the claims cannot be justified unless a Life Cycle [...] Read more.
Over the last twenty years, architects and designers have been working towards minimizing the impact that buildings have on the environment. In spite of the fact that many architects claim their buildings are environment-friendly, the claims cannot be justified unless a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is conducted. The two major parts of the theoretical basis of the proposed scheme are the concept of sustainability of the environment and methods of assessing the building’s environmental impacts. The objective of this report is to evaluate the possible ecological impact of an educational building through its life cycle, from extracting raw materials to the end of life. In order to accomplish the goal of the study, a single-case method of a life cycle assessment was used to determine which stage of the life cycle (manufacturing, construction, consumption, maintenance, and dismantling) made the most contribution to the overall impact. The main installation system (foundation, frame, wall, floor, roof) of a building will have an impact on the environment during its life cycle. A typical new educational building was used as a case study in Islamabad, along with an optimized LCA method based on energy consumption inventories, the material input and output, and the assessment of the environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 903 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improving the Stability of Islanded DC Microgrid with Constant Power Loads
by Sajid Ali Murtaza, Nazam Siddique, Javaid Aslam, Waqas Latif, Muhammad Wasif and Iftikhar Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012011 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The AC power system is leading due to its established standards. The depleting thread of fossil fuels, the significant increase in cost and the alarming environmental situation raises concerns. An Islanded DC microgrid, due to its novel characteristics of being able to withstand [...] Read more.
The AC power system is leading due to its established standards. The depleting thread of fossil fuels, the significant increase in cost and the alarming environmental situation raises concerns. An Islanded DC microgrid, due to its novel characteristics of being able to withstand faulty conditions, has increased the reliability, accuracy, ease of integration, and efficiency of the power system. Renewable energy sources, characteristically DC, have wide usability in a distributive network and, accordingly, less circuitry and conversion stages are required, eliminating the need of reactive power compensation and frequency sync. Constant power loads (CPLs) are the reason for instability in the DC microgrid. Various centralized stability techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, the grid system collapses if there is a fault. To compensate, an efficient distributive control architecture, i.e., droop control method is proposed in this research. The significant advantage of using the droop control technique includes easy implementation, high reliability and flexibility, a reduced circulating current, a decentralized control with local measurements, the absence of a communication link and, thus, it is economic. Moreover, it offers local control for each individual power source in the microgrid. To investigate the stability of the islanded DC microgrid with constant power loads using the droop control technique, a small signal model of the islanded DC microgrid was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulations were carried out to show the efficiency of the proposed controller and analyze the stability of the power system with constant power loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 369 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Mycorrhizal Fungal Inoculum on the Growth of Fenugreek in Different Soil Samples
by Sana Kanwal, Muhammad Rashid, Sana Ghafar, Komal Nawwal, Sana Ajmal and Saima Rasib
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012012 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an aromatic plant that yields secondary metabolites, continuously used for the readiness of food and medicines. The current study is conducted to assess the impact of inoculation of mycorrhiza on the growth of Trigonella foenum-graecum in different [...] Read more.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an aromatic plant that yields secondary metabolites, continuously used for the readiness of food and medicines. The current study is conducted to assess the impact of inoculation of mycorrhiza on the growth of Trigonella foenum-graecum in different soil samples. The current study presents two arrangements of treatment in experimental and control pots. Different soil samples were obtained from different areas for experimental and control pots. In experimental pots, mycorrhiza fungi inoculation is introduced. The six pots were filled with each soil sample. Out of the six pots, three were control pots, and three were inoculated pots. In each pot, 6 kg soil was filled. It was observed that there were more leaves in the experimental (inoculated) pots and fewer in the fenugreek (non-inoculated) pots. The fresh and dry weight of the shoots and roots was taken. However, it was examined that the fresh weight of the shoots and roots of the inoculated pots was more compared to the non-inoculated pots. But the difficulty is seen in the clay control pots of clay soil because of the compactness of the clay soil. It was concluded that fenugreek showed more growth in inoculated pots compared to non-inoculated pots. It was also concluded that mycorrhizal fungal showed symbiotic association with fenugreek plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Development of a Power Quality Based Digital Energy Meter
by Malaika Imran, Muhammad Shoaib Saleem, Aun Haider and Zain Iftikhar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012013 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
In power distribution systems of many countries, service lines are directly connected to the consumer meters without any load management system. Conventional meters lack in internal power quality measurement, and utility also cannot measure the power factor and other values during the month. [...] Read more.
In power distribution systems of many countries, service lines are directly connected to the consumer meters without any load management system. Conventional meters lack in internal power quality measurement, and utility also cannot measure the power factor and other values during the month. This study aims to design a smart kit that aids conventional single-phase energy meters and calculates the power values of all phases by measuring the voltage, current, and power factor on the load side; and the calculated power values will be sent to the cloud data base Voltage and current are measured by a current transformer (CT) and a potential transformer (PT) connected on both the incoming side and the load side in order to avoid meter bypassing. A program-based algorithm has also been developed to calculate the power factor and other power quantities. This IoT-based energy meter uploads the measured quantities to an online database, and the same are also displayed on an LCD meter. An Android™-based application is also developed for user-end control. Consumers can observe the resultant values, switch loads remotely, and pay electricity bills through the same application. When the power factor of any consumer is less than the standard value, the system will automatically notify utility company about the affecting load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 773 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Soil Texture on Triticum aestivum Growth
by Muhammad Rashid, Sana Kanwal, Sana Ghafar, Komal Nawwal, Sana Ajmal and Saima Rasib
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012014 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Soil texture is an important environmental factor that influences the crop productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) because it provides all the nutrients required for growth of the plants. The soil based on nutrients is classified into four classes: silt, clay, sand, and [...] Read more.
Soil texture is an important environmental factor that influences the crop productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) because it provides all the nutrients required for growth of the plants. The soil based on nutrients is classified into four classes: silt, clay, sand, and loam. Soil based on mineral particles was classified by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). According to USDA, loam particles have a size between sand (2.00–1.0 mm) and silt (0.05–0.002 mm), whereas clay is less than 0.002 mm. Analysis shows that the growth rate of Triticum aestivum in each soil sample is different. The sizes of seven plants were increased in loamy soil, to 47 cm, whereas in sandy soil, plants were 25 cm long. Seven plants were grown in clay soil, and had lengths of 28 cm. Finally, five plants were grown in silt soil, and reached a size of 38 cm. After fertilizing each plant in the different soils equally, that the productivity of plants in loamy soil was observed to be greater as compared to plants of other soil samples. Clay soil plants showed improvements as compared to sand and silt soil, although not as good as loam. The worst growing plants were observed in sandy soil. This shows that the growth of Triticum aestivum plants is better in loamy soil, and loamy soil is the most beneficial for wheat crop productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 2406 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clustering-Based Energy Management of Residential Loads by using Artificial Intelligence
by Umair Liaqat, Muhammad Yousif, Malik Shah Zeb Ali and Muhammad Afzal
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012015 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Developing countries have witnessed a remarkable surge in the energy crisis due to the supply and demand gap. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is the optimal use of energy that can be achieved by employing demand side management (DSM) and [...] Read more.
Developing countries have witnessed a remarkable surge in the energy crisis due to the supply and demand gap. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is the optimal use of energy that can be achieved by employing demand side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) methods intelligently. Machine learning and data analysis tools help us create intelligent systems that motivate us to use machine learning to implement DSM/DR programs. In this paper, a novel DSM algorithm is introduced to implement DSM intelligently by using artificial intelligence. The results show an efficient implementation of an artificial neural network (ANN) along with demand side management, whereas the peak and off-peak loads were normalized to a certain range where a perfect agreement between supply and demand can be reached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 994 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Headworks of River Chenab on Surrounding Vegetation and Phytodiversity Analysis
by Muhammad Azhar Ali and Muhammad Sajjad Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012016 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This study focused on the impact assessment of the wild flora and environmental gradients encompassed by the River Chenab headworks using quantitative ecological indices. Quadrats of 1 × 1, 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 m2 sizes were used for vegetation. [...] Read more.
This study focused on the impact assessment of the wild flora and environmental gradients encompassed by the River Chenab headworks using quantitative ecological indices. Quadrats of 1 × 1, 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 m2 sizes were used for vegetation. Considering environmental data, grazing and anthropogenic effects, soil analysis based on different physical and chemical properties was studied. The relationship between different sites and their surroundings was analyzed by Canonical and Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Similarity indices were revealed through the use of a heat map and dendrogram. As many as 130 plant species, 60 families, comprising 104 species of dicots, 17 monocots, 7 pteridophytes and 2 species of bryophytes were recorded. Different soil properties including organic matter, soil moisture and soil pH affect the vegetation on different sites. Anthropogenic activities such as construction, fishing and animal grazing were the main threats for vegetation that need to be restricted strategically to conserve surrounding vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1314 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analytical and Experimental Investigation of a Triangular-Channeled Solar Water Heater
by Muhammad Hasnain Tariq, Farooq Khan and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012017 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Utilization of solar energy is increasing in different states of the world, and the sun is regarded as the largest source of continuous and coherent energy. In the present study, a novel configuration of a v-corrugated solar collector with triangular channels for domestic [...] Read more.
Utilization of solar energy is increasing in different states of the world, and the sun is regarded as the largest source of continuous and coherent energy. In the present study, a novel configuration of a v-corrugated solar collector with triangular channels for domestic water heating has been analytically investigated. A mathematical model based on effectiveness-NTU method is established to thermally examine the collector. Additionally, the heat losses from the body of the collector, useful energy from the collector and solar efficiency have been calculated analytically over different operating parameters. The effects of mass flow rate and solar heat flux on water outlet temperature are evaluated analytically and compared with the experimental results. Moreover, the study includes the experimental and theoretical investigation of the heat exchange effectiveness and thermal efficiency of the proposed absorber. The study shows that high temperature and high performance can be obtained from this collector as more heat energy can be collected by using triangular channels because all the three sides of these channels are exposed to solar radiations at the same time. Therefore, these channels will enhance the collector exposed surface area and thereby increase the solar efficiency and overall performance of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 603 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification of Energy Efficiency Improvement Measures of an Existing Residential Building Using Audit-Assisted Energy Simulation and Analysis
by Farrukh Arif, Rabia Khalid and Nida Azhar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012018 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Depleting energy sources are forcing humans to preserve energy and utilize it wisely. Globally, researchers are working to find ways to manage the energy crisis. Residential buildings are considered to be in the most energy demanding sector. Therefore, efforts are being made to [...] Read more.
Depleting energy sources are forcing humans to preserve energy and utilize it wisely. Globally, researchers are working to find ways to manage the energy crisis. Residential buildings are considered to be in the most energy demanding sector. Therefore, efforts are being made to reduce the increasing energy consumption and make the buildings energy efficient. The paper focuses on finding ways to retrofit the existing residential buildings into energy efficient buildings. This study evaluated the energy performance of a G+2 residential building with a total of 3 floors covering an area of 991.68 sq. meters, to identify relevant potential improvement measures. An energy analysis of the building was performed using information modeling assisted with energy audit data for accurate and realistic analysis. It was found that there is potential for the reduction of the annual energy usage and annual energy cost up to 2.33% and 4.54% respectively, by making improvements in the window to wall ratio. Another potential energy cost saving of 14.8% can be achieved by changing Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) type, and 7.62% of a reduction in cost can be achieved through modification in lighting fixtures. Moreover, installing solar photovoltaic panels can save up to PKR 1 million, and natural ventilation could result in saving more than PKR 0.2 million annually. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 358 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Municipal Solid Waste Management and Waste to Energy in Karachi Pakistan
by Aftab Ahmed, Arshad Hussain, Shehdev Thahrani, Sultan Ahmed, Abdul Qadeer Khoso and Bilal Soomro
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012019 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The environmental protection agency shows that the solid waste management of Karachi city lies in the underdeveloped category. Organics, paper, plastics, bread, metals, bones, textile and many other components are key in this area. The current methods for disposing of solid waste in [...] Read more.
The environmental protection agency shows that the solid waste management of Karachi city lies in the underdeveloped category. Organics, paper, plastics, bread, metals, bones, textile and many other components are key in this area. The current methods for disposing of solid waste in cities, land-filling and other schemes are compared. Energy crises and solid waste at this large scale has forced cities to the edges of collapsing. Still, it is feasible to convert this huge problem into a profitable business. With the exception of dumping or burning, waste can be used to produce energy. Through bio-chemical and thermo-chemical processes, almost 0.01% of the total energy demand can be reproduced from the waste mentioned above. There is a need to promote the production of energy from solid waste and the utilization of different wastes in a useful manner. Instead of using ineffective waste management schemes, proper waste management schemes can solve both problems at the same time. A huge amount of revenue can be generated from Karachi solid waste, but all this depends upon awareness and suitable technology. The focus of this paper is to emphasize the importance of recycling and energy. The choice of proper methods for treatment, fermentation, anaerobic digestion and the reasons for properly operating all solid waste management bodies are discussed in detail in this study. The Decision support System tool and its importance is also discussed in terms of the field of solid waste choice makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1808 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pakistan’s Energy Demand Forecasting for Various Sector through Long Range Alternative Planning System
by Muhammad Mahboob, Muzaffar Ali, Tanzeel ur Rashid and Rabia Hassan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012020 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Energy forecasting and policy development needs a detailed evaluation of energy assets and long-term demand estimation. The demand forecast of electricity is an essential portion of energy management, particularly in the formation of electricity. It is necessary to predict electricity needs to avoid [...] Read more.
Energy forecasting and policy development needs a detailed evaluation of energy assets and long-term demand estimation. The demand forecast of electricity is an essential portion of energy management, particularly in the formation of electricity. It is necessary to predict electricity needs to avoid the energy deficits or a destabilization between energy demand and supply. In this article, long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) is used for the modeling of energy and various sectors in Pakistan as a case study. The simulated model comprises three different scenarios, a strong economy, a weak economy, and a medium economy as a reference scenario. The base year is 2015 and the outlook year is 2040. Electricity demands are almost more than four times those of the outlook year, increasing from 7.71 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2015 to 29.77 MTOE by the end of 2040. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 894 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Short Term Load Forecasting for Electric Power Utilities: A Generalized Regression Approach Using Polynomials and Cross-Terms
by Aneeque Ahmed Mir, Kafait Ullah, Zafar A. Khan, Furrukh Bashir, Tauseef Ur Rehman Khan and Abdullah Altamimi
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012021 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
With the emergence of advanced computational technologies, the capacity to process data for developing machine learning-based predictive models has increased multifold. However, reliance on the model’s mere accuracy has swiftly shifted attention away from its interpretability. Resultantly, a need has emerged amongst forecasters [...] Read more.
With the emergence of advanced computational technologies, the capacity to process data for developing machine learning-based predictive models has increased multifold. However, reliance on the model’s mere accuracy has swiftly shifted attention away from its interpretability. Resultantly, a need has emerged amongst forecasters and academics to have predictive models that are not only accurate but also interpretable as well. Therefore, to facilitate energy forecasters, this paper advances the knowledge of short-term load forecasting through generalized regression analysis using high degree polynomials and cross terms. To predict the irregularly changing energy demand at the consumer level, the proposed model uses a time series of an hourly load of three years of an electricity distribution company in Pakistan. Two variants of regression analysis are used: (a) generalized linear regression model (GLRM), and (b) generalized linear regression model with polynomials and cross-terms (GLRM-PCT) for comparative reasons. Experiments revealed that GLRM-PCT showed higher forecasting accuracy across a variety of performance metrics such as mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), and r-squared values. Moreover, the enhanced interpretability of GLRM-PCT also explained a wide range of combinations of weather variables, public holidays, as well as lagged load and climatic variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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7 pages, 3001 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Load Forecasting of an Optimized Green Residential System Using Machine Learning Algorithm
by Nabeel Zahoor, Irfan Ullah, Abid Ali Dogar and Burhan Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012022 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Load forecasting of a micro-grid system has become a challenging task due to its high volatile nature and uncertainty. Residential energy consumption is one of the most talked-about and confusing topics among different electricity loads in terms of future information and is mainly [...] Read more.
Load forecasting of a micro-grid system has become a challenging task due to its high volatile nature and uncertainty. Residential energy consumption is one of the most talked-about and confusing topics among different electricity loads in terms of future information and is mainly affected by irregular human activity and changing weather conditions. Therefore, techniques and algorithms are needed to reduce energy consumption and enhance the smartness of the system. Load forecasting of an optimized residential system using a machine learning (ML) algorithm is proposed for an islanded green residential system. The load profile of residential electricity consumption is developed by real-time data collected. Photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy (WE) units are considered renewable energy sources in batteries to entertain the residential loads in the proposed prototype. An efficient energy management system (EMS) is introduced to create a balance between power generation and consumption with the help of intelligent appliances under a controlled framework and to overcome peak time consumption. Prediction of load and proper energy utilization are presented to ensure the stability and durability of the system. For efficient micro-grid energy management, the residential load is forecasted using a ML algorithm named non-linear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) neural network (NN) with a minute mean absolute percentage square error of 0.226% which is far less than that of previous work performed in different forecasting scenarios. As a result, an efficient model is designed for a standalone DC micro-grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 2193 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Equivalent Sliding Mode Controller for Stability of DC Microgrid
by Muhammad Rashad, Uzair Raoof, Nazam Siddique and Bilal Ashfaq Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012023 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
DC microgrids are gaining popularity due to their lack of reactive power compensation, frequency synchronization, and skin effect problems. However, DC microgrids are not exempted from stability issues. The stability of DC microgrids based on decentralized architecture is presented in this paper. Centralized [...] Read more.
DC microgrids are gaining popularity due to their lack of reactive power compensation, frequency synchronization, and skin effect problems. However, DC microgrids are not exempted from stability issues. The stability of DC microgrids based on decentralized architecture is presented in this paper. Centralized architecture can degrade system performance and reliability due to the failure of a single central controller. Droop with proportional integral (PI) controller based on decentralized architecture is being used for DC microgrid stability. However, droop control requires a tradeoff between voltage regulation and droop gain. Further, global stability through PI controller cannot be verified and controller parameters cannot be optimized with different operating conditions. To address limitations, an equivalent sliding mode (SM) controller is proposed for a DC microgrid system in this paper. Detailed simulations are carried out, and results are presented, which show the effectiveness of an equivalent SM controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1028 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermal Analysis of a Solar Assisted Cold Storage Unit for the Storage of Agricultural Perishables Produce
by Waseem Amjad, Fatima Akram, Sidrah Rehman, Anjum Munir and Owais Manzoor
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012024 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
A solar based cold storage unit for the preservation of food products is an excellent way to reduce post-harvest losses at lower energy costs. Energy optimization is essential to improve the reliability of the system. In the case of cooling, a major factor [...] Read more.
A solar based cold storage unit for the preservation of food products is an excellent way to reduce post-harvest losses at lower energy costs. Energy optimization is essential to improve the reliability of the system. In the case of cooling, a major factor to reduce energy consumption is the uniform distribution of air inside the cooling chamber to maintain the even temperature of stored products. For this, a detailed thermal analysis is required to analyse the cooling process for energy saving and optimum conditions. In the current study, an energy and exergy based thermal analysis of a solar assisted cold storage unit is presented. A parametric investigation and a proper understanding about the influence of thermodynamics on the cooling process were obtained. All the experimentally calculated parameters (energy utilized, energy utilization ratio, energy loss and exergy efficiency) were subjected to a model curve fitting using Sigmaplot-12 and a polynomial cubic model was found best fitted based on the values of coefficient of determination. Thermal analysis showed variations in the rate of energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy losses and exergy efficiency in the range of 3–18 kJ/s, 0.37–0.80, 0.8–2.25 kJ/s and 40–60%, respectively. The average value of COP of the system was found to be 3.95. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 459 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy Assessment of a Combined Cycle Power Plant through Empirical and Computational Approaches: A Case Study
by Waseem Amjad, Mubeen Shahid, Anjum Munir, Furqan Asghar and Owais Manzoor
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012025 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Energy management on the demand side is an important practice through which to address the challenge of energy shortage. In Pakistan, power plants have no specific energy management practice and a detail energy audit is normally observed as a one-time estimation that does [...] Read more.
Energy management on the demand side is an important practice through which to address the challenge of energy shortage. In Pakistan, power plants have no specific energy management practice and a detail energy audit is normally observed as a one-time estimation that does not give significant information. In this study, an energy audit of a combined-cycle gas turbine power station was conducted and empirical data were compared with those obtained through a model developed in ASPEN, a simulation software that forecasts process performance. Next, an optimization tool was used to modify the ASPEN results and a comparison was drawn to estimate the amount of energy saved. It was found that compressor power consumption can be decreased up to 14.68% by increasing the temperature of compressed air from 320.2 °C to 423.79 °C for gas turbines. The output of gas turbines can be enhanced up to 13.5% and 21.4% with modelled and optimized data, respectively, using a multistage air compressor and multistage expansion. The calculated efficiency of the steam turbine was found to be 30.4%, which is 27.61% less than that of its designed efficiency. Steam turbine efficiency can be increased by 5% using a variable-speed water pump, leading to an estimated energy-saving potential of 8–9%. The combustion efficiency of gas turbines is not only important for higher turbine power output but also for better steam generation through heat-recovery steam generators in case of combined-cycle operations. The overall steam turbine efficiency is estimated to have increased by 19.27%, leading to a 12.68% improvement in combined efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 754 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimal Relay Coordination with Hybrid Time–Current–Voltage Characteristics for an Active Distribution Network Using Alpha Harris Hawks Optimization
by Lucheng Hong, Mian Rizwan, Safdar Rasool and Yuan Gu
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012026 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The miscoordination and malfunctioning of directional overcurrent relays (DOCR) may occur due to a significant change in the fault current level (FCL) and a change in the network topology, from a radial to ring topology, caused by renewable energy resource-based distributed generation (RES-DG). [...] Read more.
The miscoordination and malfunctioning of directional overcurrent relays (DOCR) may occur due to a significant change in the fault current level (FCL) and a change in the network topology, from a radial to ring topology, caused by renewable energy resource-based distributed generation (RES-DG). In this paper, a hybrid time–current–voltage (TCV)-based protection scheme is proposed to eliminate the DOCR miscoordination and to reduce the overall operation time of DOCRs. The DOCR coordination problem is solved with alpha Harris Hawks optimization (α-HHO). Detailed numerical studies are carried out, and to show the performance of the proposed scheme, the results are compared with the existing protection schemes in the recent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 644 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy-Aware Load Balancing in a Cloudlet Federation
by Muhammad Inam and Muhammad Ziad Nayyer
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012027 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
With the rapid increase in computation-intensive tasks, the current research task is to minimize energy consumption due to resource constraints and increased cost. For complex computations where multiple computer systems are required to execute a single task such as in a federated cloudlet [...] Read more.
With the rapid increase in computation-intensive tasks, the current research task is to minimize energy consumption due to resource constraints and increased cost. For complex computations where multiple computer systems are required to execute a single task such as in a federated cloudlet environment, load balancing is the main challenge. Load balancing means dividing the total workload between all the present nodes to obtain the maximum benefits from the available resources and to minimize energy consumption. A cloudlet is a resourceful computer that is coupled to the Internet and is accessible for mobile devices in their vicinity. A Cloudlet Federation is the concept of a cooperative framework to share resources and load balancing among various cloudlets. Different tasks consume different amounts of energy for their execution, which results in a large amount of heat dissipation. Due to heat, the performance of the systems is decreased. The more heat is present, the more the performance degrades. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel scheduling strategy that will assign incoming tasks to systems according to their energy consumption level. The proposed methodology is tested in a Cloudlet Federation environment and the results show improved load balancing in terms of energy consumption and heat dissipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 1737 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Hybrid MPPT Technique for Solar Photovoltaic System under Partial Shading
by Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab, Yaqoob Javed, Irfan Ullah, Abid Ali Dogar and Burhan Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012028 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
A major problem in the photovoltaic (PV) system is to determine the maximum power point (MPP) and to overcome the limitations of environmental change. To resolve the limitation of different techniques with high convergence rate and less fluctuations, a hybrid model of fractional [...] Read more.
A major problem in the photovoltaic (PV) system is to determine the maximum power point (MPP) and to overcome the limitations of environmental change. To resolve the limitation of different techniques with high convergence rate and less fluctuations, a hybrid model of fractional open circuit voltage is proposed. For partial shading, incremental conductance is used. The proposed technique is extremely useful, provides high efficiency, and takes less time to achieve the MPP. The tenacity of the proposed method has been checked using MATLAB/Simulink, which clearly shows that the proposed technique has high efficiency compared to other MPP tracking methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 2109 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Regression and Neural Network Model for Short Term Load Forecasting: A Case Study
by Javaid Aslam, Waqas Latif, Muhammad Wasif, Iftikhar Hussain and Saba Javaid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012029 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Short term load forecasting (STLF) is an obligatory and vibrant part of power system planning and dispatching. It utilized for short and running targets in power system planning. Electricity consumption has nonlinear patterns due to its reliance on factors such as time, weather, [...] Read more.
Short term load forecasting (STLF) is an obligatory and vibrant part of power system planning and dispatching. It utilized for short and running targets in power system planning. Electricity consumption has nonlinear patterns due to its reliance on factors such as time, weather, geography, culture, and some random and individual events. This research work emphasizes STLF through utilized load profile data from domestic energy meter and forecasts it by Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Cascaded Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (CFBP) techniques. First, simple regression statistical calculations used for prediction, later the model improved by using a neural network tool. The performance of both models compared with Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE). The MAPE error for MLR observed as 47% and it reduced to 8.9% for CFBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1227 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hybrid Nanofluid-Based Thermal Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) Investigations for the Thermal Management System of a Computer Microprocessor
by Waseem Amjad, Adil Nawaz, Anjum Munir and Faisal Mahmood
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012030 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The heat extraction from and cooling of computer microprocessors are challenging tasks in the modern era. Previously, the microprocessors were usually cooled by air, but now industry is shifting towards using nanofluids, as their properties are more thermo-physically stable. The experimental and numerical [...] Read more.
The heat extraction from and cooling of computer microprocessors are challenging tasks in the modern era. Previously, the microprocessors were usually cooled by air, but now industry is shifting towards using nanofluids, as their properties are more thermo-physically stable. The experimental and numerical studies have revealed that the rate of heat transfer depends both on the thermal characteristics of the coolant and the geometry of the heat sink. For optimized results, it is recommended to analyze the combined effect of nanofluids and the geometry of the heat sink. Mini-channel heat sinks in combination with a nanofluid offered an excellent rate of heat transfer. However, passing nanofluids continuously through the system causes various problems over time; for example, the thermal stresses on the components are increased, which may lead to wear and tear of the system. In this study, a numerical investigation of mini-channel heat sinks was conducted through thermal-FSI. A numerical model was established with airfoil and Savonius pin-fin mini channel heat sinks, and they were analyzed at different flow rates from 0.25 LPM to 0.75 LPM with an increment of 0.25 LPM with different fluids, i.e., water, Al2O3–H2O, and Fe2O3–H2O nanofluids, varying their volumetric concentration. The minimum stresses were obtained while increasing the temperature drop and decreasing the pressure drop. The thermal stresses were calculated using the thermal-FSI technique and were found to be in the threshold range, and hence the material was within the yield limit at 0.75 LPM when using the Fe2O3-H2O Nanofluid at a 0° angle using the Savonius heat sink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 1554 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mitigation of Circulating Currents for Parallel Connected Sources in a Standalone DC Microgrid
by Muhammad Rashad, Uzair Raoof, Nazam Siddique and Daud Mustafa Minhas
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012031 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
In a standalone DC microgrid, sources are interconnected in a parallel configuration. When sources of different power ratings are parallel connected, there arises a major issue of circulating currents which disturb current sharing by sources as per their capacity. Consequently, the voltage regulation [...] Read more.
In a standalone DC microgrid, sources are interconnected in a parallel configuration. When sources of different power ratings are parallel connected, there arises a major issue of circulating currents which disturb current sharing by sources as per their capacity. Consequently, the voltage regulation becomes poorer. Additionally, connecting line resistances also play their part to contribute to abnormal current sharing. Droop controllers are normally preferred for the mitigation of circulating currents among parallel-connected sources. However, droop controllers cannot eliminate circulating currents for different rating sources. Hence, current sharing and voltage regulation cannot be ensured simultaneously. To address the issues, a distributed architecture-based Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique is proposed in this paper. An analysis of the circulating currents for a two-source system is presented. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and fail-safe operation of the proposed technique in a steady-state condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Vehicle Traffic as a Source of CO2, CO, HC and Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Mingora City, District Swat, KP, Pakistan and Their Effect on Health, Temperature and Tourism
by Mian Gul Sayed, Naeem Ullah, Shah Khalid, Fazal Mabood and Muhammad Naveed Umar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012032 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
In this work we collected a large number of vehicular emission data of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) from custom paid and non-custom paid vehicles in the Swat district, which are responsible for changing the climate and [...] Read more.
In this work we collected a large number of vehicular emission data of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) from custom paid and non-custom paid vehicles in the Swat district, which are responsible for changing the climate and global warming. Swat valley is facing severe threats and impacts of the climate change as there is a record high increase in the temperature with flash floods and droughts becoming increasingly common. The main cause of the increasing warm weather is vehicle emissions along with the cutting of forest on a large scale in the valley. Hospital records for 2768 children aged 0 to 18 years (697 of whom had two encounters) were obtained for a main city area of two hospitals in Saidu Sharif, Swat. Residential addresses were geocoded. A line source dispersion model was used to estimate individual seasonal exposures to local traffic-generated pollutants (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydroxide). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
4 pages, 962 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An IOT-Enabled Generator for Power Monitoring and Load Management with Power Factor Improvement
by Ghulam Shabir Memon, Syed Saeed Jaffer, Shoaib Zaidi, Muhammad Mohsin Sheikh, Muhammad Umair Jabbar and Abdul Ahad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012033 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2142
Abstract
The quality of power supply and reliability play a vital role in the smooth operation and maintenance of commercial use. These requirements have significant applications when dealing with residential areas, hospitals, industries, educational sectors, banks and airports, etc. In this regard, backup diesel [...] Read more.
The quality of power supply and reliability play a vital role in the smooth operation and maintenance of commercial use. These requirements have significant applications when dealing with residential areas, hospitals, industries, educational sectors, banks and airports, etc. In this regard, backup diesel generators are considered the most important source for an uninterrupted supply of electricity. However, there is an emergent need to avoid sudden shutdown of generators in the events of overload, shortage of fuel flow, service interval and lagging of power factor. These common problems can be addressed through monitoring of power generator parameters, for instance, real time remote monitoring to measure the health of the generator, the problem of load management due to high demand of power during peak hours and power factor improvement due to exceeding inductive load. In this paper, our proposed architecture—based on an IOT solution—consists of different sensors, namely a current transformer for measuring load, fuel gauge for fuel level monitoring, and temperature measurement with the energy module to determine the power factor of the system. Our proposed system is operated and tested on a real trolley-mounted 25 KVA generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 9233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Error Minimization in ECG Signal Reconstruction Using Discrete Wavelet Transform
by Saba Javaid, Sadia Murawwat, Waqas Latif, Javaid Aslam, Muhammad Wasif and Iftikhar Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012034 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 878
Abstract
For clinical study and diagnosis, compression of Electro Cardio Gram (ECG) signal is a fundamental step for processing. However, the compression and reconstruction introduce errors in the signal. Therefore, error minimization is crucial before using these signals for analysis and diagnosis. This paper [...] Read more.
For clinical study and diagnosis, compression of Electro Cardio Gram (ECG) signal is a fundamental step for processing. However, the compression and reconstruction introduce errors in the signal. Therefore, error minimization is crucial before using these signals for analysis and diagnosis. This paper presents an efficient method to minimize the reconstruction error using the adaptive filtering technique. Better reconstruction was achieved based on higher value of Compression Ratio and lesser value of Percent Root mean squared difference. Daubechies Wavelet easily detects the signal spikes while keeping less error rate using Least Mean Squared Error algorithm. However, the percentage value of error appeared to be minimum when using Daubechies Wavelet because of its small coefficients other than Haar and Coiflet Wavelet. Therefore, it was concluded that Daubechies Wavelet should have been used for error minimization in the reconstructed signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determine the Optimum Efficiency of Transformer Cores Using Comparative Study Method
by Nabeel Zahoor, Abid Ali Dogar and Akhtar Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012035 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
The transformer is one of the most discussed and important components of electrical power systems because of its reliability, durability and energy conversion capability. It is also useful in load sharing, which reduces system burden, but is also responsible for a sufficient number [...] Read more.
The transformer is one of the most discussed and important components of electrical power systems because of its reliability, durability and energy conversion capability. It is also useful in load sharing, which reduces system burden, but is also responsible for a sufficient number of losses, as it is used in different types of electric appliances that require voltage conversion. The no-load losses of transformers have gained much attention from research perspective because of its operating cost throughout its lifetime. Many studies were carried out to achieve the highest possible efficiency, decreasing certain losses by using different methods and materials. However, the local market in Pakistan is far behind in the field of efficient core material manufacturing of transformers, which is why consumers are unable to obtain efficient electric appliances. Due to these loss-making appliances, the overall residential load increases and the consumers are charged with heavy electricity bills. This proposed study discusses core losses, different core comparisons, T/F efficiency and advancement in the core material. To accomplish a core comparison, two locally available core materials are used to fabricate two different T/F, and some tests such as open-circuit and short-circuit tests are performed to discover their losses, thermal degradation, and output efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 698 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Socioeconomic and Climatic Impacts of Photovoltaic Systems Operating High-Efficiency Irrigation Systems: A Case Study of the Government Subsidy Scheme for Climate-Smart Agriculture in Punjab, Pakistan
by Faakhar Raza, Muhammad Tamoor and Sajjad Miran
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012036 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a field study conducted in the Punjab, Pakistan, to evaluate the socio-economic and climatic impact of Photovoltaic (PV) systems installed under government subsidy scheme for operating high efficiency irrigation systems (HEIS) i.e., drip and sprinkler irrigation systems. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a field study conducted in the Punjab, Pakistan, to evaluate the socio-economic and climatic impact of Photovoltaic (PV) systems installed under government subsidy scheme for operating high efficiency irrigation systems (HEIS) i.e., drip and sprinkler irrigation systems. Agriculture provides livelihood to almost half of the rural population and recent energy crisis in the country has adversely affected the rural communities. Farmer’s dependence on fossil fuels has significantly increased for operating irrigation systems which has resulted in high costs of agriculture production. Government of Punjab has launched a subsidy scheme to install PV systems for operating efficient drip and sprinkler irrigation systems on cost sharing basis. Photovoltaic systems having a capacity of 17.30 megawatt, were installed to operate high efficiency irrigation systems at around twenty thousand acres under this subsidy project, that has resulted in an annual saving of 0.0066 billion liters of diesel. The average capacity of installed PV systems was 9.0 kilowatt, which matched the 7.50 horse power of installed water pumps. On average, the cost of a PV system per acre was calculated to be 0.000142 billion PKR, while the cost per kWp was calculated to be 0.000149 billion PKR. The research results show that the installation of photovoltaic systems has increased the adoption rate of high-efficiency irrigation systems, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and reduced the high operating costs associated with diesel powered pump systems. The primary data about on-farm agriculture and irrigation practices used in this study were collected through in-depth farmer surveys, while the secondary data information came from reports, official documents and statistics issued by the government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 846 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analytical Subdomain Model for Double-Stator Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Surface-Mounted Radial Magnetization
by Mohd Saufi Ahmad, Dahaman Ishak, Tiang Tow Leong and Mohd Rezal Mohamed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012037 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
This paper proposes an analytical subdomain model for predicting magnetic field distributions in a three-phase double-stator permanent magnet synchronous machine (DS-PMSM) during open-circuit and on-load conditions. The geometric structure of DS-PMSM is quite challenging since the stator cores are located in the outer [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an analytical subdomain model for predicting magnetic field distributions in a three-phase double-stator permanent magnet synchronous machine (DS-PMSM) during open-circuit and on-load conditions. The geometric structure of DS-PMSM is quite challenging since the stator cores are located in the outer and inner parts of the motor, while the rotor magnets are placed between these two stators. Parameters that influence the motor performance in DS-PMSM include stator outer radius, stator inner radius, magnet thickness, magnet arc, slot opening, outer and inner airgap thickness and the number of winding turns. The analytical subdomain model proposed in this paper, which can accurately predict the performances of DS-PMSM with less computational time, has an excellent advantage as a rapid design tool. The model is initially generated using the separation of variables technique in four subdomains, namely, outer airgap, outer magnet, inner magnet, and inner airgap, based on Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations in polar coordinates. The field solutions in each subdomain are derived by applying the appropriate boundary and interface conditions. Furthermore, finite element analysis (FEA) is used to validate the analytical results in fractional DS-PMSM with a different number of slots between outer and inner stators and a non-overlapping winding configuration. The electromagnetic performances that have been evaluated are the slotted airgap flux density, back-emf and output torque. The results demonstrate that the proposed analytical model is able to predict the magnetic field distributions accurately in DS-PMSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 831 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of Iodine Removal in a Submerged Venturi Scrubber
by Jawaria Ahad, Amjad Farooq, Masroor Ahmad, Khalid Waheed, Kamran Rasheed Qureshi, Waseem Siddique and Naseem Irfan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012038 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Severe nuclear accidents can cause over-pressurization and serious damage to the containment of a nuclear power plant, which can result in the release of radioactivity into the environment. Filtered containment venting systems are a nuclear safety system that is designed to control over-pressurization [...] Read more.
Severe nuclear accidents can cause over-pressurization and serious damage to the containment of a nuclear power plant, which can result in the release of radioactivity into the environment. Filtered containment venting systems are a nuclear safety system that is designed to control over-pressurization and prevent radioactive fission products from spreading into the environment in the case of a severe accident. Iodine is one of the most harmful products among this list of fissionable products, as it can cause thyroid cancer. The removal of iodine is very important in order to ensure the safety of people and the environment. Thus, an indigenous lab scale setup of this system was developed at PIEAS to conduct research on iodine removal. It is comprised of a compressor for replicating high-pressure accident scenarios, a heater to keep iodine in a vapor form, a dosing pump for the injection of iodine, and a venturi scrubber, submerged in the scrubbing column, containing a solution of 0.2% sodium thiosulphate and 0.5% sodium hydroxide. Inlet and outlet samples were trapped in 0.1 M KOH solution and analyzed via UV-VIS spectroscopy. Operating parameters play an important role in the working of a venturi scrubber. The throat velocity was varied to determine its influence on the removal efficiency of iodine. An increase in removal efficiency was observed with an increase in throat velocity. A removal efficiency of >99% was achieved, which fulfilled the requirements for FCVS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1585 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Experimental Investigation of Thermosiphoning Heat Transfer through Nanofluids in Compound Parabolic Collector
by Shaharyar Ahmad, Muzaffar Ali, Furqan Ali, Shahzeb Ahmad, Daniyal Ahmad and Obaid Iftikhar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012039 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The finite nature of fossil fuels and their adverse effects on the environment have forced mankind to look for alternate energy sources. Solar energy is one of them, and Pakistan has immense potential. This paper specifically focuses on achieving these purposes by using [...] Read more.
The finite nature of fossil fuels and their adverse effects on the environment have forced mankind to look for alternate energy sources. Solar energy is one of them, and Pakistan has immense potential. This paper specifically focuses on achieving these purposes by using compound parabolic collectors. They are non-tracking and are used for low to medium temperature ranges. To achieve thermosiphoning, nanofluids, which have a high heat transfer rate, are used. Flow rates and outlet temperatures are obtained, by experimentation and by a numerical analysis with water and nanofluids (Fe2O3 and Al2O3). The maximum numerical flow rate achieved was 9.3 mL/s with Fe2O3. The maximum flow rate achieved in the outdoor setup was 10.78 mL/s. Numerical and experimental results were validated with previous research with some deviation. The use of nanofluids and thermosiphoning can greatly enhance the performance of our system and reduce the mechanical work of a pump in a hybrid system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 322 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Implementation of a Red Object Tracking Algorithm with a Single, Static Camera
by Ali Arshad, Saman Cheema and Umair Ahsan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012040 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 999
Abstract
In recent years, activity recognition and object tracking are receiving extensive attention due to the increasing demand for adaptable surveillance systems. Activity recognition is guided by the parameters such as the shape, size, and color of the object. This article purposes an examination [...] Read more.
In recent years, activity recognition and object tracking are receiving extensive attention due to the increasing demand for adaptable surveillance systems. Activity recognition is guided by the parameters such as the shape, size, and color of the object. This article purposes an examination of the performance of existing color-based object detection and tracking algorithms using thermal/visual camera-based video steaming in MATLAB. A framework is developed to detect and track red moving objects in real time. Detection is carried out based on the location information acquired from an adaptive image processing algorithm. Coordinate extraction is followed by tracking and locking the object with the help of a laser barrel. The movement of the laser barrel is controlled with the help of an 8051 microcontroller. Location information is communicated from the image-processing algorithm to the microcontroller serially. During implementation, a single static camera is used that provides 30 frames per second. For each frame, 88 ms are required to complete all three steps from detection to tracking, to locking, so a processing speed of 12 frames per second is implemented. This repetition makes the setup adaptive to the environment despite the presence of a single static camera. This setup can handle multiple objects with shades of red and has demonstrated equally good results in varying outdoor conditions. Currently, the setup can lock only single targets, but the capacity of the system can be increased with the installation of multiple cameras and laser barrels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 214 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Selection of Sensors for Heliostat of Concentrated Solar Thermal Tower Power Plant
by Kamran Mahboob, Qasim Awais, Awais Khan, Tabish Fawad, Momen Rasool, Qasim Nawaz and Umair Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012041 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
As the energy demand of the world is rising, more and more efforts are being made to harness different forms of energy available. Current pollution due to fossil fuels has directed the world to shift to cleaner renewable energies, such as solar. Photovoltaic, [...] Read more.
As the energy demand of the world is rising, more and more efforts are being made to harness different forms of energy available. Current pollution due to fossil fuels has directed the world to shift to cleaner renewable energies, such as solar. Photovoltaic, as well as concentrated solar technologies, are developed to harness solar energy. The concentrated solar tower power plant is an emerging technology and is under development having vast areas of improvement. The efficiency of the concentrated solar tower power plant depends upon the accuracy of the tracking system of the heliostats placed all around the central tower of the plant. A closed-loop tracking system a feedback method is a need. In addition, to check the accuracy of the system, a calibration system is required. This system uses different types of sensors. In this study, an effort is made to enlist different types of sensors available and their use in the tracking system of the solar thermal tower power plant. In addition, different sensors are suggested that are best suited for calibration and correction purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
5 pages, 1281 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
LLCLC Resonant Converter Based Pseudo DC Link Inverter
by Arslan Arif, Junaid Arshad and Shahid Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012042 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Technological advancements in solar power systems necessitate highly reliable power inverters with a high efficiency and a small size. An LLC resonant converter-based pseudo Direct Current (DC) link inverters offer these qualities to some extent. The resonant circuits of conventional pseudo DC link [...] Read more.
Technological advancements in solar power systems necessitate highly reliable power inverters with a high efficiency and a small size. An LLC resonant converter-based pseudo Direct Current (DC) link inverters offer these qualities to some extent. The resonant circuits of conventional pseudo DC link inverters lack the ability to attain a zero gain and cannot handle variable frequency control which in turn requires very large filters to produce pure sinusoidal output voltages for grid. The usage of these filters consequences in the enhanced price and size of inverters; moreover, the reliability of inverters is also reduced. We propose a novel topology for a pseudo DC link inverter based on an LLCLC resonant converter. The proposed inverter does not require large filters, because it generates rectified sinusoidal output voltages. An additional parallel LC component is added in series to the resonant circuit, which makes it able to attain a zero gain through an infinite circuit impedance. The 400 W pseudo DC link inverter with a 40 V input and a 400 V output is designed and simulated on OrCAD PSpice software. The results showed that there is a significant improvement in achieving a zero gain. The possible lowest gain achieved is approximately 0.125. The proposed technique attested to be more efficient than those formerly used, subsequently contributing satisfying outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 892 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Analysis of Half-Bridge LLC Resonant Converters Using Si and SiC MOSFETs
by Hasaan Farooq, Hassan Abdullah Khalid, Waleed Ali and Ismail Shahid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012043 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
With the expansion of renewable energy sources worldwide, the need for developing more economical and more efficient converters that can operate on a high frequency with minimal switching and conduction losses has been increased. In power electronic converters, achieving high efficiency is one [...] Read more.
With the expansion of renewable energy sources worldwide, the need for developing more economical and more efficient converters that can operate on a high frequency with minimal switching and conduction losses has been increased. In power electronic converters, achieving high efficiency is one of the most challenging targets to achieve. The utilization of wideband switches can achieve this goal but add additional cost to the system. LLC resonant converters are widely used in different applications of renewable energy systems, i.e., PV, wind, hydro and geothermal, etc. This type of converter has more benefits than the other converters such as high electrical isolation, high power density, low EMI, and high efficiency. In this paper, a comparison between silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET and silicon (Si) MOSFET switches was made, by considering a 3KW half-bridge LLC converter with a wide range of input voltage. The switching losses and conduction losses were analyzed through mathematical calculations, and their authenticity was validated with the help of software simulations in PSIM. The results show that silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs can work more efficiently, as compared with silicon (Si) MOSFETs in high-frequency power applications. However, in low-voltage and low-power applications, Si MOSFETs are still preferable due to their low-cost advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 464 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modeling and Analysis of STATCOM for Renewable Energy Farm to Improve Power Quality and Reactive Power Compensation
by Maria Tariq, Hina Zaheer and Tahir Mahmood
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012044 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
Power Quality (PQ) improvement in grid-integrated photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy hybrid systems for effective power transfer is presented in this paper. Due to interlinked hybrid renewable energy resources and nonlinear loads, various issues arise which affect the power quality, i.e., voltage sag, [...] Read more.
Power Quality (PQ) improvement in grid-integrated photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy hybrid systems for effective power transfer is presented in this paper. Due to interlinked hybrid renewable energy resources and nonlinear loads, various issues arise which affect the power quality, i.e., voltage sag, harmonic distortion increases, and also reactive power demand. In order to mitigate these issues, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices are utilized. In this paper, hysteresis band current controller (HBCC)-based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is modeled to reduce PQ problems. HBCC is a robust and simple technique to improve voltage profile, reduce total harmonic distortion (THD) and fulfill the reactive power demand. Two case scenarios of the hybrid system, i.e., (I) grid integrated hybrid system without HBCC (II) grid integrated hybrid system with HBCC, are tested. Results demonstrate that under scenario II, load bus voltage is regulated at 1.0 p.u., THD of system voltage and current is reduced 0.25% and 0.35%, respectively, and reactive power demand of 30 kVAR is fulfilled. The HBCC was designed for reducing THD of the system with the limits specified by standards IEEE 519-1992 STATCOM using hysteresis band current controller to improve power quality in the distribution system which is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. After that, the performance of the system is better in terms of power quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1070 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Designing of a Hybrid Photovoltaic Structure for an Energy-Efficient Street Lightning System Using PVsyst Software
by Muhammad Tamoor, Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Muhammad Farhan, Sajjad Miran, Faakhar Raza and Muhammad Ans Zaka
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012045 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
With the depletion of traditional fossil fuels, their disastrous impact on the environment and rising costs, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) energy are rapidly emerging as sustainable and clean sources of power generation. The performance of photovoltaic systems is based on [...] Read more.
With the depletion of traditional fossil fuels, their disastrous impact on the environment and rising costs, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) energy are rapidly emerging as sustainable and clean sources of power generation. The performance of photovoltaic systems is based on different factors such as the type of photovoltaic modules, irradiation potential and geographic location. In this research, PVsyst simulation software is used to design and simulate a hybrid photovoltaic system used to operate energy-efficient street lightning system. The simulation is performed to analyze the monthly/annual energy generated (kWh) by the hybrid system and specific power production (kWh/KWp). Additionally, various PV system losses are also investigated. The hybrid PV system has 4 parallel strings, and each string has 13 series-connected (mono crystalline 400 W Canadian Solar) PV modules. The energy storage system consists of 16 Narada (AcmeG 12 V 200) batteries with a nominal capacity of 1600 Ah. The simulation results show that the total annual energy production and specific energy production, were calculated to be 26.68 MWh/year and 1283 kWh/kWp/year, respectively. Simulation results also show the maximum energy injected into the utility grid in the month of June (1.814 MWh) and the minimum energy injected into the utility grid in the month of January (0.848 MWh). The battery cycle state of wear is 84.8%, and the static state of wear is 91.7%. Performance ratio (PR) analysis shows that the highest performance ratio of the hybrid system was 68.2% in December, the lowest performance ratio was 62.7% in May and the annual average performance ratio of a hybrid PV system is 65.57%. After identifying the major source of energy losses, the detailed losses for the whole year were computed and shown by the loss diagrams. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of the proposed system, a simple payback period calculation was performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1283 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Multispectral Pest-Detection Algorithm for Precision Agriculture
by Syed Umar Rasheed, Wasif Muhammad, Irfan Qaiser and Muhammad Jehanzeb Irshad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012046 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Invertebrates are abundant in horticulture and farming environments, and can be detrimental. Early pest detection for an integrated pest-management system with an integration of physical, biological, and prophylactic methods has huge potential for the better yield of crops. Computer vision techniques with multispectral [...] Read more.
Invertebrates are abundant in horticulture and farming environments, and can be detrimental. Early pest detection for an integrated pest-management system with an integration of physical, biological, and prophylactic methods has huge potential for the better yield of crops. Computer vision techniques with multispectral images are used to detect and classify pests in dynamic environmental conditions, such as sunlight variations, partial occlusions, low contrast, etc. Various state-of-art, deep learning approaches have been proposed, but there are some major limitations to these methods. For example, labelled images are required to supervise the training of deep networks, which is tiresome work. Secondly, a huge in-situ database with variant environmental conditions is not available for deep learning, or is difficult to build for fretful bioaggressors. In this paper, we propose a machine-vision-based multispectral pest-detection algorithm, which does not require any kind of supervised network training. Multispectral images are used as input for the proposed pest-detection algorithm, and each image provides comprehensive information about different textural and morphological features, and visible information, i.e., size, shape, orientation, color, and wing patterns for each insect. Feature identification is performed by a SURF algorithm, and feature extraction is accomplished by least median of square regression (LMEDS). Feature fusion of RGB and NIR images onto the coordinates of Ultraviolet (UV) is performed after affine transformation. The mean identification errors of type I, II, and total mean error surpass the mean errors of the state-of-art methods. The type I, II, and total mean errors, with 6.672% UV weights, were emanated to 1.62, 40.27, and 3.26, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 917 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction Error-Based Action Policy Learning for Quadcopter Flight Control
by Jamal Shams Khanzada, Wasif Muhammad and Muhammad Jehanzeb Irshad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012047 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Quadcopters are finding their place in everything from transportation, delivery, hospitals, and to homes in almost every part of daily life. In places where human intervention for quadcopter flight control is impossible, it becomes necessary to equip drones with intelligent autopilot systems so [...] Read more.
Quadcopters are finding their place in everything from transportation, delivery, hospitals, and to homes in almost every part of daily life. In places where human intervention for quadcopter flight control is impossible, it becomes necessary to equip drones with intelligent autopilot systems so that they can make decisions on their own. All previous reinforcement learning (RL)-based efforts for quadcopter flight control in complex, dynamic, and unstructured environments remained unsuccessful during the training phase in avoiding the trend of catastrophic failures by naturally unstable quadcopters. In this work, we propose a complementary approach for quadcopter flight control using prediction error as an effective control policy reward in the sensory space instead of rewards from unstable action spaces alike in conventional RL approaches. The proposed predictive coding biased competition using divisive input modulation (PC/BC-DIM) neural network learns prediction error-based flight control policy without physically actuating quadcopter propellers, which ensures its safety during training. The proposed network learned flight control policy without any physical flights, which reduced the training time to almost zero. The simulation results showed that the trained agent reached the destination accurately. For 20 quadcopter flight trails, the average path deviation from the ground truth was 1.495 and the root mean square (RMS) of the goal reached 1.708. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 618 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Predication-Error-Based Intrinsically Motivated Saccade Learning
by Ihsan Ahmed, Wasif Muhammad, Ali Asghar and Muhammad Jehanzeb Irshad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012048 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
The quick, simultaneous movements of both eyes in the same direction is called a saccade, and the process of developing an internal model for the eyes’ movement-control based on visual stimuli is called saccade learning. All humans use this type of eye motion [...] Read more.
The quick, simultaneous movements of both eyes in the same direction is called a saccade, and the process of developing an internal model for the eyes’ movement-control based on visual stimuli is called saccade learning. All humans use this type of eye motion to bring salient objects to the foveal locations of the retina, even if the objects are located randomly in the surrounding environment. To begin with, infants are not able to perform this type of eye motion, but sensory information motivates them to start learning saccadic behavior. In this paper, a sensory prediction-error-based intrinsically motivated model is proposed for learning saccadic eye movements, and this approach is more consistent with biological systems for saccade learning. Predicted Coding/Biased Competition using Divisive Input Modulation (PC/BC-DIM) network is used for saccade learning using sensory prediction errors. The quantification of sensory prediction errors provides an intrinsic reward. A simulated humanoid agent, iCub, is used to assess and quantify the performance of the proposed model. The performance metrics used for this purpose are percentage mean post-saccadic distance and standard deviation. The mean post-saccadic distance for the proposed model was less than 1°, which is biologically plausible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 17007 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAM) of Driverless Car in GPS-Denied Areas
by Abira Kanwal, Zunaira Anjum and Wasif Muhammad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012049 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
A simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm allows a mobile robot or a driverless car to determine its location in an unknown and dynamic environment where it is placed, and simultaneously allows it to build a consistent map of that environment. Driverless cars [...] Read more.
A simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm allows a mobile robot or a driverless car to determine its location in an unknown and dynamic environment where it is placed, and simultaneously allows it to build a consistent map of that environment. Driverless cars are becoming an emerging reality from science fiction, but there is still too much required for the development of technological breakthroughs for their control, guidance, safety, and health related issues. One existing problem which is required to be addressed is SLAM of driverless car in GPS denied-areas, i.e., congested urban areas with large buildings where GPS signals are weak as a result of congested infrastructure. Due to poor reception of GPS signals in these areas, there is an immense need to localize and route driverless car using onboard sensory modalities, e.g., LIDAR, RADAR, etc., without being dependent on GPS information for its navigation and control. The driverless car SLAM using LIDAR and RADAR involves costly sensors, which appears to be a limitation of this approach. To overcome these limitations, in this article we propose a visual information-based SLAM (vSLAM) algorithm for GPS-denied areas using a cheap video camera. As a front-end process, features-based monocular visual odometry (VO) on grayscale input image frames is performed. Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) refinement and global pose estimation is performed as a back-end process. The results obtained from the proposed approach demonstrate 95% accuracy with a maximum mean error of 4.98. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 795 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Open Source Water Quality Measurement System for Remote Areas
by Muhammad Owais Tariq, Asif Siddiq, Hafsa Irshad, Muhammad Aman and Muhammad Shahbaz Khan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012050 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
The unavailability of safe drinking water leads to poor conditions related to mental and physical health. To quantify the quality of water, laboratories testing the water are present in major cities which assess the basic quality parameters of drinking water, e.g., total dissolved [...] Read more.
The unavailability of safe drinking water leads to poor conditions related to mental and physical health. To quantify the quality of water, laboratories testing the water are present in major cities which assess the basic quality parameters of drinking water, e.g., total dissolved salts (TDS), ion concentration (conductivity), turbidity, and pH value as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The unavailability of such testing laboratories at remote locations makes the testing of the drinking water difficult. Establishing such laboratories is a tedious job as it requires a lot of costly equipment and specially trained personnel to operate them, making them difficult to handle. To address these issues, a water quality monitoring system for remote areas was designed which is capable of measuring basic measurable qualities of salt concentration, ion concentration, turbidity, and pH value. With the utilization of such a system, the user can qualify the water present in the vicinity as safe or unsafe for drinking purposes. The results from the proposed system are evaluated based on standard testing results and it is found that our water quality monitoring system is in agreement with the standard lab results with an average error of 2.9%, 1.4%, 1.2%, and 1.2% for pH, turbidity, conductivity, and TDS, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1070 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modelling Ocean Waves and an Investigation of Ocean Wave Spectra for the Wave-to-Wire Model of Energy Harvesting
by Safdar Rasool, Kashem M. Muttaqi and Danny Sutanto
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012051 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Ocean wave energy is an abundant and clean source of energy; however, its potential is largely untapped. Although the concept of energy harvesting from ocean waves is antiquated, the advances in wave energy conversion technologies are embryonic. In many major studies related to [...] Read more.
Ocean wave energy is an abundant and clean source of energy; however, its potential is largely untapped. Although the concept of energy harvesting from ocean waves is antiquated, the advances in wave energy conversion technologies are embryonic. In many major studies related to wave-to-wire technologies, ocean waves are considered to be regular waves with a fixed amplitude and frequency. However, the actual ocean waves are the sum of multiple frequencies that exhibit a particular sea state with a significant wave height and peak period. Therefore, in this paper, detailed modelling of the ocean waves is presented and different wave spectra are analyzed. The wave spectra will eventually be used for the generation of wave elevation time series. Those time series can be used for the wave-to-wire model-based studies for improved investigations into wave energy conversion mechanisms, mimicking the real ocean conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 760 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon-Based Composites for Hydrogen Storage Application
by Arslan Munir, Ali Ahmad, Muhammad Tahseen Sadiq, Ali Sarosh, Ghulam Abbas and Asad Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012052 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Recent development shows that carbon-based composites are proving to be the most promising materials in hydrogen energy production, storage and conversion applications. In this study, composites of the copper-based metal-organic framework with different ratios of graphite oxide have been prepared for hydrogen storage [...] Read more.
Recent development shows that carbon-based composites are proving to be the most promising materials in hydrogen energy production, storage and conversion applications. In this study, composites of the copper-based metal-organic framework with different ratios of graphite oxide have been prepared for hydrogen storage application. The developed materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), gravimetric thermal analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET. The newly developed composites have an improved crystalline structure and an increased surface area. The results of the experiment showed that the composite material MOF/GO 20% can store 6.12% of hydrogen at −40 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1094 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Productivity Enhancement of Solar Water Desalination Unit Using a Solar Electric Water Heater
by Kamran Mahboob, Qasim Awais, Muhammad Yahya, Muhammad Mehtab and Awais Khan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012053 - 8 Jan 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
The biggest problem faced by the world these days is pure drinkable water, and in a few years pure drinkable water will not be easily available, as it is becoming brackish and saline due to pollution. By using solar energy, a solar still [...] Read more.
The biggest problem faced by the world these days is pure drinkable water, and in a few years pure drinkable water will not be easily available, as it is becoming brackish and saline due to pollution. By using solar energy, a solar still can produce pure water which can be used for drinking, cooking, and also for industrial purposes. In this research, a solar still based on clean technology using solar energy to drive the system is used. It can be operated easily and with an approximately negligible maintenance cost. A pyramid solar water desalination unit with modification of the solar electric water heater (used to increase water temperature) is developed to increase the water yield per day. A theoretical model of the solar still unit with and without an electric water heater is developed and performance is compared. Based on this theoretical design, fabrication is carried out and experiments are performed to predict the overall output. It is observed that the output distilled water has a TDS (total dissolved salts) value much lower than the TDS of groundwater. Additionally, the average output of a solar water desalination unit with an electric water heater is found to be enhanced compared with the unit without an electric water heater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 724 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novel Wideband Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) Fed Antenna for Energy Harvesting at 2.45 GHz
by Qasim Awais, Asad Farooq, Waqas Ali, Reshal Afzal and Adeel Khalid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012054 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Conversion of electric power from a high voltage to a low voltage causes power losses that also require efficient circuit design techniques to be implemented for durability of a system. Energy harvesting techniques have been implemented to cater to the power demand of [...] Read more.
Conversion of electric power from a high voltage to a low voltage causes power losses that also require efficient circuit design techniques to be implemented for durability of a system. Energy harvesting techniques have been implemented to cater to the power demand of low power electronic devices using electromagnetic, electrostatic, and other related technologies. This paper represents the compact design of an antenna system tuned at 2.45 GHz for radio frequency energy harvesting applications. The simulation results achieve a better gain of 5.4 dB along with enhanced radiation patterns. Impedance matching for 50 Ohm is implemented using a high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The results of the antenna gain, VSWR, and radiation efficiency are compared with the literature. Furthermore, the size of the antenna system has great significance in medical and military related applications; this aspect is also considered in this design and overall, a 20 mm × 37 mm compact antenna is achieved by using mm wave considerations. This antenna design can be embedded in the wireless sensor network (WSN), RFID, and IoT related application to generate the required power required. Mostly, WSN nodes currently use traditional batteries that need to be replaced after some time. As in most cases, WSN nodes are scattered in wide geographical areas, so maintaining the power to these systems becomes challenging. RF energy harvesting provides a solution in these cases where wind, vibration, and solar sources are scarce. The simulated impedance bandwidth is found to range from 1.1 GHz to 5.2 GHz within the acceptable VSWR values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 710 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Lemon Grading and Sorting Using Computer Vision
by Talha Mukhtar, Sunil Jamil, Usman Arif, Waleed Razzaq and Muhammad Wasif
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012055 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
This paper presents an automatic system for sorting and grading lemons using computer vision. It eliminates human errors in sorting processes. Lemons are sorted into three categories; ripe, semi-ripe, and a combined class of defective and unripe. A camera is used to capture [...] Read more.
This paper presents an automatic system for sorting and grading lemons using computer vision. It eliminates human errors in sorting processes. Lemons are sorted into three categories; ripe, semi-ripe, and a combined class of defective and unripe. A camera is used to capture an image of the lemon, and image analysis is done using Raspberry Pi. A conveyor belt system and a mechanical pusher put the lemon into its respective class. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1042 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wearable Hand-Rehabilitation System with Soft Gloves for Patient with Face Paralysis and Disability
by Waqas Ahmed, Muhammad Kashif Sattar, Wajeeha Shahnawaz, Umair Saeed, Shahbaz Mehmood Khan and Neha Amon Khan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012056 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
Artificially intelligent advances such as tech gloves allow handicapped wearers to handle daily matters as normal. A wearable hand-rehabilitation system, i.e., a robotic arm, is engineered with controlled programming to control a disabled hand with features such as movement of fingers and holding [...] Read more.
Artificially intelligent advances such as tech gloves allow handicapped wearers to handle daily matters as normal. A wearable hand-rehabilitation system, i.e., a robotic arm, is engineered with controlled programming to control a disabled hand with features such as movement of fingers and holding items. A life-threatening disease (stroke) is caused when brain cells start to die, causing around 50–70% of patients to face paralysis and disability. People may face after-effects such as reduced use of the hand and limb or a paralyzed hand. Many methods have been introduced to overcome these issues, including therapies, but they are not so reliable when overcoming disability issues. To overcome these issues, we proposed a smart robotic hand that encounters hand disability issues. The smart robotic hand will aid the hands of disabled people by replacing their disabled hand with the smart robotic hand and by controlling the movement of the robot with the movement of the other hand. This can also be helpful for environments where it is not feasible for humans to work, such as in nuclear reactors and in bomb disposal squads. Some people have disabilities of the hand, so this smart robotic hand can also be used in that scenario. The robotic hand is mainly controlled through a flex sensor. By using Arduino, flex sensor outputs are mapped accordingly to the servo motors. The robot is controlled by a wired arrangement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 2298 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cellulose Blended Membranes for High-Salinity Water Pervaporation Desalination
by Jawad Fareed, Muhammad Zafar, Mohsin Saleem, Rizwan Ahmed Malik and Muddassir Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012057 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
In the current study, cellulose acetate (CA)/cellulose triacetate (CTA) nanocomposite membranes blended with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) are prepared via phase inversion for pervaporation desalination performance. ZrO2 nanoparticles are added to enhance the hydrophilicity and porosity of the nanocomposite membranes. The [...] Read more.
In the current study, cellulose acetate (CA)/cellulose triacetate (CTA) nanocomposite membranes blended with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) are prepared via phase inversion for pervaporation desalination performance. ZrO2 nanoparticles are added to enhance the hydrophilicity and porosity of the nanocomposite membranes. The fabricated nanocomposite membranes are characterized by SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC to study the surface morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability and strength. Nanocomposite membranes’ performance for pervaporation desalination is assessed as a function of feed concentration. Pervaporation results revealed that the nanocomposite membrane consisting of 2% ZrO2 achieved a maximum water flux of 6.5 kg/m2h, whereas the salt rejection was about 99.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 487 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Search of a “Stable Green Nanofluid” for Applications in High Voltage Equipment
by Mohammad Zeagham, Tariq Mohammad Jadoon, Mohammad Iqbal Qureshi, Basit Qureshi and Syed Sabir
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012058 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Nanofluids are considered as the next generation of dielectric fluids due to their higher thermal conductivity and dielectric properties. In this investigation, locally produced ester oils, such as rice bran oil (RBO) and jatropha oil (JO), were compared with mineral oil (MO). Initially, [...] Read more.
Nanofluids are considered as the next generation of dielectric fluids due to their higher thermal conductivity and dielectric properties. In this investigation, locally produced ester oils, such as rice bran oil (RBO) and jatropha oil (JO), were compared with mineral oil (MO). Initially, hydrophilic SiO2 nano particles were used to prepare nanofluids using RBO and MO. However, results showed that with loading of nanoparticles (NPs) up to 0.075 g/L, the dielectric strength (DS) of MO based NFs increased but decreased drastically with further increase in loading as these suffered agglomeration and sedimentation in less than 72 h. To overcome this drawback, NPs were functionalized under plasma discharge. These efforts also did not yield many favorable results. Instead, hydrophobic fumed silica NPs grafted with hexamethyldi-siloxane (HMDS) were utilized for further study. Plasma treated NFs exhibited improved DS, as well as excellent dispersibility and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 188 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Motion Estimation in HEVC/H.265: Metaheuristic Approach to Improve the Efficiency
by Khwaja Humble Hassan and Shahzad Ahmad Butt
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012059 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
An ever increasing use of digital video applications such as video telephony, broadcast and the storage of high and ultra-high definition videos has steered the development of video coding standards. The state of the art video coding standard is High Efficiency Video Coding [...] Read more.
An ever increasing use of digital video applications such as video telephony, broadcast and the storage of high and ultra-high definition videos has steered the development of video coding standards. The state of the art video coding standard is High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or otherwise known as H.265. It promises to be 50 percent more efficient than the previous video coding standard H.264. Ultimately, H.265 provides significant improvement in compression at the expense of computational complexity. HEVC encoder is very complex and 50 percent of the encoding consists of Motion Estimation (ME). It uses a Test Zone (TZ) fast search algorithm for its motion estimation, which compares a block of pixels with a few selected blocks in the search region of a referenced frame. However, the encoding time is not suitable to meet the needs of real time video applications. So, there is a requirement to improve the search algorithm and to provide comparable results to TZ search to save a substantial amount of time. In our paper, we aim to study the effects of a meta-heuristic algorithm on motion estimation. One such suitable algorithm for this task is the Firefly Algorithm (FA). FA is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and is generally used to solve optimization problems. Our results show that implementing FA for ME saves a considerable amount of time with a comparable encoding efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
4 pages, 1174 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Life Cycle Assessment of 2.0 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine for Sustainability Analysis
by Rabia Hassan, Muhammad Mahboob, Zubair Ahmed Jan and Muhammad Ashiq
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012060 - 6 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The world is increasingly experiencing unanticipated catastrophic events because of the impact of greenhouse gasses. The two major issues with the conventional energy system are unsustainability and global warming, which are extremely harmful for the climate. The core objective of this study is [...] Read more.
The world is increasingly experiencing unanticipated catastrophic events because of the impact of greenhouse gasses. The two major issues with the conventional energy system are unsustainability and global warming, which are extremely harmful for the climate. The core objective of this study is a compilation of the findings related to a life cycle assessment of horizontal axis wind turbines in regard to sustainable development. Sustainability aspects and concerns have been studied and reported in terms of the life cycle of wind energy technology. This article focused on energy consumed during the life of the 2.0 MW wind turbine, mostly in the production of primary materials, processes, and maintenance-related transport phase. The turbine’s overall energy produced 1,750,000 kWh throughout a 20-year life. Over a 20year lifespan, the overall energy produced by the turbine is approximately 32% more than the energy needed to construct, and the destination for the turbine materials is a landfill at the end of the turbine’s life. For a 40% wind turbine power ratio, with the wind turbine materials delivered to landfill at the end of the turbine’s life, the electricity payback period is around 10 months, and for recycled materials it is 6 months. The comparison is also done for the wind turbine materials which are sent to landfill with and without recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1158 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Deep Eutectic Solvent-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA-15-Based Mixed Matrix Polymeric Membranes for Mitigation of CO2
by Saif-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Khaliq U Zaman, Muhammad Ahsan Waseem, Shafiq Uz Zaman and Muhammad Shozab Mehdi
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012061 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
In this research, a novel DES (choline chloride + decanoic acid) was synthesized, and SBA-15 was functionalized by the DES to form a DES-SBA filler to fabricate MMMs. DES-SBA-based MMMs at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were synthesized and evaluated. The DES-SBA-based MMMs [...] Read more.
In this research, a novel DES (choline chloride + decanoic acid) was synthesized, and SBA-15 was functionalized by the DES to form a DES-SBA filler to fabricate MMMs. DES-SBA-based MMMs at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were synthesized and evaluated. The DES-SBA-based MMMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gas permeation tests were applied to the pure and mixed gas samples, and the results of the permeability and selectivity (CO2/CH4, and CO2/N2) of the membranes are reported. DES modification of SBA-15 increased the efficiency of the synthesized MMMs in comparison with the pristine polysulfone membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 205 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Embodied Energy and Environmental Impact of Sustainable Building Materials and Technologies for Residential Sector
by Muhammad Mahboob, Muzaffar Ali, Tanzeel ur Rashid and Rabia Hassan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012062 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The energy demand of developing countries increases every year. Large amounts of energy are consumed during the production and transportation of construction materials. Conservation of energy became important in the perspective of limiting carbon emissions into the environment and for decreasing the cost [...] Read more.
The energy demand of developing countries increases every year. Large amounts of energy are consumed during the production and transportation of construction materials. Conservation of energy became important in the perspective of limiting carbon emissions into the environment and for decreasing the cost of materials. This article is concentrated on some issues affecting the embodied energy of construction materials mainly in the residential sector. Energy consumption in three various wall structures has been made. The comparison demonstrated that the embodied energy of traditional wall structures is 3-times higher than the energy efficient building materials. CO2 emissions produced by conventional materials and green building materials are 54.96 Kg CO2/m2 and 35.33 Kg CO2/m2, respectively. Finally, the results revealed substantial difference in embodied energy and carbon footprints of materials for which its production involves a high amount of energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
4 pages, 719 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Banana Fiber on Flexural Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Sustainable Construction
by Ahsan Afraz and Majid Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012063 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 9199
Abstract
Currently, banana fiber composites have received wide attention because of their ecofriendly properties. The overall aim of this study is to prove banana fiber as an eco-efficient construction material by checking the behavior of banana fiber-reinforced concrete during flexural loading. The length of [...] Read more.
Currently, banana fiber composites have received wide attention because of their ecofriendly properties. The overall aim of this study is to prove banana fiber as an eco-efficient construction material by checking the behavior of banana fiber-reinforced concrete during flexural loading. The length of fiber is kept 50 mm and a fiber content of 5% by the weight of cement was used for preparing banana fiber reinforced concrete. It is shown from the results that the flexural toughness index (FTI) that has a vital role in sustainable concrete increased while the modulus of rupture (MOR) of banana fiber reinforced concrete decreased as compared to ordinary concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 492 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pore Network Modelling of Porous Media for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: A Case Study of Pakistan
by Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh, Irfan Ullah and Muzaffar Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012064 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in natural rocks is an important strategy for reducing and capturing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The amount of CO2 stored in a natural reservoir such as natural rocks is the major challenge for any [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in natural rocks is an important strategy for reducing and capturing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The amount of CO2 stored in a natural reservoir such as natural rocks is the major challenge for any economically viable CO2 storage. The intricate nature of the porous media and the estimates of the replacement of residing aqueous media with the invading CO2 is the challenge. The current study uses MATLAB to construct a similar porous network model for simulation of complex porous storage. The model is designed to mimic the overall properties of the natural porous media in terms of permeability, porosity and inter-pore connectivity. Here a dynamic pore network is simulated and validated, firstly in the case of a porous network with one fluid invading empty network. Subsequently, the simulations for an invading fluid (CO2) capturing the porous media with filled aqueous brine solution are also carried out in a dynamic fashion. This resembles the actual storage process of CO2 sequestration in natural rocks. While the sensitivity analysis suggests that the differential pressure and porosity have a direct effect on saturation, increasing differential pressure or porosity increases the saturation of CO2 storage. The results for typically occurring rocks in Pakistan are also studies and related with the findings of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1212 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy Efficient Strategy Development of Steam Turbine through Vibration Reduction Using ANN and SVM Approaches
by Yasir Rafique and Abid Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012065 - 4 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The energy efficiency of a power plant is largely determined by the vibrations of bearings that hold the shaft rotating at high speed which need to be critically controlled. This study presents the relative vibration modeling of a shaft bearing that is installed [...] Read more.
The energy efficiency of a power plant is largely determined by the vibrations of bearings that hold the shaft rotating at high speed which need to be critically controlled. This study presents the relative vibration modeling of a shaft bearing that is installed in a 660 MW supercritical steam turbine system. The operational data in raw form after being cleaned using machine learning based visualization and extensive data processing helped in training and validation of SVM and ANN models which are then compared by external validation tests. The model with best results is then used for the simulations of constructed operating scenarios. The ANN has been further tested for the complete operational load range (353 MW to 662 MW) which predicted the reduction in relative vibrations. Moreover, the validated ANN model has been used to develop many strategies of vibration reduction which helped in achieving more than 4% reduction in relative vibrations. Subsequently, an operational strategy that predicts a significant reduction in the bearing vibration levels is selected. For confirmation of the accuracy of prediction by ANN process model, the selected strategy has been used with the actual power plant. This assures the significant reduction of bearing vibration less than the alarm limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1341 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimal Analysis of 40 Gbps Dispersion Compensated Optical Fiber System
by Murad Hassan and Arslan Arif
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012066 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Dispersion is one of the main factors that limit the development of optical fiber communication systems regarding data rate and long distance transmission of the signal. This is because of increases in dispersion with the increase in data rate and distance, resulting in [...] Read more.
Dispersion is one of the main factors that limit the development of optical fiber communication systems regarding data rate and long distance transmission of the signal. This is because of increases in dispersion with the increase in data rate and distance, resulting in signal degradation. In this work, we propose an optimal dispersion compensated optical fiber system, which is designed on the basis of Q-factor, eye height, and bit error rate. The system operates at a bit rate of 40 Gbps and a distance of 100 km. According to the optimization scheme, the system is simulated using the modulation format Non Return to Zero (NRZ) with uniform and Linear Chirped Apodized Fiber Bragg Grating (LCAFBG) as dispersion compensator. After deciding the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure, other key parameters are simulated to meet the requirements. The simulation results show that using NRZ modulation format with a LCAFBG Tanh profile gives better performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 644 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Study of SLAM Techniques for UAV
by Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Jehanzeb Irshad, Muhammad Wasif, Syed Umar Rasheed, Nouman Aziz and Hamza Taj
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012067 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
In the last few decades, the main problem which has attracted the attention of researchers in the field of aerial robotics is the position estimation or Simultaneously Localization and Mapping (SLAM) of aerial vehicles where the GPS system does not work. Aerial robotics [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, the main problem which has attracted the attention of researchers in the field of aerial robotics is the position estimation or Simultaneously Localization and Mapping (SLAM) of aerial vehicles where the GPS system does not work. Aerial robotics are used to perform many tasks such as rescue, transportation, search, control, monitoring, and different military operations where the performance of humans is impossible because of their vast top view and reachability anywhere. There are many different techniques and algorithms which are used to overcome the localization and mapping problem. These techniques and algorithms use different sensors such as Red Green Blue and Depth (RGBD), Light Detecting and Range (LIDAR), Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques, and probability-based SLAM which uses two algorithms Linear Kalman Filter (LKF) and Extended Kalman filter (EKF). LKF consists of 5 phases and this algorithm is only used for linear system problems but on the other hand, EKF algorithm is also used for non-linear system. EKF is found better than LKF due to accuracy, practicality, and efficiency while dealing SLAM problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 614 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Bio-Fuel from Refinery Waste through Anaerobic Digestion
by Sophia Nawaz Gishkori, Ghulam Abbas, Aqeel Ahmad Shah, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Muhammad Salman Haider and Fahid Nisar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012068 - 4 Jan 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
In this study we report biofuel potential in waste cake obtained from oil refinery. The sample was analyzed for its calorific value using auto bomb calorimeter (LECO AC-500), proximate analysis using Thermogravimetric analyzer (LECO 701) and elemental analysis using CHNS analyzer (LECO Tru-Spec). [...] Read more.
In this study we report biofuel potential in waste cake obtained from oil refinery. The sample was analyzed for its calorific value using auto bomb calorimeter (LECO AC-500), proximate analysis using Thermogravimetric analyzer (LECO 701) and elemental analysis using CHNS analyzer (LECO Tru-Spec). The elemental analysis of dry waste cake vs wet cake depicted the percentage composition of carbon (49.8%, 40.8%), hydrogen (7.9%, 6.0%), nitrogen (2.8%, 1.9%), Sulphur (1.9%, 0.5%) and oxygen content (37.6%, 40.4%). As for as the thermal degradation behavior of dry and wet cake in TGA is concerned, higher moisture contents (68.50%) found in wet cake and lower in dry cake (40.1%). Whereas the volatile matter in dry cake (30.9%) and low volatile in wet cake (14.3%). Similarly, %age of ash become high in dry cake (17.3%) and low in wet cake (5.11%). The results reflected that higher heating value of dry waste cake is higher (22.5 MJ/kg) than wet waste cake (20.5 MJ/kg) and commonly used sugarcane bagasse (17.88 MJ/kg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1665 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Single Stage Active Power Factor Correction Circuit for Street LED Light with Battery Backup
by Asad Muneer, Ahsan Fayyaz, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas Jabbar, Arslan Qaisar and Faisal Farooq
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012069 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
This paper introduces and uses a single-phase, high-power LED driver with a battery backup. The buck–boost converter and reverse converter are both combined to achieve optimal performance. In the first part of the integrated circuit, the buck–boost converter is simply used to adjust [...] Read more.
This paper introduces and uses a single-phase, high-power LED driver with a battery backup. The buck–boost converter and reverse converter are both combined to achieve optimal performance. In the first part of the integrated circuit, the buck–boost converter is simply used to adjust the power when operating in the non-continuous operating mode. The reverse converter provides free voltage to the LEDs when released as a remote DC–DC converter. The battery backup cycle directly charges the battery at the same power as the LED driver required and provides charging power when there is no electricity. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the entire system and proves that it is an effective solution for new lighting applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 917 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Solar Powered Resonant Inverter Fed a High Voltage DC Power Supply
by Muhammad Ajmal, Shahid Iqbal and Arslan Arif
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012070 - 6 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
This paper proposes a solar-powered resonant inverter fed a high-voltage DC power supply. In this converter, switching loss is controlled through zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching. This converter comprises a solar panel, boost converter, full-bridge LLC resonant tank, power transformer, and rectifier circuit. [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a solar-powered resonant inverter fed a high-voltage DC power supply. In this converter, switching loss is controlled through zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching. This converter comprises a solar panel, boost converter, full-bridge LLC resonant tank, power transformer, and rectifier circuit. All power switches are operated with an interleaved switching cycle to ensure equal power flow from the tank. This proposed converter is designed to produce a regulated 19.5 KV at output, with an input voltage range of 300–350 V. The proposed converter was simulated in PSpice to verify the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 2988 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Effective Combination of PLC and Microcontrollers for Centralized Traffic Control and Monitoring System
by Burhan Ahmed, Qasim Shehzad, Irfan Ullah, Nabeel Zahoor and Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012071 - 5 Jan 2022
Viewed by 3027
Abstract
In this paper, a smart and centralized traffic light control and monitoring system is proposed to control the modern transportation systems and make the city safer, using programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and programmable electronic microcontrollers. A camera is used to monitor the mishaps [...] Read more.
In this paper, a smart and centralized traffic light control and monitoring system is proposed to control the modern transportation systems and make the city safer, using programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and programmable electronic microcontrollers. A camera is used to monitor the mishaps during the traffic flow of vehicles. The system has four modes, i.e., auto-control mode (ACM), manual control mode (MCM), central control mode (CCM), and remote control mode (RCM). In the auto-control mode (ACM), the traffic light signals are controlled automatically through programmable electronic microcontrollers at specific times, while the manual control mode (MCM) controls the traffic light signals manually (on–off switches) according to the traffic congestion. The central control mode (CCM) is considered to be a centralized mode, where the programmable logic controller (PLC) is used by a computer workstation. In this mode, the traffic light signals are controlled by a ladder logic program of the PLC. The third mode, RCM, is linked with the second mode, CCM; in this mode, the traffic light signals are remotely controlled through the software by transferring programmable logic controller (PLC) functions to the software interface. As a result, this transportation system can also be controlled remotely. The designed system delivers suitable, flexible, and reliable control for traffic signaling and transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 2835 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Automatic Switch for Electric Power Transfer
by Asad Muneer, Faizan Amjad, Muhammad Waqas Jabbar and Usama Saleem
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012072 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
This article addresses the issue of power outage while transmitting electric power to consumer’s end. Electricity demand in today’s world has risen sharply where it must be generated not only using conventional fuels, but also from renewable sources in order to meet this [...] Read more.
This article addresses the issue of power outage while transmitting electric power to consumer’s end. Electricity demand in today’s world has risen sharply where it must be generated not only using conventional fuels, but also from renewable sources in order to meet this demand. In this regard, an automatic switch is being developed that allows switching between sources in such a way that first and foremost, electric power from solar and wind farms is transferred to the consumer or to the general network. It not only resolves the issue of unforeseen blackouts and power outages, but it also ensures that the consumer end is receiving voltage from a stable generating source. This is how the automatic switch will work effectively in the best interests of the consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 2187 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
GA Optimization for Regression Modeling of Electromagnetic Performances Predicted by a Subdomain Model for SMPMSM in an Electric Vehicle
by Syauqina Akmar Mohd-Shafri, Tow Leong Tiang, Choo Jun Tan, Dahaman Ishak and Mohd Saufi Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012073 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
This paper investigates a nonlinear modeling optimization of 12s/8p surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSM) with a radial magnetization pattern. The modeling is based on subdomain model (SDM) computation, where the analytical models are developed to predict the electromagnetic (EM) performances, such as, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a nonlinear modeling optimization of 12s/8p surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSM) with a radial magnetization pattern. The modeling is based on subdomain model (SDM) computation, where the analytical models are developed to predict the electromagnetic (EM) performances, such as, average EM torque and EM torque ripple in PM machines. A genetic algorithm is applied to the proposed model in order to search for the optimal solutions. The objective function of the optimizations is obtaining a higher average EM torque and achieving the minimum EM torque ripple. The data, viz, and the average EM torque and its ripples predicted by SDM are employed in regression analysis in order to find the model of best fit. After that, the most suitable fit of the computing equation is selected. The preliminary and optimal designs of 12s/8p PM motors are also compared in terms of parameters and motor performance. As a result, the regression model and GA framework has reduced the use of magnet materials and the EM torque ripple of the SMPMSM, making it ideal for use in an electric car. Lastly, the proposed model can determine the appropriate configuration design parameters for SMPMSM in order to achieve the best motor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1972 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Manufacturing of Economical Packing by Using Vacuum Forming Technique
by Irfan Mansoor, Ammar Naseer and Abdul Qadeer
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012074 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
The main focus of this research is on building an economical setup for the packaging of a variety of products using the thermoforming technique. Three different sheets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used during experimentation with a vacuum forming machine. The sheet with [...] Read more.
The main focus of this research is on building an economical setup for the packaging of a variety of products using the thermoforming technique. Three different sheets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used during experimentation with a vacuum forming machine. The sheet with 0.15 mm thickness took less heating time compared with the other two sheets of 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness. Better results are obtained in such a scenario when sheets are heated perfectly, and proper suction is applied. The sheet with 0.2 mm thickness gave the required results with a heating time of 245 s and temperature of 218 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 679 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
by Usama Ilyas, Muhammad Naqeeb Ullah Khan, Usama Ashfaq and Irfan Qaiser
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012075 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS), consists of two or more types of energy storage technologies, mostly includingbatteries, flywheels, super-capacitors, and fuel cells. The complementary features of HESS make it outperform any single energy storage device depending on the application energy requirements in [...] Read more.
A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS), consists of two or more types of energy storage technologies, mostly includingbatteries, flywheels, super-capacitors, and fuel cells. The complementary features of HESS make it outperform any single energy storage device depending on the application energy requirements in different scenarios/conditions. To overcome the opposing limitations of battery and supercapacitor, the battery has relatively high energy density but low power density as compared to the supercapacitor, an active battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS) with dc/dc converter is proposed. However, the main issue with an active battery/supercapacitor HESS is current flow control to accomplish two goals: minimizing the magnitude fluctuation of current flowing in/out of the battery and minimizing energy loss experienced by the supercapacitor/s. The purpose of this article is to perform optimization of an active battery/supercapacitor HESS for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The HESS topology used for the optimization consists of a parallel connected battery and supercapacitor/s to drive the load through the respective dc/dc converters. In this article, an efficient multiplicative-increase-additive-decrease concept-based algorithm is used to ensure an optimal solution. MATLAB simulations are used to demonstrate that the proposed scheme can optimally minimize the magnitude fluctuation of the battery current and the SC energy loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1189 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Degradation of Diclofenac under Irradiation of UV Lamp and Solar Light Using ZnO Photo Catalyst
by Muhammad Tanveer, Gokce Tezcanli, Muhammad Tahseen Sadiq, Syeda Memoona Kazmi, Nawal Noshad, Ghulam Abbas and Asad Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012076 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Diclofenac sodium (DCF) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug mainly used as an analgesic, arthritic and anti-rheumatic. This study deals with the degradation of diclofenac by photo catalytic-based advanced oxidation processes. Artificial UV lamp and solar rays have been applied to activate the ZnO [...] Read more.
Diclofenac sodium (DCF) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug mainly used as an analgesic, arthritic and anti-rheumatic. This study deals with the degradation of diclofenac by photo catalytic-based advanced oxidation processes. Artificial UV lamp and solar rays have been applied to activate the ZnO catalyst, thereby generating highly oxidizing species. These species initiate the degradation process of the drug, which results in intermediates that finally dissociate into carbon dioxide and water. The solar reactor system is comprised of quartz and borosilicate tubes alternatively for the absorption and transmission of the solar rays to the pollutant sample. The degradation rate has been analyzed by composition analysis using high performance liquid chromatography. TOC and COD tests have also been conducted for degraded samples. ZnO catalyst loading was tested from 0.1 gm/L to 1 gm/L and the degradation rate showed a rising trend up to 0.250 gm/L, but further increase in loading resulted in a drop in degradation. Similarly, degradation is higher in acidic condition as compared to neutral or basic pH. The results showed a higher degradation rate for UV lamp irradiation as compared to the solar system. Moreover, TOC and COD reduction is also found to be higher for UV lamp photo catalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1042 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
ZnO and TiO2 Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Butachlor in Aqueous Solution under Visible Light
by Mahmboob Ahmad, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Tanveer and Muhammad Zubair
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012077 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Butachlor usage is increasing due to the increasing demand for agricultural products. However, it has toxic effects on surface and underground water. The experiment was conducted under visible light and the effects of parameters such as pH, adsorbent quantity, contact time, and the [...] Read more.
Butachlor usage is increasing due to the increasing demand for agricultural products. However, it has toxic effects on surface and underground water. The experiment was conducted under visible light and the effects of parameters such as pH, adsorbent quantity, contact time, and the initial concentration of pesticides were investigated on the degradation of different pesticide solutions. The optimum dosing for ZnO and TiO2 was 0.5 g/L. Degradation by ZnO reached 96.3% and that by TiO2 reached 98.5%. The degradation effect of pH change was also analyzed and found to be higher in the basic region. The COD value was reduced effectively with TiO2. The results showed that TiO2 is more effective for degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1498 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Harnessing Ocean Energy from Coastal and Offshore Pakistan
by Shahid Amjad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012078 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
There is potential for harnessing renewable energy from coastal waves and tides, from the coastal and offshore areas of Pakistan. The Sindh coast is a complex creek network located in the 170 km of the Indus deltaic area. The flood and ebb of [...] Read more.
There is potential for harnessing renewable energy from coastal waves and tides, from the coastal and offshore areas of Pakistan. The Sindh coast is a complex creek network located in the 170 km of the Indus deltaic area. The flood and ebb of tides in and out of these creeks have a high velocity of 0.2–0.5 m/s. NIO Pakistan has conducted preliminary feasibility surveys for energy extraction from the Indus deltaic creek system. The 17 major creeks have the capacity to produce estimated energy of approximately 1100 MW. The seawater ingresses inland at some places up to 80 km due to the tidal fluctuation, which is favorable for energy extraction from tidal currents in coastal Sindh. In total, 71% of our Planet Earth is covered by the oceans. The oceans are massive collectors of solar radiation received from the sun. The oceans store the potential energy that is received in the form of incident radiation from the sun that generates thermal energy. A 10 °C temperature difference can be harnessed between the surface and bottom water, using a working fluid. The thermal difference absorbed by the oceans can be converted into electricity through ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The ocean tidal and wave energy has advantages over energy produced using different fossil fuels; there are also several benefits of using renewable sources of ocean energy. Viability of ocean energy in Pakistan is discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 876 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Visualization of Heliostat Field of Solar Thermal Tower Power Plant Using Virtual Reality (VR) Technologies
by Kamran Mahboob, Qasim Awais, Muhammad Awais, Ahsan Naseem, Safi Ullah and Awais Khan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012079 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
An important part of future global energy depends on the development of the solar industry. To date, we have noticed the shift from fossil fuels energy towards renewable energy. The past decade has shown significant progress in computer science, and CAD is increasingly [...] Read more.
An important part of future global energy depends on the development of the solar industry. To date, we have noticed the shift from fossil fuels energy towards renewable energy. The past decade has shown significant progress in computer science, and CAD is increasingly used for design and development. Visualization of the data generated from the models in the CAD program plays an important role in the creation of state-of-the-art designs. An important limitation during the design phase is the visualization of three-dimensional geometry. This article attempts to illustrate the use of VR technologies in solar thermal power plant development. This article analyzes various strategies and methods for the visualization of CAD models in virtual reality. Android phone interfaces with a desktop computer, as well as head movement control strategies, are discussed. It is concluded that VR technologies can help with visualization, as well as in the development of the field of solar thermal power plants, having minimal design-related issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1060 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Study on the Particle Flow and Validation of the Results Using TIS Model in a Continuously Operated Horizontal Fluidized Bed
by Asad Ali, Ghulam Abbas, Khurram Shahzad Ayub, Aiza Imran, Liaqat Ali and Muhammad Zaid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012080 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The particle residence time in a gas–solid fluidized bed is of great interest. In this work, experiments have been carried out to investigate particle transportation, which is a matter of concern especially in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, food, and many other industries where time is [...] Read more.
The particle residence time in a gas–solid fluidized bed is of great interest. In this work, experiments have been carried out to investigate particle transportation, which is a matter of concern especially in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, food, and many other industries where time is the major concern, which effects the product quality. By varying the feed rate and baffle gap height in this research, the dispersion coefficient decreases significantly, which reduces the back-mixing and number of tanks as well. Moreover, the obtained results were validated with the tank in series (TIS) model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 2712 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards Manufacture Stable Lead Perovskite APbI3 (A = Cs, MA, FA) Based Solar Cells with Low-Cost Techniques
by Amal Bouich, Julia Marí-Guaita, Asmaa Bouich, Inmaculada Guaita Pradas and Bernabé Marí
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012081 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Herein, we examine the impact of cations on the structural, morphological, optical properties and degradation of lead perovskite APbI3 (where A = MA, FA, Cs). Its structure, surface morphology and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Herein, we examine the impact of cations on the structural, morphological, optical properties and degradation of lead perovskite APbI3 (where A = MA, FA, Cs). Its structure, surface morphology and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrometer. The structure of perovskite thin films was found to be in the direction of (110) plane. It is seen from the XRD results that this kind of cation assumes a significant part in stabilising and improving the performance of APbI3 based solar cells. Here, the cesium lead iodide thin films show a smooth and homogenous surface and enormous grain size without pinhole perovskite film. An optical investigation uncovered that the band gap is in a range from 1.4 to 1.8 eV for the different cations. Additionally, in ~60% humidity under dark conditions for two weeks, the structural and optical properties of CsPbI3 films remained good. Furthermore, the efficiency of FTO/TIO2/CSPbI3/Spiro-Ometad/Au solar cells was calculated to be 21.48%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 2266 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Membrane Fouling in Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) Using Blocking Filtration Laws
by Wajeeha Bibi, Muhammad Asif and Jawad Rabbi
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012082 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 925
Abstract
VMD is one of the desalination technologies used for drinking water purification because of it higher permeate flux and lower energy consumption, and it uses low grade energy for operation. However, there are some critical problems related to VMD, one of which is [...] Read more.
VMD is one of the desalination technologies used for drinking water purification because of it higher permeate flux and lower energy consumption, and it uses low grade energy for operation. However, there are some critical problems related to VMD, one of which is membrane fouling. In the present study, the fouling phenomenon in VMD is investigated using constant pressure-blocking filtration laws. The results of constant pressure-blocking filtration law indicated that the permeate flux was initially unaffected by the cake layer, but with the passage of time as the pores began to constrict, a formation of a relatively thick cake layer was observed, which resulted in the decrease of permeate flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 392 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Active Binaural Auditory Perceptual System for a Socially Interactive Humanoid Robot
by Sohaib Siddique Butt, Mahnoor Fatima, Ali Asghar and Wasif Muhammad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012083 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Sound Source Localization (SSL) and gaze shift to the sound source behavior is an integral part of a socially interactive humanoid robot perception system. In noisy and reverberant environments, it is non-trivial to estimate the location of a sound source and accurately shift [...] Read more.
Sound Source Localization (SSL) and gaze shift to the sound source behavior is an integral part of a socially interactive humanoid robot perception system. In noisy and reverberant environments, it is non-trivial to estimate the location of a sound source and accurately shift gaze in its direction. Previous SSL algorithms are deficient in the optimum approximation of distance to audio sources and to accurately detect, interpret, and differentiate the actual sound from comparable sound sources due to challenging acoustic environments. In this article, a learning-based model is presented to achieve noiseless and reverberation-resistant sound source localization in the real-world scenarios. The proposed system utilizes a multi-layered Gaussian Cross-Correlation with Phase Transform (GCC-PHAT) signal processing technique as a baseline for a Generalized Cross Correlation Convolution Neural Network (GCC-CNN) model. The proposed model is integrated with an efficient rotation algorithm to predict and orient toward the sound source. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the state-of-art deep network-based sound source localization methods. The findings of the proposed method outperform the existing neural network-based approaches by achieving the highest accuracy of 96.21% for an active binaural auditory perceptual system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 2276 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Model Development and Transient Seasonal Performance Analysis of a Solar Space Heating System under Climate Conditions of PAKISTAN
by Muhammad Arsalan, Muzaffar Ali and Rubeena Kousar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012084 - 18 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The model-based transient system simulation approach is very effective for a performance assessment of solar systems under various climate conditions. In the current study, a hybrid array of flat and evacuated tube collector was analyzed for space heating using a panel radiator for [...] Read more.
The model-based transient system simulation approach is very effective for a performance assessment of solar systems under various climate conditions. In the current study, a hybrid array of flat and evacuated tube collector was analyzed for space heating using a panel radiator for a room with a volume of 1600 ft3 at different flow rates. A detailed model is developed in TRNSYS that consists of a hybrid collector array, storage tank and pumping device along with a building load component. Using transient simulation, the performance of the hybrid solar space heating system was analyzed from December to February for the subtropical climate of Taxila, Pakistan. The results revealed that at flow rates of 350, 450 and 550 kg/h, the range of temperature gain of the hybrid collector array vary from 2.8to 15.4 °C, 1.7 to 11.6 °C and 1.2 to 9.2 °C from December to February, respectively, whereas the variation in efficiencies are 25.2 to 70.4%, 22 to 70.2% and 18.4 to 68.1% for December, January and February, respectively. In addition, it is observed that about 5.29 and 7.97% better seasonal efficiency is achieved for flow rate 350 kg/h as compared to 450 and 550 kg/h. The resulted room temperature varies from 22.3 to 26.8 °C, 22.2 to 27 °C and 22.4 °C to 30 °C for December, January and February to ensure desired thermal comfort. Overall, the results show that solar heating systems are viable to achieve the thermal comfort in winter and thus can significantly reduce gas consumption in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 9676 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Optical and Thermal Analysis of Compound Parabolic Solar Collector with Fixed and Variable Concentration Ratio
by Hamza Riaz, Muzaffar Ali, Javed Akhtar, Rashid Muhammad and Muhammad Kaleem
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012085 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Solar thermal collectors, such as flat plate and evacuated tube collectors, are used for maximum of 60–80 °C temperature and parabolic trough collectors are used for 700–900 °C temperature ranges. It is needed to develop and analyze solar collectors, such as compound parabolic [...] Read more.
Solar thermal collectors, such as flat plate and evacuated tube collectors, are used for maximum of 60–80 °C temperature and parabolic trough collectors are used for 700–900 °C temperature ranges. It is needed to develop and analyze solar collectors, such as compound parabolic collectors (CPC) which can operate in an intermediate temperature range from 50–300 °C for industrial and domestic applications. However, optical and thermal performance of CPC is strongly influenced by concentration ratio. The current study presents a comparative optical and thermal analysis of CPC with fixed (4) and variable (4.5 to 5.7) concentration ratio by using model-based transient simulation approach. Two profiles of compound parabolic collector are analyzed with fixed and variable concentration ratio for the subtropical climate of Taxila, Pakistan. 2D profiles of both collectors are modeled and designed in MATLAB and are then analyzed optically by using Monte Carlo ray tracing technique through TracePro. In addition, thermal analysis of both profiles is also performed through ANSYS. The resulting optical efficiencies with fixed and variable concentration are 72% and 79%, respectively. Whereas maximum temperature achieved with both profiles is 352 K and 367 K, respectively. Thus, it is concluded that performance of CPC with variable concentration ratio is much better compared to fixed value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1092 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Investigation of Novel Improved Cooking Stove Model for Cold Rural Populations
by Ahmad Ayaz, Jamsheed Sajid and Naveed Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012086 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
In Pakistan, 50.8% of the total population use traditional methods to cook by burning wood, animal manure and agricultural residue, causing enormous greenhouse gas emissions. A new type of improved cooking stove (ICS) for rural populations is proposed in this study, with the [...] Read more.
In Pakistan, 50.8% of the total population use traditional methods to cook by burning wood, animal manure and agricultural residue, causing enormous greenhouse gas emissions. A new type of improved cooking stove (ICS) for rural populations is proposed in this study, with the complete combustion of biomass fuel to decrease hazardous gas emissions, improving overall efficiency, and lowering fuel consumption. Numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS to show the heat transfer analysis of the proposed design. The performance evaluation tests of the prototype (roti making test, water boiling test and flame test) and the numerical analyses show that the thermal efficiency, fuel saving, burning rate and fire power durability are promising. Conclusively, the proposed ICS can help the communities of developing countries to improve their lives in terms of good indoor air quality and better health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 424 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Waste Heat Recovery Potential, a Case Study in a Textile Mill
by Muhammad Nabeel, Mariam Mahmood, Naveed Ahmed and Azhar Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012087 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The world is facing an energy crisis due to globalization and the depletion of conventional energy sources. Fossil fuels are the primary energy source used to fulfill the energy demands in industries, transportation, and residential sectors. The industrial sector consumes one third of [...] Read more.
The world is facing an energy crisis due to globalization and the depletion of conventional energy sources. Fossil fuels are the primary energy source used to fulfill the energy demands in industries, transportation, and residential sectors. The industrial sector consumes one third of the world’s total energy, and around 50% of the energy is eventually wasted as heat. The textile industry is one of the most energy-intensive sectors. Therefore, a lot of research has been conducted on the reduction of energy costs and associated environmental effects. The main reason for energy inefficiency is the generation of waste heat and its utilization being ignored in the developing countries. The purpose of this research is to conduct a quantitative analysis of waste heat recovery from onsite electrical power generators in a textile mill. The investigated results indicate that an annual energy saving of 90,741 MWh and 10,936 MWh can be achieved with the installation of waste heat recovery boilers and economizers at the exhaust gases ducts of internal combustion engines, respectively. Utilization of the hot water from an engine’s jacket was estimated to save 30,095 MWh of energy annually. The recovered waste heat energy can be utilized in the processing unit and in the chiller section within the textile facility. The total energy saving is 131,772 MWh with a reduction of 52,708.8 tons in CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 587 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization and Performance Analysis of Non-Metallic Oxide Nano-Fluids in Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors
by Muhammad Kaleem, Muzaffar Ali, Hamza Riaz and Javed Akhter
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012088 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Solar energy is a viable source to fulfill the energy demands of a solar rich country such as Pakistan. Various types of solar thermal technologies are being used around the world, including flat plate, evacuated tube, and compound parabolic trough collectors. However, the [...] Read more.
Solar energy is a viable source to fulfill the energy demands of a solar rich country such as Pakistan. Various types of solar thermal technologies are being used around the world, including flat plate, evacuated tube, and compound parabolic trough collectors. However, the performance of these collectors is strongly influenced by the nature of work fluid. Utilization of nanofluids with high thermal conductivity is a very attractive way to further enhance the performance of solar collectors. Therefore, this study deals with the characterization and thermal performance enhancement of compound parabolic collectors (CPC) by using non-metallic nanofluids such as water-based multi-wall carbon nano tubes (H2O-MWCNT) with a thermal conductivity of 3000 W/m·K. In the current work, multiple tests are performed to analyze the thermal conductivity and stability of nanofluids through thermal analyzer and UV-Vis Spectroscopy, respectively. Test results show that the thermal conductivity of water-based MWCNT nanofluid is 37% higher than water at a concentration of 0.075%. Prepared nanofluids are then employed in CPC, and detailed experimentation is performed by varying the concentration of nanoparticles (0.025, 0.05, 0.075%) and their flow rate (0.015, 0.02 kg/s). Maximum temperature difference of 10.5oC with volumetric concentration of 0.075% is achieved in experimental analysis at flow rate 0.015 kg/s. Thermal efficiency enhancement of 19.37% with volumetric concentration 0.075% is recorded as compared to water at flow rate 0.015 kg/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1575 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Development of an Electric Remote-Controlled Road-Sweeper Vehicle
by Sunil Jamil, Talha Mukhtar, Rana Hamas Ali, Irfan Qaiser and Burhan Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012089 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Dirty surroundings impose a detrimental effect on the beauty of our environment. Hiring and paying for a large workforce to clean the debris on the roads, parks, and streets is a costly and tiring job. This project has been carried out to design [...] Read more.
Dirty surroundings impose a detrimental effect on the beauty of our environment. Hiring and paying for a large workforce to clean the debris on the roads, parks, and streets is a costly and tiring job. This project has been carried out to design and fabricate a battery-powered road-sweeper vehicle (RSV), equipped with a scrubber system. The proposed machine, equipped with scrubbers, increases the operational time while decreasing the operational cost. In contrast with typical industrial counterparts, an eco-friendly road-sweeper machine is presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Analysis of the Dew Point Indirect Evaporative Cooler Operating with Solar Panels
by Sabir Rasheed, Muzaffar Ali, Hassan Ali and Nadeem Sheikh
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012090 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Indirect evaporative cooling can meaningfully improve the natural environment. It involves low operating costs for air cooling systems. The dew point indirect evaporative cooler (DP-IEC) is energy-efficient, ecological, and economical. The current study reports on an experimental analysis of a DP-IEC working under [...] Read more.
Indirect evaporative cooling can meaningfully improve the natural environment. It involves low operating costs for air cooling systems. The dew point indirect evaporative cooler (DP-IEC) is energy-efficient, ecological, and economical. The current study reports on an experimental analysis of a DP-IEC working under a wide range of operating conditions and integrated with a solar panel system. The electricity consumption of the DP-IEC can be met by utilizing renewable energy technology (solar panels). The system is designed for a cooling capacity of up to 3 kW, with an energy efficiency ratio of about 20. The experimental setup is investigated here in terms of velocity, water temperature, ambient air temperature, and air humidity. The temperature is dropped from 43 °C to 23 °C (i.e., 20 °C temperature drop) at 20% humidity and from 49 °C to 24 °C (i.e., 25 °C temperature drop) at 13% humidity at a fixed air velocity and water temperature. The cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and energy efficiency ratio values vary across the ranges of 1612–3215 W, 2.93–5.85, and 9.21–18.37, respectively. The DP-IEC is integrated with solar panels to offset the electricity consumption. This research work also shows that the DP-IEC, when integrated with renewable energy technology (i.e., solar panels), provides energy savings as compared with air conditioners. As such, it is suitable for use in several areas around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 815 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Improved Control Strategy for Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid-Tied PV System Based on Incremental Conductance MPPT, Modified PQ Theory, and Hysteresis Current Control
by Nur Fairuz Mohamed Yusof, Dahaman Ishak and Mohamed Salem
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012091 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
In this paper, a modified variable step Incremental Conductance (VS-InCond) algorithm integrated with modified pq theory and double-band hysteresis current control (PQ-DBHCC) is proposed for the implementation on a single-stage single-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverter system. As the single-phase inverter in a grid-tied [...] Read more.
In this paper, a modified variable step Incremental Conductance (VS-InCond) algorithm integrated with modified pq theory and double-band hysteresis current control (PQ-DBHCC) is proposed for the implementation on a single-stage single-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverter system. As the single-phase inverter in a grid-tied PV system receives varying DC voltage from PV modules, the PQ-DBHCC strategy is deployed to regulate the ac output voltage along with its capability to deliver the maximum power during onload conditions. VS-InCond algorithm and DC-link capacitor are used as the interface between the PV modules and the inverter for tracking maximum power point. Furthermore, the PQ-DBHCC strategy also controls active and reactive power between inverter, load, and grid. The simulation results obtained from MATLAB Simulink software show that PQ-DBHCC strategy is capable of achieving the desired fixed DC voltage at inverter input and maintaining the maximum power point tracking, even under varying environmental conditions and load variations. The inverter ac output has a steady 230 Vrms at 50 Hz frequency. The total harmonic distortions (THDs) of output ac current and ac voltage are observed to be less than 5%, as recommended in IEEE 519 standard. Additionally, during full load conditions, the proposed system successfully delivers 95% of the theoretical maximum power from PV modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1610 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Simulation of Lead-Free Sn-Based Perovskite Solar Cell by Using SCAPS-1D
by Muhammad Aamir Shafi, Hanif Ullah, Shafi Ullah, Laiq Khan, Sumayya Bibi and Bernabe Mari Soucase
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012092 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3036
Abstract
Recent developments based on lead (Pb) halide perovskites have inspired extensive research into low-cost solar cells in attempt to overcome the primary issues such as stability and toxicity that occur in this area. Solar cell simulation of lead-free perovskite (CH3NH3 [...] Read more.
Recent developments based on lead (Pb) halide perovskites have inspired extensive research into low-cost solar cells in attempt to overcome the primary issues such as stability and toxicity that occur in this area. Solar cell simulation of lead-free perovskite (CH3NH3SnBr3) as an absorber-based solar cell was performed using SCAPS-1D simulation tool in this work. An impact of absorber layer thickness and working temperature on photovoltaic characteristics of CH3NH3SnBr3-based perovskite solar cells was investigated using numerical modeling techniques. The thickness was varied from 1.0 μm to 3.0 μm, and working temperature was varied from 290 K to 330 K, and their effect was examined on the photovoltaic parameters of proposed “Back Contact/CH3NH3SnBr3/CdS/ZnO/Front Contact” solar cell. The improvement in the efficiency of solar cell by optimization of CH3NH3SnBr3 absorber layer thickness and working temperature was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 991 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Robust Control Design of Multiple Quadrotors Formation
by Hasham Muzammil, Nazam Siddique, Saad Ali Masud, Muhammad Rashad, Uzair Raoof, Iftikhar Hussain and Waqas Jabbar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012093 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 785
Abstract
In this study, a control strategy is presented for multiple quadrotors, inclusive of sliding mode control and proportional derivative (PD) control, with the goal of providing stability, robustness, reduced disturbance, and formation tracking in uncertain conditions and environments. The presented control technique is [...] Read more.
In this study, a control strategy is presented for multiple quadrotors, inclusive of sliding mode control and proportional derivative (PD) control, with the goal of providing stability, robustness, reduced disturbance, and formation tracking in uncertain conditions and environments. The presented control technique is based on Newton-Euler equations and satisfying Lyapunov’s stability conditions, using sliding mode controller design and PD controller design. The designed control technique was implemented, and the desired results were achieved with minimized position error, orientation error, and distance error, while adhering to Lyapunov’s stability conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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6 pages, 3415 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Smart Modular Helmet with an Innovative Information Relaying System
by Muhammad Kashif Sattar, Saqib Fayyaz, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Shahzar Saddique, Muhammad Usama and Hassan Bin Ilyas
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012094 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Road accidents are a common occurrence throughout the world. The development of efficient electric vehicle (EVs) with high levels of safety is one of today’s biggest challenges. In this article, a novel modular bike helmet based on an RF transmitter and a helmet [...] Read more.
Road accidents are a common occurrence throughout the world. The development of efficient electric vehicle (EVs) with high levels of safety is one of today’s biggest challenges. In this article, a novel modular bike helmet based on an RF transmitter and a helmet side based on Arduino Uno, an accelerometer and an LED array that can relay information to approaching vehicles has been proposed. Current motorbike helmets are a form of passive protective gear that only serve the purpose of avoiding fatal damage to the skull. The proposed helmet will add to the current functionality of a helmet by making it smarter, giving it a means of preventing an accident. The proposed helmet will broadcast information about the biker’s movements, such as acceleration and deceleration, to the approaching vehicles. This information has never been broadcasted to approaching vehicle before. Additionally, common turn and stop signals will be broadcasted, allowing the driver of any approaching vehicle to take informed decision that can ensure both their safety and that of the biker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 455 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Efficient Detection of Fe3+ and Cr2O72− Ions in Water by Zn-Tetrazolate-Based Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework: A Comparative Study
by Khalid Talha, Alamgir and Jian-Rong Li
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012095 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Excesses and shortages of some metal ions such as Fe3+ and Cr2O72− pose a threat to human life. A Zn-based two-dimensional MOF has proven to be sensitive for Fe3+ and Cr2O72− in water [...] Read more.
Excesses and shortages of some metal ions such as Fe3+ and Cr2O72− pose a threat to human life. A Zn-based two-dimensional MOF has proven to be sensitive for Fe3+ and Cr2O72− in water with Ksv values of 1.8 × 104 and 6.5 × 104, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for these ions was found to be 2.5 μM and 0.15 μM for Fe3+ and Cr2O72− ions, respectively. A comparative study was conducted using two 3D MOFs in terms of their detection ability, synthesis and structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 600 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comprehensive Assessment of the Wind Power Potential of NokKundi in Balochistan and Its Integration with the Local Electrical Grid
by Muzamil Hussain, Arif Hussain and Surat Khan
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012096 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
At present, decarbonization takes the top spot as a priority in the energy sector. The world has largely polluted its environment because of the use of non-renewable resources for electricity production. Therefore, governments worldwide are trying to reduce their reliance on highly emitted [...] Read more.
At present, decarbonization takes the top spot as a priority in the energy sector. The world has largely polluted its environment because of the use of non-renewable resources for electricity production. Therefore, governments worldwide are trying to reduce their reliance on highly emitted carbon fuels and utilize more renewable resources such as wind for electricity generation. There has been only a 6% utilization of Pakistan’s wind potential. Baluchistan’s NokKundi region boasts an enormous wind potential with exceptional wind velocities throughout the year. With this study, an abundance of wind potential and feasibility is explored using a complete simulation-based study of the said area. There has been a calculation of the load of the NokKundi area, and an appropriate wind farm has been designed to meet it. The HOMER software has been used to carry out a complete financial analysis for both standalone and grid-connected systems, including capital investment and running costs. An analysis of the load flow on a grid-connected system is carried out with the ETAP software. The study considers a 40 MW wind farm as a feasible alternative for meeting the load requirements of NokKundi. A complete analysis of the simulation results for both grid-connected and isolated wind farm systems concludes that the grid-connected system offers more advantages in terms of cost and smooth integration with the local grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 630 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dynamic Model to Expand Energy Storage in Form of Battery and Hydrogen Production Using Solar Powered Water Electrolysis for Off Grid Communities
by Ali Mushtaq, Tajjamal Hussain, Khurram Shahzad Ayub and Muhammad Salman Haider
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012097 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
In this model, we used a 50 WP photovoltaic panel to produce electrical energy. This electricity production was used directly and stored in a battery. In this design, we coupled batteries and hydrogen as a means of storing energy. In case of overcharging [...] Read more.
In this model, we used a 50 WP photovoltaic panel to produce electrical energy. This electricity production was used directly and stored in a battery. In this design, we coupled batteries and hydrogen as a means of storing energy. In case of overcharging the battery, it will be attached with water electrolysis to convert the excess amount of chemical energy of the battery into hydrogen energy storage. Hydrogen will be stored as a compacted gas and in chemical storage. We used PEM (proton exchange membrane) electrolysis technologies to breakdown water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, which were then stored in the designed tanks. Different supply voltages were used in our practical readings, with an average gaining of 22.8 mL/min on a voltage supply of 2. While using Ansys simulation software, we extrapolated hydrogen production until reaching 300 mL/min on 12 V of supply (which represents 220% higher production). By using the second phase of this model, hydrogen energy was converted back into electrical energy with the help of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell when needed. This model explores the feasibility of energy storage in the form of hydrogen and chemical energy for off-grid communities and remote areas comprising batteries, water electrolysis, and fuel cells. The main purpose of hydrogen storage in this system is to store and handle the extra energy of system produced through PV panel and utilize it for any desired requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 372 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Solar Powered DC Refrigerator for Small Scale Applications
by Muhammad Waqas Jabbar, Mirza Hassan Naeem, Asad Muneer, Usama Rehman and Tayyab Riaz
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012098 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Due to the gradatory reduction and exuberant ingestion of fossil fuels and the subsequent environmental problems, accretive work has been paid to the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. Solar Photovoltaic System or Solar Power System is one of the [...] Read more.
Due to the gradatory reduction and exuberant ingestion of fossil fuels and the subsequent environmental problems, accretive work has been paid to the utilization of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. Solar Photovoltaic System or Solar Power System is one of the renewable energy systems which uses PV units to convert sunlight into electricity. A DC compressor of 12 V/80 W, 12 V/50 Ah battery, a pair of 12 V/175 W solar panels connected in parallel through a 10 A charge controller was used for the refrigerator. Temperature was programmed to monitor and control the switching states of the DC compressor. This research project has established that the energy required for the real process of a DC refrigerator could be amassed from a renewable energy source at a reduced price and its application can be beneficial in developing countries. ATMEGA16 microcontroller with temperature, weight and momentary sensors interfacing was programmed in C language to control and monitor the ON/OFF states of the DC compressor. In this work, energy can be obtained from renewable energy resources at a reduced cost for the effective operation of a DC refrigerator. Thus, developing countries can also take benefit from its applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1152 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Thermal Analysis of a Sensible Heat Thermal Energy Storage System Using Circular-Shaped Slag and Concrete for Medium- to High-Temperature Applications
by Yasir Saleem, Jamsheed Sajid and Naveed Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012099 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Thermal energy storage (TES) system is a technique that stores thermal energy in a storage medium for later use to balance demand and supply in industrial operations. In this study, a sensible thermal energy storage tank composed of concrete block and heat transfer [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage (TES) system is a technique that stores thermal energy in a storage medium for later use to balance demand and supply in industrial operations. In this study, a sensible thermal energy storage tank composed of concrete block and heat transfer fluid (HTF) passages is proposed. Slag and concrete particles are introduced to analyze the performance of the TES system. A comprehensive numerical model is developed using an energy balance approach combined with an enthalpy-based methodology. The temperature distribution is presented at different time intervals during the charging and discharging cycle of TESS. In comparison with a slag-filled TES tank, the concrete-filled TES tank charged and discharged quickly. The findings reveal that a TES tank filled with concrete is more efficient than a TES tank filled with slag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1611 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Model Based Transient Analysis of a Solar Assisted Absorption System for Multi-Climate Zones with Dynamic Building Load
by Atiya Sadiq and Muzaffar Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012100 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The current study investigates the impact of solar collector array, employing flat plate solar collectors (FPC) and evacuated tube solar collectors (ETC) on the transient performance of a solar-driven single-effect absorption cooling system. The investigation was executed for provision of a peak cooling [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the impact of solar collector array, employing flat plate solar collectors (FPC) and evacuated tube solar collectors (ETC) on the transient performance of a solar-driven single-effect absorption cooling system. The investigation was executed for provision of a peak cooling demand of 102 kW for an office building with 147 m2 of floor. Building geometry has been developed in Sketch Up and modeled in TRNBuild. The system has been simulated in TRNSYS during the summer season through weather data of Cairo (30.0444° N 31.2357° E), Lahore (31.5204° N 74.3587° E) and Abu Dhabi (24° N 54° E). An auxiliary heater (i.e., gas-fired boiler) was installed in the hot storage tank of an absorption chiller loop to maintain the desired generator temperature of 116 °C. The complete system configuration was modeled in TRNSYS. Transient analysis was carried out by the criterion of maximized primary energy saving (fsav) and solar fraction (SF). The main results of the study indicate that to achieve fsav of at least 50%, the required evacuated tube solar collector areas are 600 m2, 650 m2 and 700 m2 for Lahore, Abu Dhabi and Cairo, respectively. Similarly, 50% primary energy is saved for flat plate collector areas of 1000 m2 for Lahore and Abu Dhabi and 1500 m2 for Cairo. Furthermore, for both FPC and ETC, Abu Dhabi and Lahore yields maximum primary energy savings of 0.6–0.7 at a storage volume of 10–30 L/m2. The present model was compared and validated with a published work that showed a deviation of 7.34%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 197 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Location-Assistive and Real-Time Query IoT-Based Transport System
by Saqlain Abid, Muhammad Jehanzeb Irshad, Muhammad Wasif, Zubair Mehmood, Iftikhar Hussain and Muhmmad Hassan Ejaz
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012101 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
In this age, the automotive surveillance service is a well-known proven product implemented in conventional transport systems and widely known vehicle entities worldwide. It is a system that can be very robust and reliable. Through this work, GPS (Global Positioning System is implemented, [...] Read more.
In this age, the automotive surveillance service is a well-known proven product implemented in conventional transport systems and widely known vehicle entities worldwide. It is a system that can be very robust and reliable. Through this work, GPS (Global Positioning System is implemented, which is used to locate and identify any automobile. This concept is an integrated device that can steadily track a speeding object and communicate the device’s status whenever its identification is required. It must obtain the NodeMCU (ESP8066 module) for the network connection device, which is routinely connected to the GPS device and the Arduino board through which it functions. The NodeMCU is used to relay the device’s status simultaneously from a distant location. The context of the application, “Bus Management System”, which is designed in MIT, provided an android studio for researchers to design any application interface. The network interface could be reviewed on the accounts-receivable public network in the form of charts. The program shows responses to the mobile application; it only requires logging in with a data network. The application, “Bus Management System”, displays the sensor values in terms of GPS coordinates statistics. This IoT based transport assistive system is cost effective and less complex from other existing IoT based transport assistive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
7 pages, 1091 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Analysis of Mixed Mode Solar Dryer for Tobacco Leaves
by Syed Ali Wahaj Abdi and Naveed Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012102 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Drying is a primary and suitable preservation method before storage for tobacco leaves to minimize mold/mycotoxin development. The drying temperature of leaves and stems of tobacco are 333 K and 348 K, respectively. The current study investigates the performance of a new type [...] Read more.
Drying is a primary and suitable preservation method before storage for tobacco leaves to minimize mold/mycotoxin development. The drying temperature of leaves and stems of tobacco are 333 K and 348 K, respectively. The current study investigates the performance of a new type of mixed mode solar cabinet dryer for the purpose of drying tobacco. The proposed construction of cabinet dryer allows drying of tobacco leaves and stems in separate sections near to the desired temperature ranges. Numerical simulations of unsteady laminar airflow and heat transfer through a two-dimensional model was carried out for a typical day in August under the climatic conditions of Islamabad (Pakistan). Moreover, the effects of air inlet velocity and comparison of left and right drying sections of the solar cabinet dryer have been analyzed. Overall results indicated that the proposed design configuration was able to maintain required uniform temperature distribution in separate sections of the single cabinet dryer and, thus, offers promising results to keep the standard quality of the dried tobacco leaves and stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 1023 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Modified Battery Charger with Power Factor Correction for Plug-In Electrical Vehicles
by Arfa Tariq
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012103 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Electric vehicles are becoming famous worldwide for having the striking benefits of improved energy efficiency and reduced carbon footprints, etc. Plug-in electrical vehicles (PEVs) are powered by batteries. These batteries need to be recharged after every usage cycle. A lithium-ion battery consisting of [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are becoming famous worldwide for having the striking benefits of improved energy efficiency and reduced carbon footprints, etc. Plug-in electrical vehicles (PEVs) are powered by batteries. These batteries need to be recharged after every usage cycle. A lithium-ion battery consisting of 100 cells has a terminal voltage of 420 V when fully charged and 300 V in a discharged state. Therefore, such batteries require a battery charger with an output voltage range from 300 V–420 V to fully charge the batteries. There are two types of on-board battery chargers: two-stage and single-stage battery chargers. The former has the drawbacks of larger component count, larger size, and lower efficiency. However, there are few works on the latter, which has not been well-explored for EV applications. Hence, in this research project, a single-stage battery charger is proposed. The proposed charger consists of two integrated stages. The 1st stage is the power factor correction (PFC) converter and the later one is the LLC resonant DC–DC converter. Both stages are driven by a common half-bridge network. The proposed charger is designed for charging a 100 cell 3.2 kW Lithium-ion battery. The operation and performance of the proposed charger is evaluated by a Pspice-based computer simulation. The simulation results showed that the proposed charger can efficiently charge the battery from a depleted state to a fully charged state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1881 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Demand Side Management and the Improved Energy Cost Factor of Distributed Energy Generation
by Asad Muneer, Tahir Abbas Jauhar, Arslan Qaisar and Faizan Amjad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012104 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
To ensure the flexibility and reliability of the power system demand and supply, demand side management with distributed generation is a tool to manage the high demand. In the present work, the demand side residential energy management for household equipment is investigated. Loads [...] Read more.
To ensure the flexibility and reliability of the power system demand and supply, demand side management with distributed generation is a tool to manage the high demand. In the present work, the demand side residential energy management for household equipment is investigated. Loads of units are divided according to priority. Every individual load is smart enough to switch on/off itself with respect to the power generated from the distributed source. Experiments are performed using MATLAB Simulink and the results showed improvements in electricity bills. Real-time pricing in the present system of billing is more economical than a flat rate system. When distributed resources are connected with the units, then flat rate billing is also more economical than real-time pricing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 6342 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Solar Powered Grass Cutter for Domestic Utilization
by Muhammad Waqas Jabbar, Muhammad Noman, Asad Muneer, Ali Abbas and Adnan Mazhar
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012105 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 20417
Abstract
This paper presents the fabrication and working of a smart solar grass cutter. In this work, we have developed a solar-powered lawn mower and thus saved energy by decreasing air pollution and reducing labor cost. In the old model, cutting iron was used. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the fabrication and working of a smart solar grass cutter. In this work, we have developed a solar-powered lawn mower and thus saved energy by decreasing air pollution and reducing labor cost. In the old model, cutting iron was used. Due to its high environmental impact, it was the most expensive cutter used by the engine. We have utilized a microcontroller in our project to control the different lawn mower actions. Two DC gear motors (10,000 RPM, starting current 1.7 A and no load current 1.5 A) are used to move the solar grass cutter, and one DC blade motor (7000–13,000 RPM, starting current 0.7 A and no load current 0.45 A) is used to cut the grass quickly. With current technology, this new prototype is designed as a remotely controlled grass cutter using Arduino UNO. The Smart Solar tracker is controlled via Bluetooth by using a smartphone. The Smart Solar Grass Cutter can run for more than two hours when the battery is completely charged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1060 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Systematic Approach to Generate 3D Path Loss Heat Maps for WIFI Indoor Positioning
by Ali Haider, Muhammad Hussnain Farooq, Hamza Mukhtar and Muhammad Usman Ali
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012106 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
To estimate the location of an object in an indoor environment, many indoor positioning techniques have been developed in recent decades. The popularity of indoor positioning systems has increased nowadays to enable the implementation of indoor location-based services. WIFI-based fingerprinting is one the [...] Read more.
To estimate the location of an object in an indoor environment, many indoor positioning techniques have been developed in recent decades. The popularity of indoor positioning systems has increased nowadays to enable the implementation of indoor location-based services. WIFI-based fingerprinting is one the most promising techniques to estimate the user or robot’s location in an indoor environment. Fingerprinting-based indoor positioning systems require the laborious task of environmental surveys to generate the fingerprinting database. This calibration process of a fingerprinting database causes the adaptability problem due to the high cost of the survey of the WIFI environment. Researchers have proposed different techniques to minimize the survey cost by means of the automatic generation of a fingerprinting database and its calibration. Most of these techniques only generate 2D path loss heat maps, while ignoring the height information of transmitting and receiving devices. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented to generate 3D path loss heat maps in which height information is also incorporated in the generation of more realistic 3D heat maps. The results show that the proposed technique for 3D environment generation outperformed the existing techniques, and the root mean square error (RMSE) is 2.17. Moreover, the proposed technique generated 3D heat maps effortlessly and its accuracy is almost equivalent to the real maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation on Performance of Single Precision Floating Point Multiplier (SPFPM) Using CSA Multiplier and Different Types of Adders
by Hasaan Amjad, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muneeb Abrar and Hina Rasheed
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012107 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Nowadays, floating point multiplier (FPM) plays an essential role in computers. The IEEE 754 norm for floating point numbers is the most widely recognized portrayal for real numbers on today’s PCs. Addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division are the four important functions of single [...] Read more.
Nowadays, floating point multiplier (FPM) plays an essential role in computers. The IEEE 754 norm for floating point numbers is the most widely recognized portrayal for real numbers on today’s PCs. Addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division are the four important functions of single precision floating arithmetic, amongst which multiplication has the most extensive use in every algorithm. Fast multipliers are of critical need in modern high-performance applications, especially in digital signal processing, because DSP involves many important multiplication-based operations, e.g., fast Fourier transform (FFT) and convolution. These speedy computations can be implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), because they can provide a high speed and a large number of on-board digital resources. FPGAs are involved in many modern applications such as cryptography and communication computations, arithmetic and scientific computation, digital image and signal processing, etc. There are many forms of FPM available. This paper describes an efficient way to implement single precision FPM in IEEE 754 standard format, where Verilog hardware description language (VHDL) is used to implement the design for Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA. Here, the 32-bit number will be divided into three parts: sign bit, exponent, and mantissa. This paper is implemented by using different types of adders, which includes carry increment adder (CIA), carry select adder (CSA), ripple carry adder (RCA), and carry look-ahead adder (CLA). Carry save array (CSA) multiplication is used for performing the mantissa multiplication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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4 pages, 864 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Studies on Ceramic Wastes based Composites for Capacitors Applications
by Mohammad Sohail, Muhammad Omer, Adnan, Main Gul Sayed, Adnan Shahzad, Ihsan Ullah and Aziz Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012108 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The ceramic industry is a bit new in Pakistan, and the wastes produced during industrial processes are not properly managed. No effective reusing and recycling schemes have been developed. These wastes are contributing greatly to environmental pollution. In this study, an effort has [...] Read more.
The ceramic industry is a bit new in Pakistan, and the wastes produced during industrial processes are not properly managed. No effective reusing and recycling schemes have been developed. These wastes are contributing greatly to environmental pollution. In this study, an effort has been made to recycle and use the ceramic wastes as reinforcement fillers in polymeric composites, helping an ecologically and economically possible alternative for the disposal of these wastes. PANI-based ceramic composite samples were prepared and characterized morphologically and electrically. Ceramic wastes were also investigated for purification purposes of municipal wastewater. It was observed that prepared materials are capable for capacitor production. Wastes were found to be 50% efficient in removing methyl orange from water in a specific time. This suggests that the prepared materials can be used in energy harvesting appliances (i.e., capacitors) while the ceramic waste can be applied for purifying polluted water coming out from industrial as well as municipal sewerages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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5 pages, 1272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rotten-Fruit-Sorting Robotic Arm: (Design of Low Complexity CNN for Embedded System)
by Muhammad Ihtisham Amin, Muhammad Adeel Hafeez and Qasim Awais
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012109 - 1 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Industrial Automation has revolutionized the processing industry due to its high accuracy, the time it saves, and its ability to work without tiring. Being the most fundamental part of automation machines, robotic arms are being used as a fundamental component in many types [...] Read more.
Industrial Automation has revolutionized the processing industry due to its high accuracy, the time it saves, and its ability to work without tiring. Being the most fundamental part of automation machines, robotic arms are being used as a fundamental component in many types of domestic as well as commercial automation units. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity convolutional neural network (CNN) model and successfully deployed it on a locally generated robotic arm with the help of a Raspberry Pi 4 module. The designed robotic arm can detect, locate, and classify (based on fresh or rotten) between three species of Mangos (Ataulfo, Alphonso, and Keitt), on a conveyor belt. We generated a dataset of about 6000 images and trained a three-convolutional-layer-based CNN. Training and testing of the network were carried out with MatLab, and the weighted network was deployed to an embedded environment (Raspberry Pi 4 module) for real-time classification. We reported a classification accuracy of 98.08% in the detection of fresh mangos and 95.75% in the detection of rotten mangos. For the designed robotic art, the achieved angle accuracy was 93.94% with a minor error of only 2°. The proposed model can be deployed in many food- or object-sorting industries as an edge computing application of deep learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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Proceeding Paper
The Simulation and Design of Zero-Energy Homes—A Comparison between Photo-Voltaic, Solar-Thermal, and Photo-Voltaic-Thermal Systems
by Muhammad Sarwar Ehsan and Zuha Maryam
Eng. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021012110 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 850
Abstract
The domestic sector is the leading energy consumer in Pakistan. Due to an increase in population, urbanization, and economic development, energy demand is increasing day by day. To meet this energy demand, net-zero energy buildings provide the optimal solution. In zero energy buildings, [...] Read more.
The domestic sector is the leading energy consumer in Pakistan. Due to an increase in population, urbanization, and economic development, energy demand is increasing day by day. To meet this energy demand, net-zero energy buildings provide the optimal solution. In zero energy buildings, energy demand is met by renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This study describes techniques of home design using simulation, and energy conservation is achieved by using proper construction techniques and insulation materials in building construction. In this study, the actual climate data of different climate zones in Pakistan is being used to design zero-energy homes. The results show that there is a remarkable difference between the energy demand of standard homes and homes proposed by the simulator used. The total energy performance index of a house decreased from 94.6% to 67.6%. The comparative simulation analysis of different solar energy system solutions such as solar thermal, photo-voltaic, and hybrid photo-voltaic-thermal modules for different climate zones in Pakistan, is presented in this paper. This study also describes the best combination of solar energy systems to reach a close-to-zero energy balance and the results depend on the building design and design of building energy systems. A cost analysis based on the rate of return on investment is also presented to motivate the usage of this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Energy, Power and Environment)
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