Next Issue
Volume 12, ICEPE 2021
Previous Issue
Volume 10, ECSA-8 2021
 
 
engproc-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Eng. Proc., 2021, ASEC 2021

The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences

Online | 15–31 October 2021

Volume Editors:
Takayoshi Kobayashi, The University of Electro-Communications, Japan
Nunzio Cennamo, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy

Number of Papers: 52

Printed Edition Available!

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Electronic Conference on applied sciences, held 15–31 October 2021, aimed to promote and advance the exciting and rapidly changing field of applied sciences in all its [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

2 pages, 164 KiB  
Abstract
Idea of Rapid Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Using In Situ Derivatization from Fresh Horse Mussel
by Siriluck Pojjanapornpun, Apinya Cheewaphan, Akkaradech Nakornsadet, Salisa Chumsantea, Piraporn Sombutsuwan, Kanit Krisnangkura and Kornkanok Aryusuk
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11142 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 843
Abstract
The analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile requires multiple preparation steps, which are lipid extraction followed by derivatization of the FA into a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The procedures are time-consuming, and generally require large volumes of sample sizes and solvents. [...] Read more.
The analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile requires multiple preparation steps, which are lipid extraction followed by derivatization of the FA into a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The procedures are time-consuming, and generally require large volumes of sample sizes and solvents. This report proposes a technique for the preparation of FAME from fresh horse mussels without a step of lipid extraction. A rapid in situ derivatization using N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) methylation followed by alkali-transesterification was examined. In this method, acylglycerols and free fatty acids (medium to long-chain FA) of the sample are targeted to convert into FAME. Direct alkali-transesterification of the fresh sample gave only 58.7% FAME with 12.4% triglyceride and 21.1% FFA. The alkali in situ method showed low conversion efficiency due to the initial sample containing high contents of moisture and FFA (75.11% of the fresh sample and 14.3% of total oil, respectively). The reaction was developed by using two steps in situ derivatization. A 50 mg sample was methylated with 1 mL of DMF-DMA (100 °C, 15 min), followed by transesterified with 10 mL of 1% (w/v) NaOH in methanol (60 °C, 3 min). The conversion into FAME was monitored using size-exclusion HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. The column was a 100 Å Phenogel with toluene and 0.25% acetic acid as a mobile phase. The FAME yield of 79.9% with 7.8% triglyceride and 8.5% FFA was obtained. The two steps in situ derivatization gave a promising result with the higher conversion with lower FFA. It is a simple and rapid (less than 20 min) method that requires a low volume of sample and solvent for FAME preparation. However, increasing the conversion efficiency as well as the variety of samples should be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
7 pages, 1272 KiB  
Abstract
Seed Priming with Pectic-Oligosaccharides Improved Seed Germination and Growth of Chili
by Wascharin Udchumpisai, Yuree Wandee, Ditpon Kotatha and Dudsadee Uttapap
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11159 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pectic-oligosaccharides (POSs) obtained from oxidative degradation of pomelo peel with H2O2 under alkaline conditions on seed germination and growth of chili using the seed priming technique. Two types of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pectic-oligosaccharides (POSs) obtained from oxidative degradation of pomelo peel with H2O2 under alkaline conditions on seed germination and growth of chili using the seed priming technique. Two types of POSs (POS-I and POS-II) with different size distributions were prepared. Chili seeds were soaked in 500 ppm of POS solutions for 16 h at two temperatures, 30 and 50 °C, with moderate shaking, and then air-dried. The primed seeds were planted on wet filter paper in a Petri dish at 30 °C for 9 d and the effects of priming on germination and growth were observed. Priming of seeds with POS at 30 °C increased the germination percentage and vigor index at 9 d after sowing by 16.7–20.5% and 16.0–25.5%, respectively, whereas root and shoot length did not differ from the hydropriming. However, there were no significant differences in all growth parameters between POS-I and POS-II treatments. Seedling length and the vigor index of seeds primed with POS at 30 °C (29.3–31.0 mm, 2693.9–2914.0) were also significantly higher than those of non-primed seeds (22.9 mm, 2062). Priming the seeds at 50 °C had an adverse effect on seed germination, i.e., the germination percentage was reduced by 24.4–31.9% compared to seeds primed at 30 °C. It also resulted in a significant reduction in chili seed growth, possibly due to the inactivation of some enzymes in chili seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

6 pages, 1589 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Overlooked Ionic Phenomena Affecting the Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Crystals
by David Webb and Yuriy Garbovskiy
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11141 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Liquid crystal devices, such as displays, various tunable optical components, and sensors, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Basic physical properties of liquid crystal materials can be controlled by external physical fields, thus making liquid crystal devices dynamically reconfigurable. The tunability of liquid crystals offers [...] Read more.
Liquid crystal devices, such as displays, various tunable optical components, and sensors, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Basic physical properties of liquid crystal materials can be controlled by external physical fields, thus making liquid crystal devices dynamically reconfigurable. The tunability of liquid crystals offers exciting opportunities for the development of new applications, including advanced electronic and photonic devices, by merging the concepts of flat optics, tunable metasurfaces, nanoplasmonics, and soft matter biophotonics. As a rule, the tunability of liquid crystals is achieved by applying an electric field. This field reorients liquid crystals and changes their physical properties. Ions, typically present in liquid crystals in minute quantities, can alter the reorientation of liquid crystals through the well-known screening effect. Because the electrical conductivity of thermotropic liquid crystals is normally caused by ions, an understanding of ion generation processes in liquid crystals is of utmost importance to existing and emerging technologies relying on such materials. That is why measuring of electrical conductivity of liquid crystals is a standard part of their material characterization. Measuring the electrical conductivity of liquid crystals is a very delicate process. In this paper, we discuss overlooked ionic phenomena caused by interactions of ions with substrates of the liquid crystal cells. These interactions affect the measured values of the DC electrical conductivity of liquid crystals and make them dependent on the cell thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1389 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Plasma-Induced Fibrillation and Surface Functionalization of Cellulose Microfibrils
by Pieter Samyn
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11136 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
The classical production of microfibrillar cellulose involves intensive mechanical processing and discontinuous chemical treatment in solvent-based media in order to introduce additional chemical surface modification. By selecting appropriate conditions of a pulsed plasma reactor, a solvent-free and low-energy input process can be applied [...] Read more.
The classical production of microfibrillar cellulose involves intensive mechanical processing and discontinuous chemical treatment in solvent-based media in order to introduce additional chemical surface modification. By selecting appropriate conditions of a pulsed plasma reactor, a solvent-free and low-energy input process can be applied with the introduction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and maleic anhydride (MA) powders. The plasma processing results in the progressive fibrillation of the cellulose powder into its elementary fibril structure and in-situ modification of the produced fibrils with more hydrophobic groups that provide good stability against re-agglomeration of the fibrils. The selection of a critical ratio MA/MCC = 2:1 allows separating the single cellulose microfibrils with changeable morphologies depending on the plasma treatment time. Moreover, the density of the hydrophobic surface groups can be changed through a selection of different plasma duty cycle times, while the influence of plasma power and pulse frequency is inferior. The variations in treatment time can be followed along the plasma reactor, as the microfibrils gain smaller diameter and become somewhat longer with increasing time. This can be related to the activation of the hierarchical cellulose structure and progressive diffusion of the MA within the cellulose structure, causing progressive weakening of the hydroxyl bonding. In parallel, the creation of more reactive species with time allows creating active surface sites that allow for interaction between the different fibrils into more complex morphologies. The in-situ surface modification has been demonstrated by XPS and FTIR analysis, indicating the successful esterification between the MA and hydroxyl groups at the cellulose surface. In particular, the crystallinity of the cellulose has been augmented after plasma modification. Furthermore, AFM evaluation of the fibrils shows surface structures with irregular surface roughness patterns that contribute to better interaction of the microfibrils after incorporation in an eventual polymer matrix. In conclusion, the combination of physical and chemical processing of cellulose microfibrils provides a more sustainable approach for the fabrication of advanced nanotechnological materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3649 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Developing a Benzimidazole-Silica-Based Hybrid Sol–Gel Coating with Significant Corrosion Protection on Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3
by Magdi H. Mussa, F. Deeba Zahoor, Oliver Lewis and Nicholas Farmilo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11124 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The inherent reactivity of Al–Cu–Mg alloys is such that their use for building structural, maritime, and airplane components with great strength/weight ratios would not be possible without good anti-corrosion systems. These systems could be considered as imitations of the protection mechanism found in [...] Read more.
The inherent reactivity of Al–Cu–Mg alloys is such that their use for building structural, maritime, and airplane components with great strength/weight ratios would not be possible without good anti-corrosion systems. These systems could be considered as imitations of the protection mechanism found in the conventional hexavalent chromium-based system, but with additional limited environmental impact, and in particular without toxic or carcinogenic effects. These coatings also are intended to be eco-friendly, using less of the valuable raw materials and energy than more traditional methods. Silica-based hybrid protective coatings have been shown to exhibit excellent chemical stability combined with the ability to reduce the corrosion of metal substrates. However, research shows that sol–gel has some limitations in terms of the period of the anti-corrosive properties. Therefore, this work reports the performance of a silica-based hybrid sol–gel coating encapsulated with benzimidazole (BZI) that can be applied to light alloys to form an inherently inhibited and crack-free coating. This coating was applied on AA 2024-T3 and cured at 80 °C. The high corrosion resistance performance results from the combination of good adhesion, the hydrophobic property of the silica-based hybrid coating, and the presence of the encapsulated (BZI) film-forming volatile corrosion inhibitor, which is released at pores within the coating system, resulting in film-forming, reducing the reaction at cathodic sites. The evaluation of this mechanism is based on using electrochemical testing techniques. The anti-corrosion properties of the coatings were studied when immersed in 3.5% NaCl by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potential-dynamic polarization scanning (PDPS). The chemical confirmation was performed by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), supported by analyzing the morphology of the surface before and after the immersion testing by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The benzimidazole-silica-based hybrid coating exhibited excellent anti-corrosion properties, providing an adherent protective film on the aluminum alloy 2024-T3 samples compared to sol–gel-only and bare metals, as a cost-effective and eco-friendly system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1650 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optical Investigation of PVA/PbTiO3 Composite for UV-Protective Approach Applications
by Asmaa. S. El-Deeb, Marwa. M. Abdel Kader, Gamal. M. Nasr, Mona. A. Ahmed and Eman O. Taha
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11172 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Samples of a new-fangled polymer of poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) doped with various concentrations of Lead (II) Titanate (PbTiO3, PT) were prepared using the casting method. The prepared samples were identified by Attenuated Total Reflection–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR). Peaks characteristic of [...] Read more.
Samples of a new-fangled polymer of poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) doped with various concentrations of Lead (II) Titanate (PbTiO3, PT) were prepared using the casting method. The prepared samples were identified by Attenuated Total Reflection–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR). Peaks characteristic of PVA at 3280, 2917, 1690, 1425, 1324, 1081, and 839 cm−1 appeared; a peak indicating the presence of PbTiO3 also appeared at 713 cm−1. The interaction between PVA and PbTiO3 was confirmed by observing the change in IR absorption intensity. Optical properties in the UV-Vis range were investigated using an Ultraviolet Visible technique (UV-Vis). An enhancement in absorption capacity by the increasing PbTiO3 concentration was observed. Optical properties such as band gap energy, Urbach energy, and extinction coefficient indicate that addition of PbTiO3 into the PVA polymer induced variance in internal states by increasing the ratio of PbTiO3. Obtaining a UV-protective material derived from a PVA/PbTiO3 composite is the aim of this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 5619 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Sample Preparation Techniques on Aluminium Alloy AA2024-T3 Substrates for Sol-Gel Coating
by Magdi H. Mussa, Nicholas Farmilo and Oliver Lewis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11121 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Sol-gel coatings provide environmentally friendly surface protection for metals and can replace toxic pre-treatments such as those based on hexavalent chromium on metal alloys. This project ultimately aims to develop silica-based organic–inorganic sol-gel derived thin film coatings possessing anti-corrosion and anti-fouling properties on [...] Read more.
Sol-gel coatings provide environmentally friendly surface protection for metals and can replace toxic pre-treatments such as those based on hexavalent chromium on metal alloys. This project ultimately aims to develop silica-based organic–inorganic sol-gel derived thin film coatings possessing anti-corrosion and anti-fouling properties on aluminium alloy substrates. As with any coating, sample preparation plays a significant role in the performance of a sol-gel coating. Therefore, it was necessary to define a preparation method that combines the removal of contaminants and surface roughening to improve adhesion and reproducibility. Four techniques were investigated: fine abrasive sandpaper cleaning, acetone degreasing only and cleaning with an industrial-available alkaline cleaner for 5 min and 30 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 982 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Changes in Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Contents during Maturation of Australian Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Cultivars
by Joel B. Johnson, Michelle Steicke, Janice S. Mani, Shiwangni Rao, Scott Anderson, Lara Wakeling and Mani Naiker
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11155 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
The Australian blueberry industry is worth over $300 million, but there is limited information on factors influencing their chemical composition, particularly their ripeness and harvest stage. This pilot study investigated changes in total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC; measured using the pH-differential method) and [...] Read more.
The Australian blueberry industry is worth over $300 million, but there is limited information on factors influencing their chemical composition, particularly their ripeness and harvest stage. This pilot study investigated changes in total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC; measured using the pH-differential method) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; measured with the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay) of four Australian highbush blueberry cultivars (Denise, Blue Rose, Brigitta and Bluecrop) at four time points and three maturity stages (unripe, moderately ripe and fully ripe). The TAC of most cultivars decreased by 8–18% during ripening, although that of the Blue Rose cultivar increased markedly. However, the TAC of ripe fruit from this cultivar also fluctuated markedly throughout the harvest season (between 1168–2171 mg Trolox equivalents 100 g−1). The TMAC increased sharply between the medium-ripe and fully ripe maturity stages, with the Blue Rose cultivar showing the highest TMAC values (211 mg 100 g−1, compared to 107–143 mg 100 g−1 for the remaining varieties). The TMAC of ripe fruit from this cultivar also rose steadily throughout the harvest season, in contrast to most other cultivars where the TMAC fell slightly over time. These results indicate that the levels of health-benefitting compounds in Australian-grown highbush blueberries may depend not only on the cultivar, but also upon the time of harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

8 pages, 1102 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Real-Time Snore Detector Using Neural Networks and Selected Sound Features
by Stelios A. Mitilineos, Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas, Georgia Korompili, Lampros Kokkalas and Stelios M. Potirakis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11176 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a widespread chronic disease that mostly remains undetected, mainly due to the fact that it is diagnosed via polysomnography, which is a time and resource-intensive procedure. Screening the disease’s symptoms at home could be used as [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a widespread chronic disease that mostly remains undetected, mainly due to the fact that it is diagnosed via polysomnography, which is a time and resource-intensive procedure. Screening the disease’s symptoms at home could be used as an alternative approach in order to alert individuals that potentially suffer from OSAHS without compromising their everyday routine. Since snoring is usually linked to OSAHS, developing a snore detector is appealing as an enabling technology for screening OSAHS at home using ubiquitous equipment like commodity microphones (included in, e.g., smartphones). In this context, we developed a snore detection tool and herein present our approach and selection of specific sound features that discriminate snoring vs. environmental sounds, as well as the performance of the proposed tool. Furthermore, a real-time snore detector (RTSD) is built upon the snore detection tool and employed in whole-night sleep sound recordings, resulting in a large dataset of snoring sound excerpts that are made freely available to the public. The RTSD may be used either as a stand-alone tool that offers insight concerning an individual’s sleep quality or as an independent component of OSAHS screening applications in future developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2546 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Case Study for Implementing a Plant Corrosion Inspection and Maintenance Anomaly and Integrity Management System on the Sabratha Gas Production Offshore Platform in the Mediterranean Sea
by Magdi H. Mussa, Mahmoud Dukali and Yaqub Rahaq
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11153 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Corrosion and maintenance anomaly and integrity management systems (AIMS) are now the foundation of many industrial and engineering systems regarding sustainability and long-lasting assets. The oil and gas industry has started developing new, integrated management systems to keep its assets safe from real [...] Read more.
Corrosion and maintenance anomaly and integrity management systems (AIMS) are now the foundation of many industrial and engineering systems regarding sustainability and long-lasting assets. The oil and gas industry has started developing new, integrated management systems to keep its assets safe from real external failures. However, the overlapping of assets’ integrity responsibilities occur when a conflict of interests, such as production, safety, environmental, and financial interfacing, are inaccurately weighed against each other. This paper will review the case study of the anomaly and integrity management systems implemented on the Sabratha offshore platform. In order to achieve sustainable asset implementation, it is essential to identify the different weights given to the critical factors controlling the operational anomaly and integrity of facilities on offshore platforms and re-classify the potential failures. Therefore, design practices are reviewed. Moreover, inspection techniques and strategies are re-assessed and used to describe the consistent integrity assessment techniques linked to anomaly monitoring and maintenance criteria. Finally, the anomaly and integrity management system design use activity, process models, structures, and flow diagrams are reviewed. This work will be helpful for the further enhancement of a new machine learning system to support this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 965 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Studies on the Preparation of Nanoparticles from Betulin-Based Polyanhydrides
by Daria Niewolik, Grzegorz Dzido and Katarzyna Jaszcz
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11160 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Nanoparticles were obtained by nanoprecipitation and by emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) method. In the ESE method, the size of the particles depended on the type and concentration of surfactant (in the water phase) and the polymer concentration (in the organic phase). The best [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles were obtained by nanoprecipitation and by emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) method. In the ESE method, the size of the particles depended on the type and concentration of surfactant (in the water phase) and the polymer concentration (in the organic phase). The best results were obtained with ionic surfactants, however, the use of such compounds may accelerate the degradation process of polymers. In the nanoprecipitation method, the ratio of solvent (methylene chloride) to non-solvent (hexane) has a significant influence on the particle size. The smallest particles were obtained with a solvent to non-solvent ratio of 1:150. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2733 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Design and Validation of a 3D-Printed Continuously Variable Transmission for an Electric Vehicle Prototype
by Marcos R. C. Coimbra, Társis P. Barbosa and César M. A. Vasques
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11178 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
This article discusses the progress made in developing a new 3D-printed continuously variable transmission (CVT) for an electric vehicle (EV) prototype competing in the Shell Eco-marathon electric battery category, a global energy efficiency competition sponsored by Shell. The proposed system is composed of [...] Read more.
This article discusses the progress made in developing a new 3D-printed continuously variable transmission (CVT) for an electric vehicle (EV) prototype competing in the Shell Eco-marathon electric battery category, a global energy efficiency competition sponsored by Shell. The proposed system is composed of a polymeric conic gear assembled in the motor axle and directly coupled to the rear tire of the vehicle. The conical shape allows to implement a continuous variation of the gear diameter in contact with the tire. The motor with the gear was mounted over a board with linear bearings, allowing the speed ratio to change by moving the board laterally. A 3D-printing slicing software with an optimization algorithm plug-in was used to determine the best printing parameters for the conic gear based on the tangential force, maximum displacement and safety factor. When compared to the original part with a 100% infill density, the optimized solution reduced the component mass by about 12% while maintaining safe mechanical resistance and stiffness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 7155 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bangladesh Agriculture: A Review of Modern Practices and Proposal of a Sustainable Method
by Nazifa Tabassum and Fatema Rezwana
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11190 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5135
Abstract
Agriculture is the largest economic and employment sector in Bangladesh, accounting for 23 percent of its gross domestic product and 65 percent of its labour force. It has a total land area of 14,570 km2, with cultivated land accounting for 60% [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the largest economic and employment sector in Bangladesh, accounting for 23 percent of its gross domestic product and 65 percent of its labour force. It has a total land area of 14,570 km2, with cultivated land accounting for 60% of the total land area. The population is still growing at a 1.37 percent annual rate, but cultivated land is shrinking at the same time. The agricultural land is being converted as a result of uncontrolled urbanization, industrialization, and an increase in human activity. Modern sustainable agricultural methods approach to agricultural innovations and farming practices that increase farmers’ efficiency and reduce the use of natural resources. This study uses secondary information to provide a general view on modern practices used in Bangladesh for sustainable agriculture (i.e., crop diversification, change in cropping pattern and rotations, integrated farming systems, etc.) and suggests a sustainable method (polyculture and crop rotation) based on SWOT and PESTEL analysis. This paper recommends that Bangladesh should adopt polyculture and crop rotation more to improve soil health and for higher crop resistance to plant pests that will hedge against a loss in agricultural sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 857 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optical Chemo-Sensors for Specific Markers in Transformer Insulating Oil Exploiting Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Plasmonic Optical Fibers
by Letizia De Maria, Francesco Arcadio, Maria Pesavento, Antonella Profumo, Nunzio Cennamo and Luigi Zeni
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11180 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 728
Abstract
2-FAL (2-furaldehyde) and furanic derivatives are the main by-products of the thermal degradation of cellulose paper insulation of power transformers’ windings. The detection of these compounds in the insulating oil of transformers is essential to investigate the ageing of the oil-paper system in [...] Read more.
2-FAL (2-furaldehyde) and furanic derivatives are the main by-products of the thermal degradation of cellulose paper insulation of power transformers’ windings. The detection of these compounds in the insulating oil of transformers is essential to investigate the ageing of the oil-paper system in order to avoid failures. To this aim, a non-conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) platform in plastic optical fiber (POF) was proposed for the monitoring of a biomimetic receptor specific to detect 2-FAL in transformer oil. In particular, the investigation was performed in mineral oil, which is currently the main insulating liquid for power transformers. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) receptor was used, giving the sensor device a noticeable selectivity and many advantages with respect to the biological counterparts. Furthermore, the study was extended to safer and more environmentally acceptable insulating fluids representing an alternative to mineral oil (i.e., esters). To this aim, the principle and limitations of the SPR chemo-sensor performances have been discussed in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 218 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of MgO-Based Expansive Agent on the Characteristics of Expansive Concrete
by Abir Mahmood, A. B. M. Amrul Kaish, Nor Farhana Binti Ab Gulam, Sudharshan N. Raman, Maslina Jamil and Roszilah Hamid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11165 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Expansive concrete are used to reduce cracking caused by drying shrinkage in concrete structures such as slabs, beams, columns, and pavement constructions. Although CaO and Sulphoaluminate based expansive agents have been used for decades, MgO-based expansive agents have demonstrated superior performance since 1970, [...] Read more.
Expansive concrete are used to reduce cracking caused by drying shrinkage in concrete structures such as slabs, beams, columns, and pavement constructions. Although CaO and Sulphoaluminate based expansive agents have been used for decades, MgO-based expansive agents have demonstrated superior performance since 1970, especially for concrete dam structures. It has been proven that compensating shrinkage with MgO expansion efficiently prevents thermal cracking of mass concrete, reduces the expense of temperature control systems, and speeds up the construction process. This paper reviews several parameters such as reactivity, thickness of water film, curing condition, additive ratio, and calcination condition that affects expansibility, strength, soundness, durability, flowability, pore structures, crystal size, and hydration activity. The review indicates that the expansion characteristics of MgO may be designed flexibly by altering the calcination conditions (calcining temperature and residence time), maintaining a certain curing temperature, and tweaking its microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
6 pages, 785 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Curd Cake for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Influence of Replacing Sugar with Sweetener on Nutritional Value
by Elena Aksonova, Victoria Evlash and Sergey Gubsky
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11123 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Sugar is one of the main ingredients of baked products, so reduction of sucrose negatively affects product appearance, texture, and mouthfeel. However, by replacing it with sweeteners such as sucralose, it is possible to create desserts with a low glycemic index and low [...] Read more.
Sugar is one of the main ingredients of baked products, so reduction of sucrose negatively affects product appearance, texture, and mouthfeel. However, by replacing it with sweeteners such as sucralose, it is possible to create desserts with a low glycemic index and low calorie content. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical and nutritional properties, and sensory characteristics of sugar replaced with curd cake made using sucralose. Optimal results were obtained with replacement up to 50%, leading curd cake similar to the control products and having a high level of acceptance in sensory evaluation. A vibrational analysis using FTIR spectroscopy showed in these samples the presence of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and a dense packing of texture. The study of adsorption/desorption isotherms indicates the predominance of the mechanism of monomolecular physical adsorption with a weak interaction of adsorbent-adsorbate in samples with sugar replacement up to 50%. A further increase in the sugar substitute content increases the contribution from polymolecular adsorption and capillary water, which is reflected in the deterioration of sensory characteristics. The developed technology made it possible to obtain a curd cake with a caloric content of 14% lower than that of an analogue, which in its organoleptic characteristics and structure does not differ from the analogue product and contains 26% more protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 484 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Phytochemistry and Anticarcinogenic Activity of Noni Juice
by Janice S. Mani, Joel B. Johnson and Mani Naiker
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11154 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Noni juice, obtained from the fruit of the noni tree (Morinda citrifolia L.), is a popular commodity in the market, particularly in the South Pacific. It is widely used by consumers for the prevention of several lifestyle diseases. Although there is increasing [...] Read more.
Noni juice, obtained from the fruit of the noni tree (Morinda citrifolia L.), is a popular commodity in the market, particularly in the South Pacific. It is widely used by consumers for the prevention of several lifestyle diseases. Although there is increasing interest in the potential therapeutic use of noni plants, there are no comparative studies on the various commercialized noni fruit juices available to decipher their phytochemical composition and properties against carcinomas. The present study, therefore, aims to fill this research gap and investigate the juice’s anecdotal use as complementary alternative medicine to manage cancer. Five commercial brands of noni juice were included in this study, namely, Tahitian Organic Noni (TON), Cook Island Noni (CIN), Dynamic Health Noni (DHN), Fijian Noni (FN), and Life Health Noni (LHN). The juice samples were vacuum-filtered and freeze-dried to obtain crystal products for methanolic extraction. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (FRAP—ferric reducing antioxidant power) were determined on the methanolic extracts. The cytotoxicity of the noni juices was also tested on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa cell lines) by dissolving 2 mg of the crystal product in sterile deionized water and diluting to 1000 μg/mL in the media culture. The final concentration of the extracts in the well plate was 500 μg/mL. The MTS cell viability assay was performed after the cells were incubated with the extracts for 48 h at 37 °C with 5% CO2. The DHN and FN extracts were found to have the highest TPC of 5393 ± 298 and 5060 ± 23 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, whereas the highest antioxidant capacity was seen in the CIN extract (6389 ± 49 mg Trolox equivalent/100 g DW). The CIN extract also showed the most promising effect with only 63 ± 1% cell viability, whilst the other extracts showed lower cytotoxic effects (76–90% cell viability) on the HeLa cell line. It is possible that greater cytotoxicity could be observed over long exposure times. The noni juice samples contain high levels of TP and antioxidant capacity and appear to show some level of cytotoxic activity, which were statistically different from the negative control. Further work involving more extensive in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate its anticarcinogenic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 705 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory from Farm Tractor Operations in Korea
by Gyu-Gang Han, Jun-Hyuk Jeon, Myoung-Ho Kim and Seong-Min Kim
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11187 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Due to the decline in the agricultural labor force and rapid aging of farmers, agricultural machinery is becoming larger, higher-performance, and diversified. In this study, an air pollutant emission inventory for agricultural tractors was analyzed and compared with the inventory developed by a [...] Read more.
Due to the decline in the agricultural labor force and rapid aging of farmers, agricultural machinery is becoming larger, higher-performance, and diversified. In this study, an air pollutant emission inventory for agricultural tractors was analyzed and compared with the inventory developed by a national agency. Agricultural tractors include walking and riding tractors and, further, riding tractors were divided into three subcategories based on their engine size. In addition, tractor emissions were classified according to the usage time of each operation. Seven air pollutants, such as CO, NOx, SOx, TSP, VOCs (PM10), PM2.5, and NH3, were included in the inventory. The results showed that the total yearly emissions in 2017 were 3300 Mg, 9110 Mg, 4 Mg, 567 Mg, 522 Mg, 759 Mg, and 33 Mg for CO, NOx, SOx, TSP, VOCs, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3, respectively. The most emitted air pollutant in the transporting operation using walking tractors is NOx, and the amount of emission is 1023 Mg/y. Riding tractors mainly emit a large amount of NOx, in the order of medium, large, and small tractors. The NOx emissions from medium, large, and small riding tractors are 1103 Mg/y, 676 Mg/y, and 322 Mg/y, respectively, from harrowing operations and are 445 Mg/y, 273 Mg/y, and 130 Mg/y, respectively, from tilling operations. The results also showed that the total pollutant emissions from tractors were increased 10% compared to the emission inventory developed by a national agency due to categorizing riding tractors into three subcategories. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially assign air pollutant variables to 17 provinces and metropolitan cities in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 760 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Predictive Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease with Normal Cognition Using Kernel-Based C5.0 Machine Learning Blending: Preliminary Research
by Haewon Byeon
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11147 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
This preliminary study mainly compared the performance for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PDMCI) between single machine learning and hybrid machine learning. This study analyzed 185 patients with Parkinson’s disease (75 Parkinson’s disease) patients with normal cognition, and 110 patients with [...] Read more.
This preliminary study mainly compared the performance for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PDMCI) between single machine learning and hybrid machine learning. This study analyzed 185 patients with Parkinson’s disease (75 Parkinson’s disease) patients with normal cognition, and 110 patients with PDMCI. PDMCI, an outcome variable, was divided into “with PDMCI” and “with normal cognition” according to the diagnosis of the neurologist. This study used 48 variables (diagnostic data), including motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, and sleep disorders, as explanatory variables. This study developed seven machine learning models using blending (three hybrid models (polydot + C5.0, vanilladot + C5.0, and RBFdot + C5.0) and four single machine learning models (polydot, vanilladot, RBFdot, and C5.0)). The results of this study showed that the RBFdot + C5.0 was the model with the best performance to predict PDMCI in Parkinson’s disease patients with normal cognition (AUC = 0.88) among the seven machine learning models. We will develop interpretable machine learning using C5.0 in a follow-up study based on the results of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1972 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Aptamer-Based Plasmonic Plastic Optical Fiber Biosensors: A Focus on Relevant Applications
by Laura Pasquardini, Nunzio Cennamo and Luigi Zeni
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11158 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Optical detection is one of the most used transduction methods in biosensors and apart from the commercially available instruments based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), an emerging class of devices, based on both silica and plastic optical fibers (POFs), is finding its route. [...] Read more.
Optical detection is one of the most used transduction methods in biosensors and apart from the commercially available instruments based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR), an emerging class of devices, based on both silica and plastic optical fibers (POFs), is finding its route. On the other hand, aptamers represent the next-generation biorecognition elements for biosensor implementation, thanks to several characteristics making them more appealing with respect to the conventional antibodies. The joint exploitation of plasmon resonance in plastic optical fibers and aptamers is here reported, focusing the attention on various relevant biological applications (e.g., thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1131 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Review on the Effect of Fly Ash, RHA and Slag on the Synthesizing of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) Based Geopolymer
by Nor Farhana Binti Ab Gulam, A. B. M. Amrul Kaish, Abir Mahmood, Sudharshan N. Raman, Maslina Jamil and Roszilah Hamid
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11164 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Geopolymerization is widely used in the construction sector for its characteristics of strong compressive strengths, quick hardening, long-term durability, fire resistance, and erosion resistance. This paper has gone through the geopolymer performances utilizing coal bottom ash (CBA), CBA blended with fly ash (FA), [...] Read more.
Geopolymerization is widely used in the construction sector for its characteristics of strong compressive strengths, quick hardening, long-term durability, fire resistance, and erosion resistance. This paper has gone through the geopolymer performances utilizing coal bottom ash (CBA), CBA blended with fly ash (FA), CBA mixed together with slag, and CBA with rice husk ash (RHA). CBA shows a better performance than FA in the compressive strength. This paper has discovered several elements that influence geopolymerization, the curing time, the curing temperature, the silicate and hydroxide ratio, and grinding CBA surfaces. The combination of CBA and RHA is suitable for lightweight concrete, as the range of the volumetric weight is within 1192 kg/m3 to 1655 kg/m3. The slump result decreases, as the ratio of CBA and slag increases. Slag particles are uneven in shape, which increases water consumption and leads to a honeycombed structure, whereas CBA particles are spherical in shape, which enhances workability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mini-Review of the Importance of Hydrazides and Their Derivatives—Synthesis and Biological Activity
by Suraj N. Mali, Bapu R. Thorat, Deepa Rani Gupta and Anima Pandey
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11157 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
Organic acid hydrazides include a vast group of organic derivatives of hydrazines containing the active functional group (-C(=O)NHNH2). Acid hydrazones were important bidentate ligands and show keto-enol (amido-iminol) tautomerism. They usually exist in keto form in the solid-state while in equilibrium [...] Read more.
Organic acid hydrazides include a vast group of organic derivatives of hydrazines containing the active functional group (-C(=O)NHNH2). Acid hydrazones were important bidentate ligands and show keto-enol (amido-iminol) tautomerism. They usually exist in keto form in the solid-state while in equilibrium between keto and enol forms in solution state. Such hydrazones were synthesized in the laboratory by heating substituted hydrazides or hydrazines with corresponding aldehydes or ketones in different organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, butanol, tetrahydrofuran, etc., and some cases with the ethanol-glacial acetic acid or acetic acid alone. Hydrozones are very important intermediates for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and also have different biological activities. The organic chemist would have more interest in the synthesis of acid hydrazides and their derivatives because of their properties. These derivatives having wide applications as chemical preservers for plants, drugs, for manufacturing polymers, glues, etc., in industry and many other purposes. These acid hydrazides and their derivatives were found to be useful synthons for various heterocyclic five, six or seven-membered rings with one or more heteroatoms that were exhibited great biological, pharmacological and industrial applications. This paper will present a review of the chemistry and pharmacological potentials of hydrazide-hydrazones. The various synthetic routes for hydrazone, as well as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potentials, have been elaborated in brief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 2624 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Proposal of a Computational Algorithm for Calculating Material Ratio of Surface Texture
by Hirokazu Machida, Ichiro Yoshida and Yuki Kondo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11168 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
The material ratio curve (hereafter referred to as MRC) of ISO 13565-2 and ISO 4287 is widely used in industrial fields. The computational algorithm of MRC proposed in ISO has a problem of long calculation time, because of a method of slicing the [...] Read more.
The material ratio curve (hereafter referred to as MRC) of ISO 13565-2 and ISO 4287 is widely used in industrial fields. The computational algorithm of MRC proposed in ISO has a problem of long calculation time, because of a method of slicing the roughness profile. Therefore, in this study, a sort method was proposed as a computational algorithm for time reduction. However, depending on the form of the surface profile, the algorithm of the proposed sort method has a problem in that calculation errors occur. Therefore, in this paper, we report a new improved algorithm that solves this problem. In this paper, a new and improved algorithm for calculating MRC has been researched and developed. The proposed algorithm in this paper succeeded in reducing the computing time to derive MRC compared with the calculating algorithm of MRC proposed in the ISO standard. This algorithm is expected the efficiency improvement of quality control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 1339 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Surface Roughness Evaluation of the Inner Surface of Automobile Engine Bores by RANSAC and the Least Squares Method
by Sho Nagai, Ichiro Yoshida and Ryo Sakakibara
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11169 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Analysis methods for plateau surfaces have been described in the ISO standards, JIS, and previous studies. The authors of a previous study proposed a method based on the concept of random sample consensus (RANSAC). This method achieved high analysis accuracy for plateau surfaces [...] Read more.
Analysis methods for plateau surfaces have been described in the ISO standards, JIS, and previous studies. The authors of a previous study proposed a method based on the concept of random sample consensus (RANSAC). This method achieved high analysis accuracy for plateau surfaces by setting detailed conditions. However, the process of setting optimal conditions is performed manually, which reduces productivity due to the manpower and man-hours required. In this study, we propose a new method for automating the setting of conditions. This method, which does not require human intervention, is expected to contribute to the improvement of productivity at production sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1256 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computational Intelligence Model of Orally Disintegrating Tablets: An Attempt to Explain Disintegration Process
by Jakub Szlęk, Adam Pacławski, Natalia Czub and Aleksander Mendyk
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11163 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
We obtained a curated database based on the database published elsewhere. Chemical descriptors were introduced as characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). We used H2O AutoML platform in order to develop a Deep Learning model and SHAP method to explain its predictions. Obtained [...] Read more.
We obtained a curated database based on the database published elsewhere. Chemical descriptors were introduced as characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). We used H2O AutoML platform in order to develop a Deep Learning model and SHAP method to explain its predictions. Obtained results were satisfactory with NRMSE of 8.1% and R2 of 0.84. Finally, we identified critical parameters affecting the process of disintegration of directly compressed ODTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 8389 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Concise Review of Classical Guitar Modelling Technologies
by Alexandre M. Löw, Herbert M. Gomes and César M. A. Vasques
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11179 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Analytical modeling and numerical simulation of multiphysics coupled systems is an exciting research area, even when it comes to intrinsically linear or linearized formulations, as is usually the case with coupled vibroacoustic problems. The combined effect of many localized geometrical miss-modeling with significant [...] Read more.
Analytical modeling and numerical simulation of multiphysics coupled systems is an exciting research area, even when it comes to intrinsically linear or linearized formulations, as is usually the case with coupled vibroacoustic problems. The combined effect of many localized geometrical miss-modeling with significant uncertainty in mechanical characterization of some organic materials yields large discrepancies in the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained. The main goal of this work is to compare two basic approaches for the modeling of stringed musical instruments in the frequency domain: simplified lumped-parameter analytic modeling, considering only the most influential degrees of freedom, and discretized finite element modal analysis. Thus, the emphasis is on a review of some key references in this field, including previous work by the authors, which may shed light on some of the most relevant issues surrounding this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2007 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
First Results for the Selection of Repeating Earthquakes in the Eastern Tien Shan (China)
by Kseniia Nepeina
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11122 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
This research is the first stage of seeking repeating earthquakes sequences (RES) in the modern orogeny active zones. The main idea is to find the possible influence of space weather parameters on the seismic process. This is the reason why I am interested [...] Read more.
This research is the first stage of seeking repeating earthquakes sequences (RES) in the modern orogeny active zones. The main idea is to find the possible influence of space weather parameters on the seismic process. This is the reason why I am interested in the satellite CSES-01 data. It is a tool that has monitored Earth’s seismo-electromagnetic activity since 2018. Presuming the “ionosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere” relation exists, it is necessary to involve both satellite and ground-based observational data. The seeking of the triggering mechanism still requires additional analysis of consistent geophysical ground-based networks (geomagnetic and seismic). The stations’ coordinates and instruments are presented. In this work, an earthquake catalog (NEIC) of 400 earthquakes with 2.5+ magnitude from 2015 to 2020 was used. The earthquakes epicenters are illustrated on Google Earth basemap (Landsat image) with geologic linear faults. It could help to find any correlation with relief surface or shear zones, which could be areas of nucleation. Some earthquake clusters were found in the Eastern Tien Shan (region of China), on the border with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, due to the K-means algorithm. Clustering helps group earthquakes into small families for further cross-correlation of seismic waveforms and the best match selection between the neighbors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1259 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Proposal of Edge-Preserving, Image Noise Reduction Filter for Using L2-Norm
by Yudai Yamaguchi, Ichiro Yoshida and Yuki Kondo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11170 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Images taken by digital cameras include noise. The image recognition rate decreases with increasing noise. Reducing noise is essential for improving the accuracy of image recognition. Low-pass filters, such as a Gaussian filter (GF), are often used to reduce noise from images. Low-pass [...] Read more.
Images taken by digital cameras include noise. The image recognition rate decreases with increasing noise. Reducing noise is essential for improving the accuracy of image recognition. Low-pass filters, such as a Gaussian filter (GF), are often used to reduce noise from images. Low-pass filters can reduce noise. However, low-pass filters always blur the edges. As the edge blur becomes stronger, the accuracy of edge and feature detection of image recognition worsens. Therefore, we propose a noise reduction filter for images that can preserve edges by combining the GF and the L2-norm. The proposed method is expected to improve the image quality and, consequently, the accuracy of image recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1510 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Numerical Analysis on the Cyclic Behavior of 316 FR Stainless Steel and Fatigue Life Prediction
by Ikram Abarkan, Abdellatif Khamlichi and Rabee Shamass
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11116 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
The present work aims to predict the cyclic behavior and fatigue life of 316 FR stainless steel specimens at 650 °C. First, the samples were modeled using finite element analysis under different strain amplitudes, and the obtained numerical hysteresis loops were compared against [...] Read more.
The present work aims to predict the cyclic behavior and fatigue life of 316 FR stainless steel specimens at 650 °C. First, the samples were modeled using finite element analysis under different strain amplitudes, and the obtained numerical hysteresis loops were compared against experimental results available in the literature. Then, the fatigue life was estimated using different fatigue life prediction models, namely the Coffin–Manson model, Ostergren’s damage function, and Smith–Watson–Topper model, and was compared to the experimental fatigue life. The obtained results revealed that the numerical cyclic stress–strain data are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally. In addition, the predicted fatigue lives using the previously mentioned fatigue life models and based on the provided equation parameters are within a factor of 2.5 of the experimental results. Accordingly, it is suggested that they can be used to predict the fatigue life of 316 FR stainless steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1136 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Normal Range of Motion of Lower Extremity Joints in Mongolian Subjects
by Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Tserenchimed Purevsuren and Danaa Ganbat
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11140 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
It is important to identify the normal range of motion (ROM) of the human joints for both biomechanical and clinical applications. For health care providers, including physicians and therapists, the restoration of normal ROM is a difficult task. The severity of impaired joint [...] Read more.
It is important to identify the normal range of motion (ROM) of the human joints for both biomechanical and clinical applications. For health care providers, including physicians and therapists, the restoration of normal ROM is a difficult task. The severity of impaired joint mobility or the postoperative rehabilitation process must be evaluated in comparison with a normal reference value. However, there are no studies that have reported the ROM of Mongolian subjects. In this study, we measured the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles using multiple wearable inertial sensors. Ten healthy young subjects participated. The three-dimensional (3D) motion data were collected while the subject were walking at normal speed. In our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the normal ROM of Mongolian male subjects. The collected data can be used as reference values for evaluating the disability of the motion and performance in rehabilitation programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 2922 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of NO2 Pollution over Bangladesh between the Two COVID-19 Caused Lockdowns in 2020 and 2021 Using Sentinel-5P Products
by S.M.Sohel Rana, Sheikh Mohammad Famim Ahmed and Hamida Akter
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11139 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries around the world have imposed nationwide lockdowns to control the spreading of the virus. During the lockdown period, many countries saw a drastic drop in air pollution. In Bangladesh, there were two nationwide lockdowns. The first [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries around the world have imposed nationwide lockdowns to control the spreading of the virus. During the lockdown period, many countries saw a drastic drop in air pollution. In Bangladesh, there were two nationwide lockdowns. The first lockdown was imposed on 26 March–30 May in 2020 and the second lockdown was imposed on 3 April until the study period of 31 May in 2021. This study aimed to analyze the NO2 pollution over Bangladesh during the two periods of lockdown. Tropospheric NO2 column spatial configuration was measured over Bangladesh using Sentinel-5P data. A map of the monthly average concentration of tropospheric NO2 in 2020 and 2021 over Bangladesh was produced using the HARP toolkit and Python. Then, the map was compared with same period Sentinel-5P product’s map for the same period in 2019. It was found that during the first lockdown in Bangladesh between 26 March and 30 May 2020, NO2 concentration drastically decreased in April but increased in May. However, during the second lockdown from 3 April to 31 May in 2021, the NO2 concentration was found to be much higher. Most of the pollution occurred in the Dhaka district. During the second lockdown, the restrictions were much lighter than those during the first one, which impacted the NO2 concentration. This kind of study can be essential for the authorities to look closely at air quality and use sentinel data to improve air quality monitoring in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1258 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Unveiling Naturally Occurring Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Targeting Mycobacterium DPRE1 for Anti-Tb Drug Discovery
by Suraj N. Mali and Anima Pandey
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11185 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
The increasing rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) cases of tuberculosis (TB) strains are alarming, and eventually hampered the effective control of the pathogenic disease. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, which previously demonstrated in vitro [...] Read more.
The increasing rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) cases of tuberculosis (TB) strains are alarming, and eventually hampered the effective control of the pathogenic disease. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, which previously demonstrated in vitro potency against TB strains. However, efforts to elucidate the exact mechanism of the interaction are still ongoing. Aiming to elucidate the probable mechanism of its anti-TB action as decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-D-ribose 2′-epimerase (DprE) inhibition, we conducted a molecular modeling analysis. Our molecular docking analysis for a set of 65 bioactive compounds of tea realized that EGCG has the highest binding affinity (docking score: −142.98 kcal/mol) against DPRE (pdb id: 4p8c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Further, a molecular dynamics analysis of 100 ns resulted in extreme stability of the ligand–protein complex. We further assessed the in silico pharmacokinetics and toxicities of the top three green tea polyphenols, based on the docking scores. Our results provide critical insights into the mechanism of action of EGCG and other green tea polyphenols, and their use as potential therapeutic agents (DprE1) against TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1054 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Wearable Temperature Sensor Network to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency
by Antonietta Fiore, Salvador Tufano, Giovanni De Rosa, Carmela Maria Napolitano, Carla D’Antò and Nunzio Cennamo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11125 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 844
Abstract
In the current COVID-19 emergency, to reduce the infection risk, several types of body temperature sensors, e.g., thermal imaging cameras and infrared thermometers, have been used to monitor people who access enclosed public spaces. In some buildings, where people are located for several [...] Read more.
In the current COVID-19 emergency, to reduce the infection risk, several types of body temperature sensors, e.g., thermal imaging cameras and infrared thermometers, have been used to monitor people who access enclosed public spaces. In some buildings, where people are located for several hours, continuous monitoring could be useful. For this reason, in three schools, we have proposed and tested a body temperature sensor network based on wearable temperature sensors monitored via Bluetooth 5.0 using smartphones and/or custom gateways. The data are collected on a server via the internet, and custom software is used to control the measured temperature and to produce warnings automatically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 2797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Case Analysis of Meteorological and Air Pollution Parameters between a High and Low Port Activity Period in Igoumenitsa Port
by Ioannis Logothetis, Christina Antonopoulou, Konstantinos Sfetsioris, Adamantios Mitsotakis and Panagiotis Grammelis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11118 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Among the most important trade bridges for Western Europe and the Balkans is the Port of Igoumenitsa in Western Greece, which experiences heavy traffic of goods and passengers. This case analysis primarily aims to investigate the effect of shipping and port operations on [...] Read more.
Among the most important trade bridges for Western Europe and the Balkans is the Port of Igoumenitsa in Western Greece, which experiences heavy traffic of goods and passengers. This case analysis primarily aims to investigate the effect of shipping and port operations on air quality in the Port of Igoumenitsa, comparing two representative short case seasons of air quality measurement campaigns. The high activity season ranges from 25 to 31 August 2018, while the low season ranges from 17 to 25 May 2018. A mobile air quality monitoring system was used to perform the analysis. To compare the air quality of the examined periods, the wind speed rose diagrams, the correlation analysis, as well as the hourly variations in concentrations of pollutants and meteorological parameters, were studied. In addition, the impact of meteorology and atmospheric circulation on local air quality were investigated. For study implementation, various types of data, obtained from NASA Worldview application, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), and Giovanni online system (NASA-GES-DISC) were included. The results indicate that port operations affect the air quality in the Port of Igoumenitsa, as the high season showed higher concentrations of air pollutants compared to the low season. A notable exception was the concentration of PMs, which was affected by an African dust transfer event during the low season. Finally, the findings indicate that climatic factors affect the pollution levels of the case analysis, and emphasize the importance of developing a green and sustainable management system within the port. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1688 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Propelling the Penetration of Electric Vehicles in Pakistan by Optimal Placement of Charging Stations
by Hafiz Owais Ahmed Khan, Faisal Saeed and Naveed Arshad
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11189 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The world is rapidly advancing towards the electrification of mobility owing to the substantial benefits of emission reduction. Adhering to international trends and environmental obligations, the Government of Pakistan (GOP) also intended to adopt 30@30 plug-in-electric vehicles (PEVs) across the country, which implies [...] Read more.
The world is rapidly advancing towards the electrification of mobility owing to the substantial benefits of emission reduction. Adhering to international trends and environmental obligations, the Government of Pakistan (GOP) also intended to adopt 30@30 plug-in-electric vehicles (PEVs) across the country, which implies 30 percent of new sales will be of PEVs until 2030. Despite the policy guidelines introduced by the GOP as well as incentives for vehicle fleet electrification and indigenization, the foremost challenge is the lack of a PEV charging infrastructure placement plan for the country. In this regard, an optimal locality map for level-3 or direct current fast charging (DCFC) stations’ installation is proposed, considering traffic volume, service area, and local grid facility while ensuring the availability of charging stations across all major networks of the country. The area of focus for this is National Highway 5, known as N5, and the Motorway-2 (M2) Network. The paper also provides insights into the techno-economic analysis of the proposed charging station installation spots. The results are extremely encouraging and reveal the proposed PEV charging stations under observation on the highways from Lahore to Islamabad consumed an electricity share of 3 MW–0.13 MW based on minimum to maximum traffic volume scenarios, respectively. The study is impactful and ultimately paves a way forward for the aggravation of the EV market share by considering the initial investment and a payback period of 7 months. With the help of this study, better planning in terms of EV penetration size and its requirement for public DCFC stations can be implemented, and the exact recipe for the growth of the supportive industry with the pace of PEVs’ perforation can be executed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 941 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quantification of Losses in a Photovoltaic System: A Review
by Faisal Saeed and Abdullah Zohaib
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11200 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
In this paper, we characterized and reviewed the emergence of fundamental and extended losses that limit the efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Although there is an upper theoretical bound to the power conversion efficiency of solar cells, i.e., the Shockley Queisser limit, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we characterized and reviewed the emergence of fundamental and extended losses that limit the efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Although there is an upper theoretical bound to the power conversion efficiency of solar cells, i.e., the Shockley Queisser limit, in a practical environment, the consideration of inevitable losses in a whole PV system is imperative to optimally harvest solar energy. In this regard, this study quantifies the losses from a PV cell level to the whole PV system. It was perceived that reported losses on the PV cell level included the low energy bandgap, thermalization, recombination (surface and bulk recombination), optical absorption, space charge region, finite thickness, and metal contact loss, and it was determined that cutting techniques mainly constrained the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Furthermore, the detailed PV array losses were classified as mismatch power losses, dust accumulation losses, temperature effects, material quality losses, and ohmic wiring losses. The unavoidable system losses were quantified as inverter losses, maximum power point tracking losses, battery losses, and polarization losses. The study also provides insights into potential approaches to combat these losses and can become a useful guide to better visualize the overall phenomenology of a PV System. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1608 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novel PDMS-Based Microfeature-Size Fabrication Method for Biocompatible and Flexible Devices
by Fatemeh Mashayekhi, Faezeh Shanehsazzadeh and Mehdi Fardmanesh
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11132 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
This article proposes a novel cost-effective method to achieve microfeature-sized patterns on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. As a biocompatible, flexible, economical, and easy-to-use polymer benefiting the trait of mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, PDMS is the best candidate to be used [...] Read more.
This article proposes a novel cost-effective method to achieve microfeature-sized patterns on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. As a biocompatible, flexible, economical, and easy-to-use polymer benefiting the trait of mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, PDMS is the best candidate to be used where we need communication between the electrical circuits and soft tissues. Additionally, PDMS can be matched with tissue’s different shapes and doesn’t cause any trauma. The proposed approach eliminates complex and high-cost manufacturing methods of microfeature-sized patterns on PDMS, such as conventional microfabrication methods. Our technique takes advantage of not requiring standard photolithography processes, making it simple and cost-effective. This manner can be used for various purposes, such as micro-fluidic chip fabrication, bio-sensing applications, neuroscience research and neural prosthetics such as electrocorticogram (ECoG) and, in general, where microfeature-size patterning on PDMS is required. To prove the method’s functionality, we fabricated a test sample. Firstly, the scaffold was fabricated using a conventional laser engraver and Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). Then, a mold was made using this scaffold from PDMS. In the last step, a typical commercial photoresist was applied as an anti-adhesion layer between the PDMS mold and the sample to make the sample peel off the mold surface easily. The final sample indicated that the pattern’s feature size was around 200 micrometers and that the required patterns were very close to the desired form possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 1479 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhanced Reconstruction of Spatially Incoherent Digital Holograms Using Synthetic Point Spread Holograms
by Vijayakumar Anand, Joseph Rosen, Soon Hock Ng, Tomas Katkus, Denver P. Linklater, Elena P. Ivanova and Saulius Juodkazis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11162 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Coded aperture imaging (CAI) methods offer multidimensional and multispectral imaging capabilities with minimal resources than what is needed in a lens-based direct imager. In the CAI method, the light diffracted from an object is modulated by a coded mask, and the resulting intensity [...] Read more.
Coded aperture imaging (CAI) methods offer multidimensional and multispectral imaging capabilities with minimal resources than what is needed in a lens-based direct imager. In the CAI method, the light diffracted from an object is modulated by a coded mask, and the resulting intensity distribution is recorded. Most of the CAI techniques involve two steps: the recording of the point spread function (PSF) and object intensity under identical conditions and with the same coded mask. The image of the object is reconstructed by computationally processing the PSF and object intensity. The above recording and reconstruction procedure precludes the introduction of special beam characteristics in imaging, such as a direct imager. In this study, a postprocessing approach is developed, where synthetic PSFs capable of introducing special beam characteristics when processed with the object intensity are generated using an iterative algorithm. The method is applied to generate edge-enhanced images in both CAI as well as Fresnel incoherent correlation holography methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 518 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Formulation of Effervescent Compact Detergent Tablets with Unique Chemical Compositions
by Rohan Mestri, Suraj N. Mali and Amit Pratap
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11186 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2508
Abstract
The tablet form of detergent powder is one of the new delivery systems of detergent. It is a compact form of detergent powder with highly active ingredients. The tablet form of detergent reduces the volume of the powder. Due to its compact format, [...] Read more.
The tablet form of detergent powder is one of the new delivery systems of detergent. It is a compact form of detergent powder with highly active ingredients. The tablet form of detergent reduces the volume of the powder. Due to its compact format, it affects the transportation and packing cost. Thus, we aimed to formulate the unique detergent powder with the chemical combinations of various surface-active agents. The detergent formulation thus contains linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LABSA), alfa sulfo methyl esters, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate, sodium sulphate, etc. In our study, the detergent powder is mixed with various disintegrating agents such as corn starch, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium CMC), silicic acid, sodium carbonate and citric acid. Our compact detergent powder showed better detergency properties. This helps to instantly disintegrate and disperse when contacted with water. Detergent powder composition in our currently formulated tablets caused effervescences and disintegrated within 30 s at room temperature in water. The tablet detergent showed better performance than market detergents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 2193 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Inkjet 3D Printing
by Lorena Saitta, Nunzio Cennamo, Claudio Tosto, Francesco Arcadio, Maria Elena Fragalà, Luigi Zeni and Gianluca Cicala
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11127 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
A novel surface plasmon (SPR) sensor was designed, manufactured and experimentally tested. A novel approach was followed to fabricate the sensor. It is based on a combination of both the inkjet 3D printing process and the use of optical adhesives, which were used [...] Read more.
A novel surface plasmon (SPR) sensor was designed, manufactured and experimentally tested. A novel approach was followed to fabricate the sensor. It is based on a combination of both the inkjet 3D printing process and the use of optical adhesives, which were used as an alternative solution to the use of plastic optical fibers (POFs). The obtained experimental results showed good performances, at least in terms of figure of merit (FOM), for the 3D-printed sensor, which were quite similar to those gained by an SPR–POF configuration. Next, through a cost analysis, the possibility of manufacturing the SPR sensor at a low cost was demonstrated, thus being economically advantageous towards conventional sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 420 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Partial Differential Equations of Motion for a Single-Link Flexible Manipulator
by Mohammed Bouanane, Rachad Oulad Ben Zarouala and Abdellatif Khamlichi
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11120 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 991
Abstract
Robot manipulators have played an enormous role in the industry during the twenty-first century. Due to the advances in materials science, lightweight manipulators have emerged with low energy consumption and positive economic aspect regardless of their complex mechanical model and control techniques problems. [...] Read more.
Robot manipulators have played an enormous role in the industry during the twenty-first century. Due to the advances in materials science, lightweight manipulators have emerged with low energy consumption and positive economic aspect regardless of their complex mechanical model and control techniques problems. This paper presents a dynamic model of a single link flexible robot manipulator with a payload at its free end based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory with a complete second-order deformation field that generates a complete second-order elastic rotation matrix. The beam experiences an axial stretching, horizontal and vertical deflections, and a torsional deformation ignoring the shear due to bending, warping due to torsion, and viscous air friction. The deformation and its derivatives are assumed to be small. The application of the extended Hamilton principle while taking into account the viscoelastic internal damping based on the Kelvin–Voigt model expressed by the Rayleigh dissipation function yields both the boundary conditions and the coupled partial differential equations of motion that can be decoupled when the manipulator rotates with a constant angular velocity. Equations of motion solutions are still under research, as it is required to study the behavior of flexible manipulators and develop novel ways and methods for controlling their complex movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 966 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
High-Resolution Distributed Liquid Level Sensor Based on a Self-Heating Approach
by Ester Catalano, Agnese Coscetta, Luigi Zeni and Aldo Minardo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11131 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
In this work, we propose a high-resolution distributed liquid level sensor based on a Cobalt-based, high-attenuation fiber (HAF), and a high-spatial resolution (5 mm) Brillouin Optical Frequency-Domain Analysis (BOFDA) sensor. In our method, the interrogating laser has a dual role: on one side, [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose a high-resolution distributed liquid level sensor based on a Cobalt-based, high-attenuation fiber (HAF), and a high-spatial resolution (5 mm) Brillouin Optical Frequency-Domain Analysis (BOFDA) sensor. In our method, the interrogating laser has a dual role: on one side, it excites the acoustic wave involved in the scattering phenomenon; on the other side, it heats up the fiber in a manner dependent on the surrounding medium (air or liquid). The proposed method has the potentiality of determining the liquid level with high spatial resolution, without requiring any additional component compared to a conventional BOFDA sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3255 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The 3D-Printed Low-Cost Delta Robot Óscar: Technology Overview and Benchmarking
by César M. A. Vasques and Fernando A. V. Figueiredo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11173 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Robotics is undoubtedly one of the most influential fields of modern technology in changing the very nature of our society. Parallel Delta robots have for a long time been mainly focused on a niche market; however, compared to serial anthropomorphic robots they present [...] Read more.
Robotics is undoubtedly one of the most influential fields of modern technology in changing the very nature of our society. Parallel Delta robots have for a long time been mainly focused on a niche market; however, compared to serial anthropomorphic robots they present several simplicity and improved dynamics features. Additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D-printing technologies are enabling rapid changes in robotic engineering as we classically know it, allowing for greater creativity and freedom in mechatronics design and innovation. The effective benefits of far-reaching design freedom in terms of geometry, materials, and manufacturing accessibility are now starting to become apparent, answering many complex technical questions and scientific uncertainties that go beyond basic design and functional knowledge and that require engineering skills and scientific analysis. The Delta robot, as one of the most significant industrialized parallel robots due to its simplicity, is considered in this work, which provides an overview of the multidisciplinary aspects of the new Smile.Tech’s 3D-printed and low-cost Delta robot, the Óscar family. We provide a concise analysis of the current state of the art and use of Delta robots, as well as a discussion of the Delta architecture, interface software, and virtual operation environments. The article concludes with a market analysis, a summary of the major manufacturers and currently available Delta models as well as a benchmarking study of their major operating and technical features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 866 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ultra-Short-Pulse Lasers—Materials—Applications
by Molong Han, Daniel Smith, Soon Hock Ng, Vijayakumar Anand, Tomas Katkus and Saulius Juodkazis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11143 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
We overview recent developments of 3D± (additive/subtractive) manufacturing/printing from the point of view of laser development, beam delivery tools, applications, and materials. The average power of ultra-short-pulsed lasers has followed a Moore’s scaling trajectory, doubling every two years, for the past 20 [...] Read more.
We overview recent developments of 3D± (additive/subtractive) manufacturing/printing from the point of view of laser development, beam delivery tools, applications, and materials. The average power of ultra-short-pulsed lasers has followed a Moore’s scaling trajectory, doubling every two years, for the past 20 years. This requires fast beam scanning solutions and beam delivery control for larger-area applications. New material synthesis with high spatial resolution is provided at the high intensity TW/cm2-PW/cm2 exposure site. Net-shape manufacturing with a reduced number of post-processing steps is a practical trait of 3D± printing. With computer numerical control (CNC) optimised using artificial intelligence (AI), the future of 3D± manufacturing is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 564 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparing two Fitting Algorithms for Determining the Cole–Cole Parameters in Blood Glucose Problems
by Roberto Dima, Giovanni Buonanno and Raffaele Solimene
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11188 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
This paper addresses the nonlinear inverse problem of estimating the parameters of the Cole–Cole model used to describe the behavior of the complex permittivity of blood samples. Such a model provides an efficient and accurate representation of biological tissues in the entire frequency [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the nonlinear inverse problem of estimating the parameters of the Cole–Cole model used to describe the behavior of the complex permittivity of blood samples. Such a model provides an efficient and accurate representation of biological tissues in the entire frequency band considered and reduces the complexity of the experimental data to a few parameters. In this way, it is possible to extract a “synthetic view” of the dielectric properties of tissues in such a way that more information on the glucose concentration can be derived, in addition to the resonance peak or phase shift. In order to perform the fitting of the Cole–Cole model, two different algorithms were used and compared: the Levenberg–Marquardt and the variable projection algorithms. Synthetic data present in the literature were used to evaluate the performances obtainable with these methods. In particular, Monte Carlo analysis was used in order to evaluate the accuracy and the precision that these two methods provide in the process of estimating the parameters involved, with respect to the starting points of the parameters. The results obtained showed that the variable projection algorithm always outperformed the Levenberg–Marquardt one, although the former has a greater computational burden than the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 5524 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Drone Polariscopy—Towards Remote Sensing Applications
by Soon Hock Ng, Blake Allan, Daniel Ierodiaconou, Vijayakumar Anand, Alexander Babanin and Saulius Juodkazis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11161 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Remote sensing is critical for a wide range of applications, including ocean and wave monitoring, planetary exploration, agriculture, and astronomy. We demonstrate a polariscopy concept that is able to determine orientation of patterns below the optical resolution limit of a system. This technique [...] Read more.
Remote sensing is critical for a wide range of applications, including ocean and wave monitoring, planetary exploration, agriculture, and astronomy. We demonstrate a polariscopy concept that is able to determine orientation of patterns below the optical resolution limit of a system. This technique relies on measuring at least four different polarisation angles and calculating the orientation from this set of intensity information. It was initially demonstrated on the Infrared Microspectroscopy Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron using IR light in transmission. Using a monochrome polarising camera mounted onto a drone as a remote sensing platform analogue, orientation information was extracted from 3D-printed targets in reflection. The images were taken at an altitude where conventional imaging could not resolve the test patterns. The system had a 3.33 mm ground resolution. Patterns consisting of 0.5 mm lines spaced 0.5 mm apart were detected using the method, demonstrating the capability of detecting features over six times smaller than the resolution limit. In the interest of moving towards high-speed data acquisition and processing, two methods for processing the image are compared—an analytical and a curve fitting method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3911 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Manufacturing and Testing of 3D-Printed Polymer Isogrid Lattice Cylindrical Shell Structures
by César M. A. Vasques, Fernando C. Gonçalves and Adélio M. S. Cavadas
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11174 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
This article focuses on the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology to manufacture and test polymer isogrid lattice cylindrical shell (LCS) structures with equilateral triangular unit-cells using non-professional and conventional 3D printing software and hardware. A parametric and automated 3D model for [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the use of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology to manufacture and test polymer isogrid lattice cylindrical shell (LCS) structures with equilateral triangular unit-cells using non-professional and conventional 3D printing software and hardware. A parametric and automated 3D model for these structures is created in SolidWorks using the Visual Basic (VBA) programming language. Different configurations of the isogrid LCS structure are modeled, manufactured, and tested in order to determine the compressive structural strength and stiffness, as well as to investigate structural instability. The experimental results are used to deduce the inherent limitations of 3D printing, including the inhomogeneities, imperfections, and non-isotropic nature of FDM, as well as the effect of the configurations on local buckling behavior. The results suggest that coupling between local and global buckling has an impact on the compressive stiffness and strength of LCS structures, reducing the accuracy of structural designs neglecting these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1371 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sensorized T-Shirt for Cardiological Patients in Telemonitoring
by Noemi D’Abbondanza, Martina Ferrazza, Leandro Lucangeli, Emanuele Piuzzi and Antonio Pallotti
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11130 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Technological innovations in the development of wearable sensors have led to advancements in smart wearable devices targeted at health monitoring. In this work, a multisensor T-shirt for remote telemonitoring of vital signs related to cardiovascular diseases was developed. The prototype includes a single-lead [...] Read more.
Technological innovations in the development of wearable sensors have led to advancements in smart wearable devices targeted at health monitoring. In this work, a multisensor T-shirt for remote telemonitoring of vital signs related to cardiovascular diseases was developed. The prototype includes a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), a pulse oximeter, a temperature sensor, and a three-axis accelerometer. Data collected are sent by a Bluetooth module, then filtered and visualized thanks to a MATLAB script to provide information about heart rhythm, average temperature and oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. The result is a simple, low-cost, and low-power system; an easily applicable solution within everyone’s reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1564 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Classification-Based Screening of Parkinson’s Disease Patients through Graph and Handwriting Signals
by Maria Fratello, Fulvio Cordella, Giovanni Albani, Giuseppe Veneziano, Giuseppe Marano, Alessandra Paffi and Antonio Pallotti
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11128 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide, especially among the elderly population. It has been demonstrated that handwriting impairment can be an important early marker for the detection of this disease. The aim of [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide, especially among the elderly population. It has been demonstrated that handwriting impairment can be an important early marker for the detection of this disease. The aim of this study was to propose a simple and quick way to discriminate PD patients from controls through handwriting tasks using machine-learning techniques. We developed a telemonitoring system based on a user-friendly application for drawing tablets that enabled us to collect real-time information about position, pressure, and inclination of the digital pen during the experiment and, simultaneously, to supply visual feedback on the screen to the subject. We developed a protocol that includes drawing and writing tasks, including tasks in the Italian language, and we collected data from 22 healthy subjects and 9 PD patients. Using the collected signals and data from a preexisting database, we developed a machine-learning model to automatically discriminate PD patients from healthy control subjects with an accuracy of 77.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2827 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optical Coatings: Applications and Metrology
by Paola Zuppella, Paolo Chioetto, Chiara Casini, Simone Nordera, Nunzio Cennamo, Luigi Zeni and Vania Da Deppo
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11137 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
The development of optical coatings has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades for a wide range of applications. The strong demand is motivated by the progress of new-generation sources, large-scale facilities, new lithography arrangements, innovative methods for materials science investigation, biosensors, [...] Read more.
The development of optical coatings has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades for a wide range of applications. The strong demand is motivated by the progress of new-generation sources, large-scale facilities, new lithography arrangements, innovative methods for materials science investigation, biosensors, and instruments for space and solar physics observations. The research activities carried out at the Padova branch of the Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies of the National Research Council range from the design and characterization of optical components for space activities to the development of nanostructured coatings for tools, such as biosensors and surface plasmon resonance devices. In recent years, we have dealt with the optical characterization of 2D materials in order to explore the feasibility of innovative optical elements designed and optimized to cover wide spectral ranges. In this manuscript, we show the results on the optical characterizations of MoS2 and graphene samples, both monolayers, deposited on thick SiO2 film. We present the preliminary and comparative analysis of the samples in question, showing a direct comparison with the optical performance of the pristine SiO2 over the visible spectral range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
ARC Knee Brace: Neoprene Knee Brace with Active Control Using Wearable Sensors
by Bilge Koyuncu, Cevza Candan and Banu Nergis
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11115 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Remote monitoring of a patient’s physical rehabilitation process after knee surgery is crucial, especially in instances such as pandemics, where patients may not be able to acquire ongoing postoperative care owing to the precautions implemented. Wearable technology can be used to track a [...] Read more.
Remote monitoring of a patient’s physical rehabilitation process after knee surgery is crucial, especially in instances such as pandemics, where patients may not be able to acquire ongoing postoperative care owing to the precautions implemented. Wearable technology can be used to track a patient’s development and ensure that they follow rehabilitation guidelines. An active rotation control (ARC) knee brace was developed to guide and facilitate physical therapy movements of patients with knee injuries in an actively controlled manner. The system can trigger a visual feedback mechanism when the subject performs various knee postures. Through the Internet, caregivers could obtain patients’ overall knee-related rehabilitation metrics. The ARC knee brace employs inertial motion tracking technology which is based on low-cost inertial sensors and data processing algorithms to capture user’s knee posture in real-time during rehabilitation process. The inertial measurement units (IMUs) containing a combination of accelerometer and gyroscope are used as motion sensors to measure accelerations and rotational rates of knee. The sensors track data include acceleration, rotation, and temperature. The processing system calculates various metrics from the posture of knee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Relationship between the Degree of Conversion in Dental Dimethacrylate Polymers Determined by Infrared Spectroscopy and Polymerization Shrinkage
by Marta W. Chrószcz, Izabela M. Barszczewska-Rybarek and Promise Wori
Eng. Proc. 2021, 11(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2021-11151 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
In this work, the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC) in the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA polymer networks, determined by two methods—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DCIR) and polymerization shrinkage (DCS)—was studied. The DCIR was calculated by using the internal standard [...] Read more.
In this work, the relationship between the degree of conversion (DC) in the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA polymer networks, determined by two methods—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DCIR) and polymerization shrinkage (DCS)—was studied. The DCIR was calculated by using the internal standard method, whereas the DCS was calculated by measuring differences in the monomer and polymer densities, resulting in the polymerization shrinkage. Both methods revealed the same trend in the DC changes with alterations in the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA ratio. However, the DCS values were lower, in comparison to the DCIR values on average by 18%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop