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Horticulturae, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 79 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, has been prevalent in the United States since 2012. A member of the Geminiviridae family, GRBV comprises a circular, single stranded DNA molecule. GRBV causes a delay in ripening events in grapes, leading to significant decreases in total soluble solids levels, anthocyanin concentrations, and increases in acidity which translates into the resulting wines. The economic impact of GRBV ranges from USD 2,213/ha to 68,548/ha in the United States, with vine or vineyard replacement currently being the most used mitigation technique. View this paper.
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Article
Characterization of Genomic Variation from Lotus (Nelumbo Adans.) Mutants with Wide and Narrow Tepals
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120593 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Compared with rose, chrysanthemum, and water lily, the absence of short-wide and long-narrow tepals of ornamental lotus (Nelumbo Adans.) limits the commercial value of flowers. In this study, the genomes of two groups of lotus mutants with wide-short and narrow-long tepals were [...] Read more.
Compared with rose, chrysanthemum, and water lily, the absence of short-wide and long-narrow tepals of ornamental lotus (Nelumbo Adans.) limits the commercial value of flowers. In this study, the genomes of two groups of lotus mutants with wide-short and narrow-long tepals were resequenced to uncover the genomic variation and candidate genes associated with tepal shape. In group NL (short for N. lutea, containing two mutants and one control of N. lutea), 716,656 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 221,688 insertion-deletion mutations (Indels) were obtained, while 639,953 SNPs and 134,6118 Indels were obtained in group WSH (short for ‘Weishan Hong’, containing one mutant and two controls of N. nucifera ‘Weishan Hong’). Only a small proportion of these SNPs and Indels was mapped to exonic regions of genome: 1.92% and 0.47%, respectively, in the NL group, and 1.66% and 0.48%, respectively, in the WSH group. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that out of 4890 (NL group) and 1272 (WSH group) annotated variant genes, 125 and 62 genes were enriched (Q < 0.05), respectively. Additionally, in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, 104 genes (NL group) and 35 genes (WSH group) were selected (p < 0.05). Finally, there were 306 candidate genes that were sieved to determine the development of tepal shape in lotus plants. It will be an essential reference for future identification of tepal-shaped control genes in lotus plants. This is the first comprehensive report of genomic variation controlling tepal shape in lotus, and the mutants in this study are promising materials for breeding novel lotus cultivars with special tepals. Full article
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Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Jumonji Domain C Family from Citrus grandis and Expression Profilings in the Exocarps of “Huajuhong” (Citrus grandis “Tomentosa”) during Various Development Stages
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120592 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Citrus grandis “Tomentosa” (“Huajuhong”) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, a total of 18 jumonji C (JMJC) domain-containing proteins were identified from C. grandis. The 18 CgJMJCs were unevenly located on six chromosomes of C. grandis. Phylogenetic [...] Read more.
Citrus grandis “Tomentosa” (“Huajuhong”) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, a total of 18 jumonji C (JMJC) domain-containing proteins were identified from C. grandis. The 18 CgJMJCs were unevenly located on six chromosomes of C. grandis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into five groups, namely KDM3, KDM4, KDM5, JMJC, and JMJD6. The domain structures and motif architectures in the five groups were diversified. Cis-acting elements on the promoters of 18 CgJMJC genes were also investigated, and the abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) was distributed on 15 CgJMJC genes. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 18 CgJMJCs members in the exocarps of three varieties of “Huajuhong”, for different developmental stages, were examined. The results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a comprehensive characterization of JMJC domain-containing proteins in C. grandis and their expression patterns in the exocarps of C. grandis “Tomentosa” for three varieties with various development stages. Full article
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Article
Fruit Quality and Yield of Three Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) Cultivars Grown in Two Planting Systems under Different Protected Environments
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120591 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Due to the increasing interest in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) among consumers, together with the problems of climate change and specific substrate requirements, a novel approach to intensive blueberry production is required. Here, ‘Duke’, ‘Aurora’, and ‘Brigitta’ blueberry cultivars were planted [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing interest in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) among consumers, together with the problems of climate change and specific substrate requirements, a novel approach to intensive blueberry production is required. Here, ‘Duke’, ‘Aurora’, and ‘Brigitta’ blueberry cultivars were planted under the protective environments of a high tunnel and black hail net, each using ridge and pot planting systems. The high tunnel increased the maximal air temperature on average by 7.2 °C compared to the hail net. For all three cultivars, harvest began 6 to 18 days earlier under the high tunnel than under the hail net; however, lower yields and individual phenolics contents were obtained for the fruit. In ‘Aurora’ and ‘Brigitta’, environmental conditions under the high tunnel also reduced plant volume and fruit sugar/organic acid ratio. Growing blueberry plants in 60 L pots had no negative effects on plant volume and fruit ripening time, yield, firmness, color, and chemical composition. This study represents the first to compare highbush blueberry grown under the high tunnel and hail net protective environments using ridge and pot planting systems across three different cultivars. Here, we can conclude that optimal highbush blueberry production of ‘Duke’, ‘Aurora’, and ‘Brigitta’ under the climate conditions of the study provides earlier ripening times under the high tunnel. However, according to fruit yield and quality, all three cultivars benefit from the hail net over the high tunnel, while ‘Duke’ and ‘Brigitta’ also benefit in particular from the hail net combined with growth in pots. Full article
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Article
Effects of Individual and Simultaneous Selenium and Iodine Biofortification of Baby-Leaf Lettuce Plants Grown in Two Different Hydroponic Systems
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120590 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The iodine (I) and selenium (Se) deficiencies affect approximately 30% and 15%, respectively, of the global population. The biofortification of vegetables is a valid way to increase the intake of iodine and selenium through the diet. This study was carried out on baby-leaf [...] Read more.
The iodine (I) and selenium (Se) deficiencies affect approximately 30% and 15%, respectively, of the global population. The biofortification of vegetables is a valid way to increase the intake of iodine and selenium through the diet. This study was carried out on baby-leaf lettuce to investigate the effects on plant growth, leaf quality, and leaf I and Se accumulation of adding potassium iodide and sodium selenate, separately and simultaneously, to the nutrient solution in a floating system and aeroponics. The effect of I and Se biofortification on post-harvest quality of lettuce leaves was also evaluated. Our results evidenced that the Se and I treatments increased the content of the two microelements in lettuce leaves without any negative interactions in the plants, when applied either separately or simultaneously. Both hydroponic systems proved to be suitable for producing Se and/or I enriched lettuce. Biofortification with Se was more effective when performed in aeroponics, whereas I biofortification was more effective in the floating system. Quality of leaves during post-harvest storage was not affected by neither of the treatments. Lettuce leaves enriched with 13 µM Se and 5 µMI could be good dietary sources of Se and I without inducing toxic effects in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroponics in Vegetable Production)
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of DnaJ Gene Family in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120589 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Grape production in southern China suffers great loss due to various environmental stresses. To understand the mechanism of how the grape plants respond to these stresses is an active area of research in developing cultivation techniques. Plant stress resistance is known to rely [...] Read more.
Grape production in southern China suffers great loss due to various environmental stresses. To understand the mechanism of how the grape plants respond to these stresses is an active area of research in developing cultivation techniques. Plant stress resistance is known to rely on special proteins. Amongst them, DnaJ protein (HSP40) serves as co-chaperones of HSP70, playing crucial roles in various stress response. However, the DnaJ proteins encoded by the DnaJ gene family in Vitis vinifera L. have not been fully described yet. In this study, we identified 78 VvDnaJs in the grape genome that can be classified into three groups—namely, DJA, DJB, and DJC. To reveal the evolutionary and stress response mechanisms for the VvDnaJ gene family, their evolutionary and expression patterns were analyzed using the bioinformatic approach and qRT-PCR. We found that the members in the same group exhibited a similar gene structure and protein domain organization. Gene duplication analysis demonstrated that segmental and tandem duplication may not be the dominant pathway of gene expansion in the VvDnaJ gene family. Codon usage pattern analysis showed that the codon usage pattern of VvDnaJs differs obviously from the monocotyledon counterparts. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that 12 VvDnaJs present a distinct expression profile, implying their distinct roles in various tissues. Cis-acting element analysis showed that almost all VvDnaJs contained the elements responsive to either hormones or stresses. Therefore, the expression levels of VvDnaJs subjected to exogenous hormone applications and stress treatments were determined, and we found that VvDnaJs were sensitive to hormone treatments and shade, salt, and heat stresses, especially VIT_00s0324g00040. The findings of this study could provide comprehensive information for the further investigation on the genetics and protein functions of the DnaJ gene family in grape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Horticultural Crops Comparative and Functional Genomics)
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Article
Biofertilizer Application Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance and Alters the Antioxidant Enzymes in Medicinal Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. Styriaca)
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120588 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
The effects of mycorrhiza, Thiobacillus and Nitroxin (Azotobacter and Azospirillum sp.) biofertilizers under drought stress conditions with four levels of field capacity (FC) (control(100%), 85%, 70%, and 50%) on the antioxidant enzyme activities of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. [...] Read more.
The effects of mycorrhiza, Thiobacillus and Nitroxin (Azotobacter and Azospirillum sp.) biofertilizers under drought stress conditions with four levels of field capacity (FC) (control(100%), 85%, 70%, and 50%) on the antioxidant enzyme activities of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. Styriaca) were evaluated during the years 2018–2019. Irrigation levels exhibited significant effects on all studied variables, except for the catalase (CAT) enzyme. A significant correlation was observed between the effects of irrigation levels and biofertilizers on antioxidant enzymes, soluble protein content, and grain yield. The highest activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes was achieved using mycorrhiza in 50% FC. Increasing drought intensity and mycorrhiza stimulated glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities by 32% and 66%, while Nitroxin increased them by 16% and 43%, respectively. Under severe drought stress conditions, only mycorrhiza exhibited a positive effect on GR and GPX enzymes. Under moderate and severe drought stress conditions, Nitroxin increased grain yield by 13% and 12.6%, respectively. The irrigation regimes and bio-fertilizers had a significant effect on β-sitosterol percentage. The highest amount was observed at the highest level of drought stress. Among the various bio-fertilizers treatments, the application of Thiobacillus yielded the highest percentage of β-sitosterol. The results of the present study demonstrate that the application of biofertilizers is beneficial in coping with drought stress. Full article
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Triple Action Bioagents (TAB) and Their Potency against Fusarium Wilt of Lentil
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120587 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Fusarium wilt is a severe disease that plays a significant role in reducing the yield of lentil. Under favorable conditions for disease growth, the disease can cause complete crop failure and can be a crucial limiting issue for lentil cultivation in specific geographical [...] Read more.
Fusarium wilt is a severe disease that plays a significant role in reducing the yield of lentil. Under favorable conditions for disease growth, the disease can cause complete crop failure and can be a crucial limiting issue for lentil cultivation in specific geographical zones. The current work focused on isolating potentialbio-agents exhibiting copper oxychloride resistance and evaluating their efficacy in seed treatment for ecologically sustainable management of Fusarium wilt of lentil. Seventy biocontrol agent isolates were isolated and tested for resistance by growing them on Potato Dextrose Agar medium (PDA) amended with copper oxychloride at the rate of 2500 ppm. Isolate-H10 and isolate-C9 showed more excellent compatibility with copper oxychloride fungicide with 69 mm and 65 mm radial growths, respectively. The isolates H10 and C9 had the highest inhibitory percentages of 84.30% and 83.94% against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis, respectively, and the highest phosphorus solubilization index (PSI). Primers (ITS 1 and ITS 4) identified these putative bioagents as Trichoderma harzianum isolate skua-tab-1 and Penicillium crysogenum strain Tab2. Sequences were submitted to the NCBI and assigned the accession numbers MK414603 and MK418066. In pot culture, these isolates also demonstrated their superiority in reducing the disease incidence and severity if seeds were treated with H10 and C9 alone or in combination with copper oxychloride fungicide. The two isolated bioagents exhibit three fundamental properties: compatibility with copper oxychloride, antagonistic activity toward the pathogen fall armyworm, and the ability to dissolve phosphorus minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Disease Management: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Article
In Vitro Propagation of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf Ex Holmes: An Endemic and Critically Endangered Plant Species of the Western Himalaya
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120586 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes, a highly valued medicinal plant, is a critically endangered plant species with restricted global distribution. Because there is no published report on the in vitro micropropagation of A. chasmanthum, the present study was undertaken to contribute to [...] Read more.
Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes, a highly valued medicinal plant, is a critically endangered plant species with restricted global distribution. Because there is no published report on the in vitro micropropagation of A. chasmanthum, the present study was undertaken to contribute to the development of an efficient micropropagation protocol for its conservation. Seeds collected from the wild showed enhanced germination after being given a chilling treatment (−4 °C and −20 °C) for different durations (10, 20, 30 and 40 days). Seeds given a chilling treatment of −4 °C for 10 days showed enhanced germination rates of 47.59 ± 0.53% with a mean germination time of 10.78 ± 0.21 days compared to seeds kept at room temperature when grown in an MS basal medium. Nodes, leaves and stems, taken from 20–40-day-old seedlings, were used as an explant for micropropagation. An MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of cytokinins (BAP, Kn), auxins (2,4-D, NAA), and an additive adenine sulphate were tested for callusing, direct shoot regeneration and rooting. Only nodal explants responded and showed direct multiple shoot regeneration with 7 ± 0.36 shoots with an elongation of 5.51 ± 0.26 cm in the MS medium supplemented with BAP 0.5 mg/L, and with a response time (RT) of 10.41 ± 0.51 days and a percentage culture response of 77.77 ± 2.77%. Rhizome formation was observed after 8 weeks, with the highest culture response of 36.66 ± 3.33% in the MS basal media with an RT of 43.75 ± 0.50 days. These rhizomes showed a 60% germination rate within 2 weeks and developed into plantlets. The present in vitro regeneration protocol could be used for the large-scale propagation and conservation of A. chasmanthum. Full article
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Article
Monitoring the Green Vegetation Period of Two Narcissus Taxa by Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Physiological and Morphological Properties
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120585 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
In a pot experiment, an early-flowering Narcissus pseudonarcissus cv. ‘Dutch Master’ (DM) and late-flowering N. poeticus cultural form (PO) were examined. The photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE), relative chlorophyll content (CCI) and chlorophyll fluorescence [...] Read more.
In a pot experiment, an early-flowering Narcissus pseudonarcissus cv. ‘Dutch Master’ (DM) and late-flowering N. poeticus cultural form (PO) were examined. The photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE), relative chlorophyll content (CCI) and chlorophyll fluorescence (F) were measured regularly. Leaf length, scape length and weight of the plant organs were also measured. The DM cultivar had higher gs and lower E values than the PO on most measuring dates (season average: gs: DM: 165.34, PO: 123.63; E: DM: 1.39, PO: 1.78 mmol H2O m−2s−1). The A curve was similar for the two taxa, except for the first measuring dates. The basic F values (F0, Fm, Fv) for DM were lower and CCI values were higher than for PO (season average of CCI: DM: 94.82, PO: 60.34). The Fm/F0, Fv/F0 and CCI curves were well described by a second order equation. The seasonal change of F and CCI values was the greatest for both taxa near the leaf tip. Bulb growth occurred in the two taxa in approximately the same calendar period, regardless of flowering time. A significant part of the leaf growth in DM occurred after flowering, while the leaves of PO reached their mature size by flowering. Full article
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Article
Satureja montana Essential Oil, Zein Nanoparticles and Their Combination as a Biocontrol Strategy to Reduce Bacterial Spot Disease on Tomato Plants
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120584 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
Tomato bacterial spot (Bs), caused by Xanthomonas spp., including X. euvesicatoria (Xeu) remains a major threat for tomato production. The emergence of copper resistance strains of Xeu calls urgently for eco-friendly phytosanitary treatments as sustainable green alternatives for disease control. Satureja spp. essential [...] Read more.
Tomato bacterial spot (Bs), caused by Xanthomonas spp., including X. euvesicatoria (Xeu) remains a major threat for tomato production. The emergence of copper resistance strains of Xeu calls urgently for eco-friendly phytosanitary treatments as sustainable green alternatives for disease control. Satureja spp. essential oil (EO) has antimicrobial activity against xanthomonads and combined with zein nanoparticles (ZNPs), might offer a viable option for field applications. This study aims to evaluate the effects of S. montana EO, of ZNPs, and their combination in a nanoformulation, on Xeu quantity, and how these compounds modulate molecular and physiological changes in the pathosystem. Uninfected and infected tomato plants (var. Oxheart) were treated with EO; ZNPs and nanoformulation (EO + ZNPs). Treatments reduced Xeu amount by a minimum of 1.6-fold (EO) and a maximum of 202-fold (ZNPs) and improved plants’ health. Nanoformulation and ZNPs increased plants’ phenolic content. ZNPs significantly increased GPX activity and reduced CAT activity. Overall treatments upregulated transcripts of the phenylpropanoid pathway in infected plants, while ZNPs and nanoformulation upregulated those transcripts in uninfected plants. Both sod and aao transcripts were downregulated by treatments in infected plants. These findings demonstrate that S. montana EO, ZNPs and their nanoformulation are suitable to integrate tomato bacterial spot management strategies, mainly due to their antimicrobial activity on Xeu, however further field studies clarifying the long-term action of these products are required. These results also support the prophylactic potential of ZNPs on tomato bacterial spot. Full article
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Article
QTL Analysis of the Content of Some Bioactive Compounds in Brassica rapa L. Grown under Light Culture Conditions
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120583 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The article presents the results of biochemical and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis of dry matter content, nutrient and biologically active compounds: sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls a and b, anthocyanins and carotenoids in populations of doubled haploid lines [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of biochemical and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis of dry matter content, nutrient and biologically active compounds: sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls a and b, anthocyanins and carotenoids in populations of doubled haploid lines of leaf, root crops, and oilseeds of the Brassica rapa L. species grown in optimal light culture conditions, but with different photoperiod durations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the photoperiod on the transition to bolting and the accumulation of biologically active substances, as well as how the localization and identification of chromosomal loci determined the content of certain phytochemicals. The influence of the length of daylight hours on the content of components of the biochemical composition was assessed. It was shown that growing under conditions of a 16 h photoperiod increased the content of dry matter, sugars, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. On the contrary, the content of photosynthetic pigments was higher under the conditions of a 12 h photoperiod. Valuable lines that can be sources of biologically active compounds were revealed. Based on the results of the obtained data, 102 QTLs were mapped, which determine the manifestation of the studied biochemical quality traits in the B. rapa doubled haploid lines under conditions of short and long daylight hours. Molecular markers genetically linked to the selected QTLs were determined. It was revealed that the identified loci controlling all the studied biochemical traits were mainly in the fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth linkage groups, which correlated with the data obtained in the field and greenhouse. Most of the identified loci controlled several studied traits simultaneously. The identified QTLs and identified molecular markers are of interest for further study of the genetic control of the economically valuable traits determined by them and for the implementation of marker-assisted selection in B. rapa. The data obtained can be used in genetic and breeding work, including for the obtaining of new genotypes, lines and cultivars with a valuable biochemical composition, adapted for cultivation under specific photoperiodic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Effect of Low Pressure and Low Oxygen Treatments on Fruit Quality and the In Vivo Growth of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum in Oranges
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120582 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum are the major postharvest pathogens in citrus. To reduce postharvest decay, the use of low-oxygen (0.9 kPa O2) (LO) or low-pressure (6.6 kPa) (LP) treatments were evaluated during the storage of navel oranges for four or [...] Read more.
Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum are the major postharvest pathogens in citrus. To reduce postharvest decay, the use of low-oxygen (0.9 kPa O2) (LO) or low-pressure (6.6 kPa) (LP) treatments were evaluated during the storage of navel oranges for four or eight days. The results showed that exposure to both LO and LP treatments reduced in vivo pathogen growth compared to the untreated (UTC) oranges, with LO being the most effective. The effects of LO and LP on fruit metabolism and quality were further assessed, and it was found that there was no effect on fruit ethylene production, respiration rate, TSS (total soluble solids), TA (titratable acidity) or fruit firmness. However, both LO and LP treatments did have an effect on juice ethanol concentration and fruit weight-loss. The effect of adding exogenous ethylene at either LP (1 µL/L) or atmospheric pressure (AP) (at either 0.1, 1 µL/L) was also evaluated, and results showed that the addition of ethylene at these concentrations had no effect on mould diameter at LP or AP. Therefore, both LO of 0.9 kPa O2 and LP of 6.6 kPa at 20 °C are potential non-chemical postharvest treatments to reduce mould development during storage with minimal effects on fruit quality. Full article
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Article
Aloe-Based Edible Coating to Maintain Quality of Fresh-Cut Italian Pears (Pyrus communis L.) during Cold Storage
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120581 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Pear fruits are known for their antioxidant and nutritional characteristics. However, they are very susceptible to rapid decay. Edible coating (EC) represents a good strategy to maintain postharvest quality. The effects of two EC in slowing down the senescence processes in fresh-cut ‘Coscia’ [...] Read more.
Pear fruits are known for their antioxidant and nutritional characteristics. However, they are very susceptible to rapid decay. Edible coating (EC) represents a good strategy to maintain postharvest quality. The effects of two EC in slowing down the senescence processes in fresh-cut ‘Coscia’ pears were investigated: EC1 (A. vera gel, hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose and pomegranate seeds oil (PSO), EC2 (A. vera gel and hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose). Weight loss, firmness and colour decrease more slowly in both EC-treated than in untreated (CTR) slices; soluble solid content increases faster in CTR, indicating a faster ripening process. The specific investigation of undesired microorganisms did not generate any colony in all analysed samples. Sensory analysis confirmed that the tasters preferred the EC2-treated samples, as they were the only ones that did not show undesirable flavours until the last day of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Quality of Fruit)
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Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Anthers from the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Pepper Line HZ1A and Its Maintainer Line HZ1B
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120580 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) is important for the utilization of crop heterosis and study of the molecular mechanisms involved in CMS could improve breeding programs. In the present study, anthers of the pepper CMS line HZ1A and its maintainer line HZ1B were collected from [...] Read more.
Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) is important for the utilization of crop heterosis and study of the molecular mechanisms involved in CMS could improve breeding programs. In the present study, anthers of the pepper CMS line HZ1A and its maintainer line HZ1B were collected from stages S1, S2, and S3 for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 47.95 million clean reads were obtained, and the reads were assembled into 31,603 unigenes. We obtained 42 (27 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated), 691 (346 up-regulated and 345 down-regulated), and 709 (281 up-regulated and 428 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in stages S1, S2, and S3, respectively. Through Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the DEGs were found to be composed of 46 functional groups. Two GO terms involved in photosynthesis, photosynthesis (GO:0015986) and photosystem I (GO:0009522), may be related to CMS. Through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, oxidative phosphorylation (ko00190) and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (ko00940) were significantly enriched in the S1 and S2 stages, respectively. Through the analysis of 104 lipid metabolism-related DEGs, four significantly enriched KEGG pathways may help to regulate male sterility during anther development. The mitochondrial genes orf470 and atp6 were identified as candidate genes of male sterility for the CMS line HZ1A. Overall, the results will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of pepper CMS. Full article
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Article
The Responses of Physiological Characteristics and Flowering Related Gene to the Different Water Stress Levels of Red-Flesh Pummelo Cultivars (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Own-Rooted by Air Layering Propagation under Two Growing Conditions
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120579 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
One of the major problems in the fruit production of citrus, including pummelo (Citrus grandis) is controlling flowering induction. Water stress is known to be related to flowering induction via physiological responses related to the flowering gene. However, reports on the [...] Read more.
One of the major problems in the fruit production of citrus, including pummelo (Citrus grandis) is controlling flowering induction. Water stress is known to be related to flowering induction via physiological responses related to the flowering gene. However, reports on the mechanisms underlying floral induction by water stress in pummelo are limited. Thus, this study aimed to determine the physiological characteristics and the expression of genes related to flowering induction, CiFT (Citrus Flowering locus T), in pummelo at different levels of water stress. Experiments were conducted under two growing conditions: field and container conditions, each using a 2 × 5 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block. Factor A consisted of two red-flesh pummelo cultivars while factor B consisted of five levels of water stress based on the leaf rolling index. Among the seven characteristics studied, only the data of total nitrogen, CiFT, and flower number were combined for analysis due to their results in a homogeneity test. Although a consistent tendency was not observed for the interaction among environments, genotypes, and water stress levels of all characteristics, ‘KKU-105’ grew more flowers under higher water stress conditions (225 flowers). This result may imply that decreases in total nitrogen (1.48%), stomatal conductance (50.53 m−2s−1), chlorophyll fluorescence (0.30 Fv/Fm), and upregulation of CiFT mRNA level (13.95) may induce flowering in the pummelo cultivar ‘KKU-105’. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Country Comparison of Consumers’ Preferences for Imported Fruits and Vegetables
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120578 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Within Asia, imported fruits and vegetables are often considered as a delicacy and of high value, and are increasingly demanded compared to local products. There are numerous significant factors involved with consumers’ characteristics and their corresponding values towards these products. This study investigates [...] Read more.
Within Asia, imported fruits and vegetables are often considered as a delicacy and of high value, and are increasingly demanded compared to local products. There are numerous significant factors involved with consumers’ characteristics and their corresponding values towards these products. This study investigates potential consumers and their preferences towards imported fruits and vegetables in three Asian countries: Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia. A total of 1350 survey responses collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia are examined by a best–worst scaling method with a latent class multinomial logit model. Results show that consumers tend to choose imported fruits that are not commonly provided by domestic producers. While a food safety certified label and freshness are consistently identified as the most and second most important food values for Taiwanese, Japanese, and Indonesian consumers, price is still an important factor for certain consumer groups. The majority of Taiwanese and Japanese consumers (i.e., female, higher education, and from an urban area) prefer imported fruits and vegetables, while the majority of Indonesian consumers do not pay much attention to imported fruits and vegetables. While Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia are island countries, the novelty of this study shows that consumer preferences do not behave the same. The implications of this study should be of interest to producers and exporters who wish to positively impact the design of their international marketing strategies. Full article
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Article
Effect of Different Temperature Regimes on the Germination of Pseudolysimachion pusanensis (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee Seeds
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120577 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
In this study, we determined the germination response in the seeds of the rare plant Pseudolysimachion pusanensis (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee to different temperatures. P. pusanensis seeds were collected from the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum, South Korea, in November 2019, and dried. [...] Read more.
In this study, we determined the germination response in the seeds of the rare plant Pseudolysimachion pusanensis (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee to different temperatures. P. pusanensis seeds were collected from the Baekdudaegan National Arboretum, South Korea, in November 2019, and dried. Dry seeds were placed at constant and alternating temperatures (5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to determine their germination percentage (GP). The seeds were exposed to 59 temperature combinations ranging from 5 °C to 43 °C using a thermal gradient plate. The photoperiod was set at 12:12 h (light:dark) and germination assays were performed five times a week. Subsequently, the seed GP and the number of days required to reach 50% of the germination (T50) were determined. The highest final GP was 94.38%, with a T50 value of 9.26 d at 15 °C. However, the mean germination time was 12.5 d at 15 °C, and linear regression using 1/T50 revealed that the base temperature ranged from 2.69 °C to 4.68 °C. These results for P. pusanensis seeds stored in a seed bank provide useful data for the native plants horticulture industry and can also be utilized for storage management. Full article
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Article
Dynamics of Energy Metabolism in Carbon Starvation-Induced Fruitlet Abscission in Litchi
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120576 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Fruit abscission is triggered by multiple changes in endogenous components of the fruit, including energy metabolism. However, it is still unknown how the core energy metabolism pathways are modified during fruit abscission. Here, we investigated the relationship between carbon starvation-induced fruitlet abscission and [...] Read more.
Fruit abscission is triggered by multiple changes in endogenous components of the fruit, including energy metabolism. However, it is still unknown how the core energy metabolism pathways are modified during fruit abscission. Here, we investigated the relationship between carbon starvation-induced fruitlet abscission and energy metabolism changes in litchi. The fruitlet abscission of litchi ‘Feizixiao’ was induced sharply by girdling plus defoliation (GPD), a carbon stress treatment. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) targeted metabolomics analysis, we identified a total of 21 metabolites involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Among them, the content of most metabolites in glycolysis pathways and TCA cycles was reduced, and the activity of corresponding metabolic enzymes such as ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), citrate synthase (CS), succinate thiokinase (SAT), and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) was decreased. Consistently, we further showed that the expression of the relative genes (LcPFK2, LcPK2, LcPK4, LcCS1, LcCS2, LcSAT, LcMDH1 and LcMDH2) was also significantly down-regulated. In contrast, the level of ATP, an important metabolite in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, was elevated in parallel with both higher activity of H+-ATPase and the increased expression level of LcH+-ATPase1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that carbon starvation can induce fruitlet abscission in litchi probably by energy depletion that mediated through both the suppression of the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle and the enhancement of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Tropical Fruit Cultivation and Breeding)
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Article
Exploring Key Factors Determining US Consumer Preferences for Growing over Buying Fruit in Pre-Covidian and Covidian Times
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120575 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
This study provides insights for managers in the food retail sector, the horticultural industry, actors involved in community gardening and farmers’ markets. It proposes a model that investigates key factors determining US consumer preferences for growing fruit over buying it in pre-Covidian and [...] Read more.
This study provides insights for managers in the food retail sector, the horticultural industry, actors involved in community gardening and farmers’ markets. It proposes a model that investigates key factors determining US consumer preferences for growing fruit over buying it in pre-Covidian and Covidian times. For this purpose, an online survey with a sample of 383 US residents was conducted. Partial least squares structural equation modelling shows that subjective knowledge about fruit and the perceived impact of COVID-19 are the most important drivers of preferences for growing over buying in Covidian times. The impact of COVID-19 had no relevance for the pre-Covidian times. For both scenarios, only age and gender as socio-demographic factors were found to influence subjective knowledge and the perceived impact of COVID-19. Other sociodemographic factors were not found to have any impact. Full article
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Article
A Pivotal Role of Chitosan Nanoparticles in Enhancing the Essential Oil Productivity and Antioxidant Capacity in Matricaria chamomilla L.
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120574 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Chitosan is a biopolymer with several biological and agricultural applications. Recently, development of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) adds additional value by further using it as an eco-friendly biostimulant. Therefore, the impact of CSNPs foliar application on the growth, essential oil productivity and antioxidant capacity [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a biopolymer with several biological and agricultural applications. Recently, development of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) adds additional value by further using it as an eco-friendly biostimulant. Therefore, the impact of CSNPs foliar application on the growth, essential oil productivity and antioxidant capacity of chamomile was investigated. Treatments comprised 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L−1 of CSNPs applied to plants as a foliar spray. CSNPs foliar application improved the growth and productivity of chamomile plants. Relative to the control, the flower yield was increased by 52.10 and 55.74% while the essential oil percentage was increased by 57.14 and 47.06% due to CSNPs at 300 mg L−1 during the two seasons of study. Moreover, CSNPs enhanced the photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars and N, P and K percentages. Interestingly, CSNPs increased the antioxidant capacity as measured by total phenolics and the antioxidant activity (DPPH). Collectively, it is suggested that CSNPs might be a promising eco-friendly bio-stimulant and it could be an alternative strategy to improve the productivity, quality and decrease the production cost of chamomile and possibly some other medicinal species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
Colloidal Silver Hydrogen Peroxide: New Generation Molecule for Management of Phytopathogens
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120573 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 3730
Abstract
Plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria are a significant threat to global commercial crop production resulting in increased cost of production, reduced crop establishment and productivity. An effort was made to study the antimicrobial activity of silver hydrogen peroxide (SHP) against selected plant pathogenic [...] Read more.
Plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria are a significant threat to global commercial crop production resulting in increased cost of production, reduced crop establishment and productivity. An effort was made to study the antimicrobial activity of silver hydrogen peroxide (SHP) against selected plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria under in vitro conditions. Higher antibacterial activity of SHP was observed against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac; 39.67 mm), Xanthomonas citri pv. punicae (Xap; 39.00 mm), and Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs; 36.67 mm) at 500 ppm concentration. SHP was superior to streptocycline (500 ppm) against Xac (25.33 mm) and Xcp (22.67 mm) at 100 ppm. The soil-borne fungi viz., Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium solani failed to initiate mycelium growth on PDA at the concentration of 5000 ppm and above. The average size of SHP particles was 462 nm in diameter, and 73.40% of particles had the size of 378 nm, which reflects the particles present in SHP solution in the form of colloids. The effective doses (100–5000 ppm) did not show any phytotoxicity symptoms in plants, while leaf necrosis was noticed at 10,000 ppm after four days of application. SHP (≤5000 ppm) can be used to effectively manage both fungal and bacterial plant pathogens by a single application. Further field studies need to be conducted for validation and commercial use of SHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Disease Management: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Article
Rootstock-Mediated Transcriptional Changes Associated with Cold Tolerance in Prunus mume Leaves
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120572 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) is remarkably valuable for its high ornamental and economic importance due to its distinctive features. Low temperature is a serious environmental constraint for this species, restricting its cultivation and dispersal in the north of China. To address [...] Read more.
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) is remarkably valuable for its high ornamental and economic importance due to its distinctive features. Low temperature is a serious environmental constraint for this species, restricting its cultivation and dispersal in the north of China. To address this issue, breeding requires an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to cold stress. We examined the leaf physiological and transcriptome profile by RNA sequencing in ‘Bungo’ scion cultivar grafted onto Prunus mume (cold-sensitive) and Prunus armeniaca (cold-tolerant) rootstocks at 4 °C for 0, 6, and 24 h. Our results revealed that the increased MDA concentration in the leaves of P. mume cultivar (cold-sensitive) suggests that cold stress might cause oxidative damage and increased sensitivity. Moreover, the cold-tolerant cultivar (P. armeniaca) considerably enhances the enzyme activities (i.e., SOD, POD, and CAT), as well as osmo-protectants (soluble sugars and proline) compared with sensitive cultivar, which helps plants to withstand oxidative damage caused by cold stress. Additionally, differentially expressed genes were shown to be enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome, MAPK signaling, and circadian rhythm pathway. After 24 h of cold stress, genes related to PYL4, histidine kinase 1, SAUR36, bHLH130, bHLH123, TIFY 6B-like, WRKY 40, WRKY 57, and 60S acidic ribosomal protein P1 were differentially expressed, implying that these DEGs involved in multiple pathways are involved in cold tolerance in Japanese apricot. This study improved our current understanding of the mechanism of cold tolerance in Japanese apricot, and the findings could be utilized for other related fruit species. Full article
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Article
Impact of Nitrate and Ammonium Ratios on Flowering and Asexual Reproduction in the Everbearing Strawberry Cultivar Fragaria × ananassa Albion
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120571 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Ever-bearing (EB) strawberries are long-day cultivars that show perpetual flowering behavior. Compared to June-bearing short-day cultivars, EB cultivars can initiate flowers with less dependency on light and temperature levels. This leads to a more consistent flowering and fruiting pattern, making EB cultivars favorable [...] Read more.
Ever-bearing (EB) strawberries are long-day cultivars that show perpetual flowering behavior. Compared to June-bearing short-day cultivars, EB cultivars can initiate flowers with less dependency on light and temperature levels. This leads to a more consistent flowering and fruiting pattern, making EB cultivars favorable for areas with long growing seasons. However, this flowering pattern also brings significant challenges to open-field strawberry nurseries. Consistent flower development in EB cultivars frequently leads to increased labor cost for manual flower removal on nursery ground. The alteration of flowering behavior via fertilizer regimes could be a cost-effective tool for strawberry nurseries. However, while it is known that the source of nitrogen (N) impacts strawberry flowering, its effect on strawberry propagation rates needs further investigation. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrate (NO3) to ammonium (NH4+) ratio on flower and daughter plant production in the EB strawberry cultivar ‘Albion’ (Fragaria × ananassa c.v. ‘Albion’). Strawberry plants were grown in a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions (26.6 °C, 16 h photoperiod). Four treatments of NO3:NH4+ were implemented: (1) 100%:0%; (2) 80%:20%; (3) 60%:40%; (4) 50%:50%. Strawberry plants fertilized with a 60%:40% NO3:NH4+ ratio produced 17–31% fewer inflorescences than those fertilized with 100%:0% (8.8 ± 1.19) and 80%:20% (10.3 ± 1.85) ratios. The production of daughter plants remained similar in all four treatments. Our results show that increased ratios of ammonium in combination with decreased ratios of nitrate reduce flowering of EB strawberry cultivars, while propagation rates remain consistent. These results could potentially lead to the development of fertilizer regimes for strawberry nurseries to reduce flower production in EB cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fruit Production Systems)
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Article
Genotype Screening and Propagation Techniques of Three Selected Medicinal Plant Species for Production of High-Quality Planting Material
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120570 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Medicinal plants are a vital source of new bioactive compounds due to their ecological biodiversity and varied chemical properties of each species. Phenotypic selection coupled with the evaluation of genotypes based on the chemical profile can be used for the development of a [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants are a vital source of new bioactive compounds due to their ecological biodiversity and varied chemical properties of each species. Phenotypic selection coupled with the evaluation of genotypes based on the chemical profile can be used for the development of a high-yielding variety. However, most of the raw material that has been used for commercial production of herbal products is mainly derived from wild sources, with little knowledge of the quality of genetic materials. Thus, three medicinal species, Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed), Andrographis paniculata (Creat), and Baeckea frutescens (False ru), were chosen based on their significant benefits to human health. These medicinal species have been traditionally used to treat various illnesses, and have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. This paper highlights the harvesting method and collection of accessions from natural habitats for the selection of superior genotypes. Individual plants having superior phenotypic characteristics and bioactive compounds were identified. We successfully developed appropriate propagation techniques for each species for the mass production of high-yielding planting material. The establishment of breeding activities for these medicinal plants will provide quality raw materials to support the herbal industry in increasing the value of pharmaceutical products. These efforts will also ensure the sustainable production of high-quality planting materials for the establishment of herbal plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
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Article
Changes in the Polyphenol Content of Red Raspberry Fruits during Ripening
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120569 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Berry fruits that contain large amounts of polyphenol compounds are expected to exhibit health and anti-aging effects due to the antioxidant activities of these components. Among the various polyphenols, flavan-3-ol derivatives are known to have a particularly high functionality. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Berry fruits that contain large amounts of polyphenol compounds are expected to exhibit health and anti-aging effects due to the antioxidant activities of these components. Among the various polyphenols, flavan-3-ol derivatives are known to have a particularly high functionality. In this study, the maturity of red raspberry fruits is classified into eight stages based on the polyphenol content at each stage. Quantification of the various compounds and investigation of the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were carried out. The total polyphenol content, including that of the flavan-3-ol derivatives, was the highest in immature fruits, gradually decreasing during fruit maturation, during which the radical scavenging activity also decreased. Based on our quantitative results, it was considered that the decrease in the flavan-3-ol derivative content due to fruit ripening was largely related to the increase in the amount of anthocyanin derivatives. Considering that the decreased contents of these compounds were related to the expression levels of polyphenol biosynthetic enzymes, quantification was performed using the semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, but the only change observed was the increased expression of the enzyme that synthesizes anthocyanins during maturation. Therefore, it was suggested that it is necessary to inhibit anthocyanin synthesis to increase the contents of highly functional flavan-3-ol derivatives in the mature fruit. Full article
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Article
Pre-Harvest Application of Salicylic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Methyl Jasmonate Conserve Bioactive Compounds of Strawberry Fruits during Refrigerated Storage
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120568 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The short shelf-life and loss of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit are the most important problems during strawberry refrigerated storage. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the pre-harvest foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) (2 and 4 mM), abscisic [...] Read more.
The short shelf-life and loss of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit are the most important problems during strawberry refrigerated storage. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the pre-harvest foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) (2 and 4 mM), abscisic acid (ABA) (0.25 and 0.50 mM), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (0.25 and 0.50 mM) three times, 10 d apart, at fruit development and ripening stages on storage ability and bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit (cv. Festival) stored at 4 °C for 12 d. Our results showed that fruit obtained from both concentrations of ABA and 0.25 mM MeJA was firmer and had higher total soluble solids (TSS) than fruit from non-treated plants. However, all previous applications had no significant effect on weight loss, pH, or color. Applications of 4 mM SA and 0.25 mM MeJA conserved fruit from ascorbic acid (AsA) loss compared to control at the end of the storage period. In addition, all pre-harvest applications remained higher in total phenolic compounds (TPC) and anthocyanin contents compared to controls at the last storage period. Hence, the pre-harvest application of SA, ABA, and MeJA could be used to conserve TPC and anthocyanin as well as the quality of strawberry fruits during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting the Quality and Shelf Life of Horticultural Crops)
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Article
UV-B Radiation as Abiotic Elicitor to Enhance Phytochemicals and Development of Red Cabbage Sprouts
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120567 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Background: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodical UV-B illumination during red cabbage germination on morphological development and the phenolics and carotenoid accumulation. Methods: During a sprouting period of 10 days at 20 °C in darkness, seedlings [...] Read more.
Background: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodical UV-B illumination during red cabbage germination on morphological development and the phenolics and carotenoid accumulation. Methods: During a sprouting period of 10 days at 20 °C in darkness, seedlings received 5, 10, or 15 kJ m−2 UV-B (T5, T10, and T15) applied in four steps (25% on days 3, 5, 7, and 10). UV untreated sprouts were used as control (CTRL). After 10 days of germination, the sprouts were harvested and stored 10 days at 4 °C as a minimally processed product. Phenolic and carotenoid compounds were analysed 1 h after each UV-B application and on days 0, 4, 7, and 10 during cold storage. Results: The longest hypocotyl length was observed in T10-treated sprouts. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased during germination following a sigmoidal kinetic, especially in the UV-B-treated samples, which reported a dose-dependent behaviour. In this way, T10-treated sprouts increased the TPC by 40% after 10 days at 4 °C compared to CTRL, while TAC and TFC increased by 35 and 30%, respectively. Carotenoids were enhanced with higher UV-B doses (T15). Conclusions: We found that UV-B stimulated the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and a dose of 10 kJ m−2 UV-B, proportionally applied on days 3, 5, 7, and 10 days, is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables)
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Article
Foliar Application of Potassium Mitigates Salinity Stress Conditions in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) through Reducing NaCl Toxicity and Enhancing the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120566 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Agronomic biofortification is the purposeful utilization of mineral fertilizers to increase the concentration of desired minerals in edible plant parts for enhancing their dietary intake. It is becoming crucial to enhance the dietary intake of K for addressing hidden hunger and related health [...] Read more.
Agronomic biofortification is the purposeful utilization of mineral fertilizers to increase the concentration of desired minerals in edible plant parts for enhancing their dietary intake. It is becoming crucial to enhance the dietary intake of K for addressing hidden hunger and related health issues such as cardiac diseases and hypertension. This study was designed to enhance the potassium concentration in edible parts of spinach through its foliar application under saline environment. The salinity levels of electrical conductivity (EC) = 4, 6, and 8 dS m−1 were applied using sodium chloride (NaCl) along with control. The levels of K for foliar sprays were 5 and 10 mM, along with control. The present experiment was performed under two factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design (CRD). After 60 days of sowing, the crop was harvested. Data regarding growth, ionic, physiological, and biochemical parameters, i.e., shoot dry weight, relative water content, electrolyte leakage, total chlorophyll content, tissue sodium (Na) and K concentration, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were recorded and those were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by foliar application of K on spinach under saline conditions. The highest growth, physiological and biochemical responses of spinach were observed in response to foliar-applied K at 10 mM. It is concluded that agronomic bio-fortification by foliar use of K can be a useful strategy to increase tissue K intakes and minimize Na toxicity in the vegetables studied under saline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Responses of Vegetable Crops)
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Article
Physiochemical Changes of Mung Bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] in Responses to Varying Irrigation Regimes
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120565 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Mungbean is one of the most powerful pulses providing substantial protein for human diets and fixing N to the soil, improving nutritional food security and agricultural sustainability. The production of summer mungbean in the tropics and subtropics is adversely affected by drought due [...] Read more.
Mungbean is one of the most powerful pulses providing substantial protein for human diets and fixing N to the soil, improving nutritional food security and agricultural sustainability. The production of summer mungbean in the tropics and subtropics is adversely affected by drought due to water scarcity caused by various factors as well as lack of rainfall. Irrigation at different growth phases is not a suitable solution. An environmentally friendly and economically viable answer is a convenient irrigation management option that will be available to farmers together with drought-tolerant genotypes. The study considered to determine the effect of differences between drought-tolerant and drought susceptible genotypes on water productivity response and physiological traits in mung beans. To quantify seed yield-related to irrigation at different growth stages eventually to quickly determine the most appropriate irrigation stage. One water stress tolerant mung bean genotype (BMX-08010-2) and one sensitive genotype (BARI Mung-1) were grown in the field with four different irrigation schedules along with water stress conditions (no irrigation) under rain shelter at Regional Agricultural Research Station, BARI, Ishwardi, Pabna, Bangladesh. The experiment was laid out in split plots with three replications, with irrigation schedules assigned in the main plot and mung bean genotypes assigned in the side plots. Water use efficiency ranged from 3.79 to 4.68 kg ha−1 mm−1 depending on irrigation regime, and mung bean seed yield of mung bean Water stress decreased plant water status, photosynthetic pigment and membrane stability index, and increased proline soluble sugar content. Treatments that received irrigation during two or three phases (I3 or I4) gave significantly higher yields than those that received irrigation during only one stage (I1 and I2) with the lowest yield. While the yield obtained ranged between 1145.44 kg ha−1 with seasonal irrigation of 277 mm (I4) and 555.14 kg ha−1 without irrigation (I0). The flowering stage (I3) was recorded as the most sensitive growth stage with an 18.15% yield reduction compared to the treatment with triple irrigation (I4). Also, depending on the irrigation sources, at least two irrigation phases should be provided at the triple leaf stage (I2, i.e., 20 DAS) and at the flowering stage (I3, i.e., 35 DAS) to achieve the highest yield. Genotypes that maintained the higher performance of physicochemical traits under water stress provided higher seed yield and promoted drought tolerance. Therefore, these parameters can be used as physiological and biochemical markers to identify and develop superior genotypes suitable for drought-prone environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Review
Deciphering Resistance to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus for Rootstock Breeding: Sources, Genetics and Characterization of the Ma Locus
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120564 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Root-knot nematode (RKN) species are predominant pests of crops, attacking stone fruit crops Prunus spp. under Mediterranean climate conditions worldwide. Natural resistance for rootstock breeding is a control method that is gaining interest as an alternative to the highly toxic nematicides. This review [...] Read more.
Root-knot nematode (RKN) species are predominant pests of crops, attacking stone fruit crops Prunus spp. under Mediterranean climate conditions worldwide. Natural resistance for rootstock breeding is a control method that is gaining interest as an alternative to the highly toxic nematicides. This review first reports an outline of the root-knot nematodes parasitizing stone fruit crops and the Prunus species and rootstocks. It then describes the main sources of resistance detected among the Prunus germplasm and focuses on the major resistance genes identified and their characteristics (spectrum, durability, histological mechanism, effect of temperature, interaction with other pests and diseases, etc.). In peach, besides the RMia reference gene, the new genes PkMi and Mf, also located on chromosome 2, need to be characterized regarding their spectrum and relationship. The two other Prunus reference genes, Ma from plum (complete spectrum) and RMja from almond (more restricted spectrum), are orthologs that belong to a TIR-NB-LRR (TNL) cluster on chromosome 7. The review finally summarizes the positional cloning of the Ma gene and the characterization of its unique TNL structure, encompassing a five-times repeated post-LRR domain. Deciphering how this structure is functionally involved in Ma’s remarkable biological properties is a real challenge for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rootstock Genetics and Improvement in Breeding)
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