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Article

Changes in the Polyphenol Content of Red Raspberry Fruits during Ripening

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Electro-Communication University (OECU), 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa-shi 572-8530, Osaka, Japan
2
Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jelena Popović-Djordjević and Luiz Fernando Cappa de Oliveira
Horticulturae 2021, 7(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120569
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
Berry fruits that contain large amounts of polyphenol compounds are expected to exhibit health and anti-aging effects due to the antioxidant activities of these components. Among the various polyphenols, flavan-3-ol derivatives are known to have a particularly high functionality. In this study, the maturity of red raspberry fruits is classified into eight stages based on the polyphenol content at each stage. Quantification of the various compounds and investigation of the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were carried out. The total polyphenol content, including that of the flavan-3-ol derivatives, was the highest in immature fruits, gradually decreasing during fruit maturation, during which the radical scavenging activity also decreased. Based on our quantitative results, it was considered that the decrease in the flavan-3-ol derivative content due to fruit ripening was largely related to the increase in the amount of anthocyanin derivatives. Considering that the decreased contents of these compounds were related to the expression levels of polyphenol biosynthetic enzymes, quantification was performed using the semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, but the only change observed was the increased expression of the enzyme that synthesizes anthocyanins during maturation. Therefore, it was suggested that it is necessary to inhibit anthocyanin synthesis to increase the contents of highly functional flavan-3-ol derivatives in the mature fruit. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenol content of raspberry fruit; relationship between ripening and polyphenol content; biosynthesis of polyphenol; flavonoid; HPLC analysis; expression levels of flavan-3-ol biosynthetic enzymes polyphenol content of raspberry fruit; relationship between ripening and polyphenol content; biosynthesis of polyphenol; flavonoid; HPLC analysis; expression levels of flavan-3-ol biosynthetic enzymes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kobori, R.; Yakami, S.; Kawasaki, T.; Saito, A. Changes in the Polyphenol Content of Red Raspberry Fruits during Ripening. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 569. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120569

AMA Style

Kobori R, Yakami S, Kawasaki T, Saito A. Changes in the Polyphenol Content of Red Raspberry Fruits during Ripening. Horticulturae. 2021; 7(12):569. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120569

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kobori, Ryo, Syuichi Yakami, Takashi Kawasaki, and Akiko Saito. 2021. "Changes in the Polyphenol Content of Red Raspberry Fruits during Ripening" Horticulturae 7, no. 12: 569. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7120569

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