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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) One of the main struggles of the large-scale apple processing industry is pomace disposal. One [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ingredient Item Depiction on the Packaging Frontal View on Pre- and Post-Consumption Product Evaluations
Foods 2019, 8(8), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080354 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The current research focused on the (in)congruity between pictorial (ingredient item depiction) and textual (ingredient list) information on food packaging, namely, an apple–mango juice. Specifically, the influence of these information sources on expected and perceived flavor intensities, mismatched perceptions, perceived deception, and intention [...] Read more.
The current research focused on the (in)congruity between pictorial (ingredient item depiction) and textual (ingredient list) information on food packaging, namely, an apple–mango juice. Specifically, the influence of these information sources on expected and perceived flavor intensities, mismatched perceptions, perceived deception, and intention to purchase was studied by taking into account the possible moderating role of consumers’ thinking style. Three studies were performed, the first and third at a Dutch University by means of surveys and sensory tests, and the second via an online survey. The results showed that, overall, most consumers did not perceive the incongruity between pictorial and textual information as mismatching. However, a perceived mismatch from packaging, whether originated by the design manipulations or not, did increase perceived deception and lowered willingness to purchase. This effect was robust for both mismatches, among packaging elements (pre-consumption) and from expected and perceived flavor ratios (post-consumption), but was more substantial for the post-consumption mismatch. Although the moderating effect of cognitive processing style regarding expected and perceived flavor ratios from pictorial and textual (ingredient list) information was not confirmed, the results indicated that the effect of salient textual information is substantial, independent of a particular processing style or label usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Improvement of Bioactive Compounds Extraction from Red Grape (Vitis vinifera Moldova) Pomace by Ultrasonic Treatment
Foods 2019, 8(8), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080353 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Grape pomace from a red grape variety (Vitis vinifera Moldova) cultivated in the northeastern region of Romania has been studied as a source for the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) using ultrasonic treatment. The method of [...] Read more.
Grape pomace from a red grape variety (Vitis vinifera Moldova) cultivated in the northeastern region of Romania has been studied as a source for the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) using ultrasonic treatment. The method of extraction described here uses two different solvents, namely 2-propanol and methanol. For each of the extraction solvents, we evaluated the singular influence and the impact of interactions between process parameters (solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature, and extraction time) on the extraction yields of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. Response surface methodology was implemented via a Box–Behnken design to optimize the extraction of TMA and TPC from grape pomace. According to the optimization, in order to achieve the highest yield of TPC (62.487 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g (d = 1.0)), the following conditions are necessary: solvent—2 propanol, solvent concentration 50%, temperature −50 °C and extraction time 29.6 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Will Product Packaging Density Affect Pre-Purchase Recognition?
Foods 2019, 8(8), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080352 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 562
Abstract
This study analyzed preference and satisfaction according to the weight and size of products in order to understand how the size-weight illusion (SWI) occurs in affect. Perceived weight is known to be affected not only by the weight of the object, but also [...] Read more.
This study analyzed preference and satisfaction according to the weight and size of products in order to understand how the size-weight illusion (SWI) occurs in affect. Perceived weight is known to be affected not only by the weight of the object, but also by its size, color, and material. A total of 54 participants took part in the experiment. Nine kinds of cookie boxes were prepared by combining three sizes and three weight levels of confectionery products. Participants were asked to rate the perceived weight of the cookie box by the modulus method and evaluate the preference and the satisfaction of the weight by using the semantic differential (SD) scale of 11 points. The results showed that SWI occurred in terms of the perceived weight of cookies boxes like previous studies; however, SWI appeared only partially in affect. The preference and satisfaction did not increase after a certain weight, and the limits of weight were different according to the size of cookie box. These results can be referred to determine the weight and size of a product for affective design and especially utilized for the package design of cookie boxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Avoidance of Insect Containing Foods: Primary Emotions, Perceptions and Sensory Characteristics Driving Consumers Considerations
Foods 2019, 8(8), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080351 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global [...] Read more.
Why do many human beings find bugs repulsive? Disgust, a psychological factor, is believed to be the main reason why consumers would not consider eating foods containing insect ingredients. This study aimed to understand specific consumers’ behaviors toward insect based products. A global survey was launched in 13 different countries. The participants (n = 630 from each country) completed the survey that included demographic questions and questions about why they would or would not eat insect-based products. The results show, particularly for some of the Asian countries, that it is necessary to start exposing and familiarizing the populations about insects in order to diminish the disgust factor associated with insects. It is strongly recommended that an insect-based product should not contain visible insect pieces, which trigger negative associations. The exceptions were consumers in countries such as Mexico and Thailand, evaluated in this study, which did not show significant negative beliefs associated with including insects in their diets. Additional research to promote insect-based product consumption with popular product types might be the first strategy to break the disgust barriers and build acquaintance about insect-based products. The need to educate consumers that not all insects are unhygienic is crucial to eliminating the potentially erroneous concepts from consumer mindsets. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The “Grass-Fed” Milk Story: Understanding the Impact of Pasture Feeding on the Composition and Quality of Bovine Milk
Foods 2019, 8(8), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080350 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Milk is a highly nutritious food that contains an array of macro and micro components, scientifically proven to be beneficial to human health. While the composition of milk is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics, health, lactation stage etc., the [...] Read more.
Milk is a highly nutritious food that contains an array of macro and micro components, scientifically proven to be beneficial to human health. While the composition of milk is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics, health, lactation stage etc., the animal’s diet remains a key mechanism by which its nutrition and processing characteristics can be altered. Pasture feeding has been demonstrated to have a positive impact on the nutrient profile of milk, increasing the content of some beneficial nutrients such as Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), while reducing the levels of Omega-6 fatty acids and palmitic acid. These resultant alterations to the nutritional profile of “Grass-Fed” milk resonate with consumers that desire healthy, “natural”, and sustainable dairy products. This review provides a comprehensive comparison of the impact that pasture and non-pasture feeding systems have on bovine milk composition from a nutritional and functional (processability) perspective, highlighting factors that will be of interest to dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Cistus incanus L. as an Innovative Functional Additive to Wheat Bread
Foods 2019, 8(8), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080349 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Cistus incanus L. (CI) has been proposed as an innovative functional supplement of food products, and hence the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried CI on the properties of bread. Bread was prepared from white wheat flour [...] Read more.
Cistus incanus L. (CI) has been proposed as an innovative functional supplement of food products, and hence the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried CI on the properties of bread. Bread was prepared from white wheat flour supplemented with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% of ground CI. After the completion of baking process, various characteristics of the obtained bread product, such as yield, volume, porosity, acidity, color, and texture, were evaluated. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, chelating power (CHEL), and ability to quench OH∙ radicals were measured. The results showed that the addition of CI to bread caused a reduction in the volume of bread, but texture of the crumbs was acceptable. Acidity and moisture content of bread were found to be increased following CI enrichment. Significant changes in the ash content and the color of bread crumbs were also observed. Bread incorporated with CI was characterized by significantly higher TPC and much higher antioxidant activity, as measured by ABTS, CHEL, and OH∙ radicals, compared to control bread. Supplementation of bread with 3% CI produced a product with desirable characteristics which was also favored by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurence of Ochratoxin A and Biogenic Amines in Croatian Commercial Red Wines
Foods 2019, 8(8), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080348 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Food safety is one of the main concerns in the world and in wine it depends mostly on metabolites of microbial origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of natural contaminants, ochratoxin A and biogenic amines (cadaverine, histamine, putrescine [...] Read more.
Food safety is one of the main concerns in the world and in wine it depends mostly on metabolites of microbial origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of natural contaminants, ochratoxin A and biogenic amines (cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine), in Croatian commercial red wines originating from different Croatian wine-making regions. Ochratoxin A was detected in 92.8% of samples, however its concentrations in all samples were more than 10-fold lower than the limit set by the European Union (2 µg/kg), marking these wines as safe for consumption. The frequency of occurrence and measured concentrations of ochratoxin A were higher in wines produced in southern regions with highest values obtained in wines from southern Dalmatian islands. All samples were contaminated with cadaverine and putrescine, while 88.2% and 82.7% were contaminated with histamine and tyramine, respectively. Histamine concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 8.5 mg/L. Higher histamine concentrations were measured in wines with higher pH values which coincided with southern geographic origin. These results reinforce the need for routine detection and quantification of biogenic amines in Croatian wines to achieve better control of vinification and minimize their formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessPerspective
Cheese Whey Processing: Integrated Biorefinery Concepts and Emerging Food Applications
Foods 2019, 8(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080347 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins [...] Read more.
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins and whey lactose from cheese whey for further exploitation as renewable resources. Most studies are predominantly focused on the separate implementation, either of whey protein or lactose, to configure processes that will formulate value-added products. Likewise, approaches for cheese whey valorization, so far, do not exploit the full potential of cheese whey, particularly with respect to food applications. Nonetheless, within the concept of integrated biorefinery design and the transition to circular economy, it is imperative to develop consolidated bioprocesses that will foster a holistic exploitation of cheese whey. Therefore, the aim of this article is to elaborate on the recent advances regarding the conversion of whey to high value-added products, focusing on food applications. Moreover, novel integrated biorefining concepts are proposed, to inaugurate the complete exploitation of cheese whey to formulate novel products with diversified end applications. Within the context of circular economy, it is envisaged that high value-added products will be reintroduced in the food supply chain, thereby enhancing sustainability and creating “zero waste” processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Stability and Activity Changes of Apigenin and Luteolin in Human Cervical Cancer Hela Cells in Response to Heat Treatment and Fe2+/Cu2+ Addition
Foods 2019, 8(8), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080346 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds with desired bio-functions but with chemical instability and sensitivity to temperature, oxygen, and other factors. Apigenin and luteolin, two flavones of the flavonoid family in plant foods, were; thus, assessed and compared for their stability, especially the changes [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds with desired bio-functions but with chemical instability and sensitivity to temperature, oxygen, and other factors. Apigenin and luteolin, two flavones of the flavonoid family in plant foods, were; thus, assessed and compared for their stability, especially the changes in anti-cancer activity in response to the conducted heat treatments and the addition of ferrous or cupric ions. The two flavones in aqueous solutions showed first-order degradation at 20 and 37 °C. The addition of ferrous or cupric ions (except for Cu2+ at 37 °C) enhanced luteolin stability via forming the luteolin–metal complexes; however, Fe/Cu addition (especially at 37 °C) consistently impaired apigenin stability. Using the human cervical cancer Hela cells and two cell treatment times (24 and 48 h), it was evident that heat treatments (37 and 100 °C) or Fe/Cu addition could endow apigenin and luteolin with decreased activities in growth inhibition, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis induction. In general, higher temperature led to greater decrease in these activities, while Fe2+ was more effective than Cu2+ to decrease these activities. The correlation analysis also suggested that the decreased ROS generation of the two flavones in the Hela cells was positively correlated with their decreased apoptosis induction. It is; thus, concluded that the two treatments can influence the two flavones’ stability and especially exert an adverse impact on their anti-cancer activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Mineral Elements in the Raw Milk of Several Dairy Farms in the Province of Alberta
Foods 2019, 8(8), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080345 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of 20 minerals in the whole raw milk from Holstein dairy cows in the province of Alberta, Canada. A total of 156 milk samples were collected from 26 dairy farms (n = [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of 20 minerals in the whole raw milk from Holstein dairy cows in the province of Alberta, Canada. A total of 156 milk samples were collected from 26 dairy farms (n = 6 per farm) and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for five macrominerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, and Na), ten microminerals (Bo, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ru, Se, St, and Zn), and five heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, and Pb). Calculated means were compared with their recommended daily intakes (RDIs) or minimal risk levels (MRLs) obtained from several food safety agencies and with data obtained from a world meta-analytical study we conducted previously. Results of the present study showed differences in the concentrations of multiple minerals between the Alberta farms involved and world averages (WA) and within Alberta farms. Concentrations of macrominerals, including Ca, Mg, P, K, and Na, in the raw milk were greater in Alberta dairy farms than the WA (p < 00.5; except Ca). Of note, concentrations of Ca showed the highest variability among Alberta farms, with 11 farms having lower milk Ca than WA. The other macrominerals were higher than WA in more than 88% of Alberta farms. Data demonstrated that concentrations of microminerals, including Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Mo, in Alberta raw milk were lower compared with WA (p < 0.05). Selenium was the only element in raw milk that was found to have higher concentrations in all farms in Alberta vs. WA. High variability was observed for B, Sr, and Zn, which were lower in multiple locations around the province. Concentrations of heavy metals in the Alberta raw milk, including Al, As, Cd, and Pb, were lower than WA, whereas concentrations of Cr were higher. Most importantly, all heavy metals were below their respective MRLs in all analyzed samples. Overall, data from this study showed that raw milk from Holstein dairy cows in Alberta has concentrations of most mineral elements below their MRLs and some of them different from WA. Of note, although concentrations of Se and Zn in the raw milk were higher in Alberta compared with WA, their concentrations were still below their respective MRLs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Chemistry of Milk and Milk Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Cold Brew Coffee: Consumer Acceptability and Characterization Using the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Method
Foods 2019, 8(8), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080344 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Correspondence analysis identified characteristics of each cold brew sample and brewing methods, namely cold brew, coffee machine brewed but served cold, ready-to-drink, and purchased from a coffee shop. In addition, a reduced number of terms were reviewed for common-to-all cold brew samples (17 terms) and specific to each sample (48 terms), which also discriminated among samples. Furthermore, data on consumers’ liking were not influenced by caffeine contents and most of the volatile compounds, but chlorogenic acid and trigonelline contents were negatively related with sensory data. This study specifies the characteristics of cold brew coffee using the CATA method, shows consumers’ segmentation using acceptability, and investigates the relationship between sensory liking data and non-volatile, volatile compounds of coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverage)
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Open AccessReview
Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A Brief Review of Its Antigenotoxic Effects
Foods 2019, 8(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080343 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Traditional Medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine is a practice that incorporates medicine based on plants, animals, and minerals for diagnosing, treating, and preventing certain diseases, including chronic degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Different factors generate its continued acceptance, highlighting [...] Read more.
Traditional Medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine is a practice that incorporates medicine based on plants, animals, and minerals for diagnosing, treating, and preventing certain diseases, including chronic degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Different factors generate its continued acceptance, highlighting its diversity, easy access, low cost, and the presence of relatively few adverse effects and, importantly, a high possibility of discovering antigenotoxic agents. In this regard, it is known that the use of different antigenotoxic agents is an efficient alternative to preventing human cancer and that, in general, these can act by means of a combination of various mechanisms of action and against one or various mutagens and/or carcinogens. Therefore, it is relevant to confirm its usefulness, efficacy, and its spectrum of action through different assays. With this in mind, the present manuscript has as its objective the compilation of different investigations carried out with garlic that have demonstrated its genoprotective capacity, and that have been evaluated by means of five of the most outstanding tests (Ames test, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, and comet assay). Thus, we intend to provide information and bibliographic support to investigators in order for them to broaden their studies on the antigenotoxic spectrum of action of this perennial plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Yoghurt-Type Gels from Skim Sheep Milk Base Enriched with Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysates and Processed by Heating or High Hydrostatic Pressure
Foods 2019, 8(8), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080342 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 616
Abstract
An objective of the present study was the enrichment of skim sheep yoghurt milk base with hydrolysates (WPHs) of whey protein concentrate (WP80) derived from Feta cheesemaking. Moreover, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at 600 MPa/55 °C/10 min as an [...] Read more.
An objective of the present study was the enrichment of skim sheep yoghurt milk base with hydrolysates (WPHs) of whey protein concentrate (WP80) derived from Feta cheesemaking. Moreover, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at 600 MPa/55 °C/10 min as an alternative for heat treatment of milk bases, was studied. In brief, lyophilized trypsin and protamex hydrolysates of WP80 produced under laboratory conditions were added in skim sheep milk. The composition and heat treatment conditions were set after the assessment of the heat stability of various mixtures; trisodium citrate was used as a chelating agent, when needed. According to the results, the conditions of heat treatment were more important for the physical properties of the gel than the type of enrichment. High pressure treatment resulted in inferior gel properties, irrespective of the type of enrichment. Supplementation of skim sheep milk with whey protein hydrolysates at >0.5% had a detrimental effect on gel properties. Finally, skim sheep milk base inoculated with fresh traditional yoghurt, resulted in yoghurt-type gels with high counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Str. thermophilus -close to the ideal 1:1- and with a high ACE inhibitory activity >65% that were not essentially affected by the experimental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Differentiation of Spanish Vinegars from Jerez and Condado de Huelva Protected Designations of Origin
Foods 2019, 8(8), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080341 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Thirty one Jerez vinegar samples and 33 Huelva vinegar samples were analyzed for polyphenolic and volatile compound content in order to characterize them and attempt to differentiate them. Sixteen polyphenolic compounds were quantified by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with diode array [...] Read more.
Thirty one Jerez vinegar samples and 33 Huelva vinegar samples were analyzed for polyphenolic and volatile compound content in order to characterize them and attempt to differentiate them. Sixteen polyphenolic compounds were quantified by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection (UPLC–DAD), and 37 volatile compounds were studied by means of stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SBSE–GC–MS). Spectrophotometric CIELab parameters were also measured for all the samples. The results obtained from the statistical multivariate treatment of the data evidenced a clear difference between vinegars from the two geographical indications with regard to their polyphenolic content, with Jerez vinegars exhibiting a greater phenolic content. Differentiation by the volatile compound content was, however, not so evident. Nevertheless, a considerable differentiation between the two groups of vinegars based on their volatile fraction was achieved. This may bring to light the grape varieties and geographical factors that have a clear influence on such differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Pure Polyphenols and Cranberry Juice High in Anthocyanins Increase Antioxidant Capacity in Animal Organs
Foods 2019, 8(8), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080340 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order to be bioactive in vivo, they need to be bioavailable and be transported from the circulation to target organs. To date, there have been few studies testing the extent to which polyphenols and especially anthocyanins affect the antioxidant capacity of animal organs. In our first pilot study, we investigated how three pure polyphenols (the flavonoids quercetin, catechin and hesperetin) given to rats by intraperitoneal injection (49 to 63 mg/kg) affected their organ antioxidant capacity. This was followed by a subsequent study that injected one ml of 100% cranberry juice (high in anthocyanins) to hamsters. Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). Overall the results showed that antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in experimental vs. control organs. Analysis of organs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from both animal studies provided evidence of polyphenol metabolites in the organ extracts. Taken together, this study provides data that the administration of anthocyanins and other polyphenols cause an increase in organ antioxidant capacity in two animal models. This result supports the growing evidence for the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols reduce the risk and extent of various chronic disease at the disease site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Fermented Rice Milk as a Novel Coagulant for Development of Paneer (Soft Cheese)
Foods 2019, 8(8), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080339 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 700
Abstract
In this study, fermented rice milk was used as a novel coagulant for a type of soft cheese named as paneer. Rice milk was produced by a wet milling system in a process where brown rice was first soaked in water at a [...] Read more.
In this study, fermented rice milk was used as a novel coagulant for a type of soft cheese named as paneer. Rice milk was produced by a wet milling system in a process where brown rice was first soaked in water at a ratio of 1:2 (w/w), then milled by micro wet milling. Rice milk was pasteurized and gelatinized followed by the saccharification and lactic acid fermentation process. Paneer was produced using whole dairy milk mixed with 10%, 20%, and 30% of simultaneous saccharified and fermented (SSF) rice milk as a coagulant, and was analyzed for its physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties. The results indicated that fermented rice milk has constructive effects on the physicochemical properties, texture, and shelf life of paneer, as there were no obvious defects observed for up to 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The sensory evaluation revealed that the acceptability score of the samples containing rice milk reduced slightly compared to the control samples. No significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed among all the paneer samples incorporated with different percentages of rice milk, and the product was rated acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fermented Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
The Combination of Hot Air and Chitosan Treatments on Phytochemical Changes during Postharvest Storage of ‘Sanhua’ Plum Fruits
Foods 2019, 8(8), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080338 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Plum fruits would become putrid quickly after harvest. In order to prolong postharvest life, ‘Sanhua’ plum fruits were treated by hot air combined with a chitosan coating, and stored at low temperature. Fruit firmness, total soluble solids, total phytochemical contents were evaluated along [...] Read more.
Plum fruits would become putrid quickly after harvest. In order to prolong postharvest life, ‘Sanhua’ plum fruits were treated by hot air combined with a chitosan coating, and stored at low temperature. Fruit firmness, total soluble solids, total phytochemical contents were evaluated along with total antioxidant activities and phytochemical components. Results showed that hot air treatment delayed softening process of plum fruit. The total phenolics and flavonoids accumulated and antioxidant activities increased in both control and treatment samples during storage. These values in the samples treated with hot air and chitosan were all higher than control and hot air treatments. Phytochemicals of epicatechin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, and hesperetin were all upregulated by hot air and chitosan treatment, especially epicatechin. This suggested that chitosan might play an important role in regulating phytochemical profiles of ‘Sanhua’ plum fruits during storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tempering Improves Flour Properties of Refined Intermediate Wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)
Foods 2019, 8(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080337 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate [...] Read more.
Progress in breeding of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), a perennial grain with environmental benefits, has enabled bran removal. Thus, determination of optimum milling conditions for production of refined flours is warranted. This study explored the effect of tempering conditions on intermediate wheatgrass flour properties, namely composition, color, solvent retention capacity, starch damage, and polyphenol oxidase activity. Changes in flour attributes were evaluated via a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, with factors targeting moisture (comparing un-tempered controls to samples of 12% and 14% target moisture), time (4, 8, and 24 h), and temperature (30 and 45 °C). All investigated parameters were significantly affected by target moisture; however, samples tempered to 12% moisture showed few differences to those tempered to 14%. Similarly, neither tempering time nor temperature exerted pronounced effects on most flour properties, indicating water uptake was fast and not dependent on temperature within the investigated range. Lactic acid retention capacity significantly correlated with ash (r = −0.739, p < 0.01), insoluble dietary fiber (r = −0.746, p < 0.01), polyphenol oxidase activity (r = −0.710, p < 0.01), starch content (r = 0.841, p < 0.01), and starch damage (r = 0.842, p < 0.01), but not with protein (r = 0.357, p > 0.05). In general, tempering resulted in flour with less bran contamination but only minor losses in protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Cooperage Byproducts Rich in Ellagitannins to Improve the Antioxidant Activity and Color Expression of Red Wine Anthocyanins
Foods 2019, 8(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080336 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Cooperage byproducts are an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used for wine technology applications. The effects of the addition of two types of oak wood shavings (American, AOW, and Ukrainian, UOW) on the antioxidant activity and color of red wine [...] Read more.
Cooperage byproducts are an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used for wine technology applications. The effects of the addition of two types of oak wood shavings (American, AOW, and Ukrainian, UOW) on the antioxidant activity and color of red wine anthocyanins, in a wine model solution, were evaluated by spectrophotometric and colorimetric analyses. Phenolic compounds from shavings, mainly ellagitannins, were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS). Antioxidant and copigmentation effects varied depending on the type of shavings (AOW and UOW) and the phenolic concentration (100, 400, and 500 mg/L). Phenolic compounds from shavings improved the color characteristics (darker and more bluish color) and the copigmentation effect of red wine anthocyanins, being UOW a better source of copigments than AOW shavings. The best antioxidant activity was found for the 400 and 500 mg/L model solutions for both types of shavings. Results show a winemaking technological application based on the repurposing of cooperage byproducts, which could improve color and antioxidant characteristics of red wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Health Benefits of Wine Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle
The Postharvest Quality of Fresh Sweet Cherries and Strawberries with an Active Packaging System
Foods 2019, 8(8), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080335 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 584
Abstract
This study assessed the effect of the recently-introduced Life+ (ILIP, Valsamoggia, Italy) active packaging system on the postharvest quality of sweet cherries and strawberries. This system uses Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging (EMAP) to achieve specific intra-package conditions with three synergistic elements: an [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effect of the recently-introduced Life+ (ILIP, Valsamoggia, Italy) active packaging system on the postharvest quality of sweet cherries and strawberries. This system uses Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging (EMAP) to achieve specific intra-package conditions with three synergistic elements: an unvented and anti-mist heat sealable container, an active (naturally-antimicrobial) pad, and a heat-sealed, laser micro-perforated film of a specified gas permeability. Post-packaging quality parameters were monitored for 10 (strawberries) and 15 days (cherries): headspace gas concentration, weight loss, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, disease incidence, and sensory quality. Results showed that use of the Life+ system delayed postharvest senescence by maintaining fruit color, acidity, and vitamin C content, and decreasing fruit weight loss and decay. The use of EMAP in sweet cherry resulted in enhanced sensory qualities compared to traditional perforated containers. The results suggest that the Life+ system leads to better sensory properties and improved shelf-life for strawberries and sweet cherries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytosterol Contents of Edible Oils and Their Contributions to Estimated Phytosterol Intake in the Chinese Diet
Foods 2019, 8(8), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080334 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Phytosterols are important micronutrients in human diets. Evidence has shown that phytosterols play an essential role in the reduction of cholesterol in blood and therefore decrease cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, the content and composition of phytosterols in different kinds of vegetable oils [...] Read more.
Phytosterols are important micronutrients in human diets. Evidence has shown that phytosterols play an essential role in the reduction of cholesterol in blood and therefore decrease cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, the content and composition of phytosterols in different kinds of vegetable oils were analyzed, and the total phytosterol intake and contribution of foods to intake were estimated based on consumption data. The results showed that the phytosterol contents of rice bran oil, corn oil, and rapeseed oil were higher than those of other vegetable oils and the intake of phytosterol in the Chinese diet was about 392.3 mg/day. The main sources of phytosterols were edible vegetable oils (46.3%), followed by cereals (38.9%), vegetables (9.2%), nuts (2.0%), fruits (1.5%), beans and bean products (1.4%), and tubers (0.8%). Among all vegetable oils, rapeseed oil was the main individual contributor to phytosterol intake (22.9%), especially for the southern residents of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Functionality of Plant Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological Properties of Wheat–Flaxseed Composite Flours Assessed by Mixolab and Their Relation to Quality Features
Foods 2019, 8(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080333 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 683
Abstract
The effect of adding brown and golden flaxseed variety flours (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/w) to wheat flours of different quality for bread-making on Mixolab dough rheological properties and bread quality was studied. The flaxseed–wheat composite flour parameters determined [...] Read more.
The effect of adding brown and golden flaxseed variety flours (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% w/w) to wheat flours of different quality for bread-making on Mixolab dough rheological properties and bread quality was studied. The flaxseed–wheat composite flour parameters determined such as fat, protein (PR), ash and carbohydrates (CHS) increased by increasing the level of flaxseed whereas the moisture content (MC) decreased. The Falling Number values (FN) determined for the wheat–flaxseed composite flours increased by increasing the level of flaxseed. Within Mixolab data, greater differences were attributed to the eight parameters analysed: water absorption, dough development time, dough stability and all Mixolab torques during the heating and cooling stages. Also, a general decreased was also recorded for the differences between Mixolab torques which measures the starching speed (C3-2), the enzymatic degradation speed (C4-3) and the starch retrogradation rate (C5-4), whereas the difference which measures the speed of protein weakening due to heat (C1-2) increased. Composite dough behaviour presented a close positive relationship between MC and DT, and FN and PR with the C1-2 at a level of p < 0.05. The bread physical and sensory quality was improved up to a level of 10–15% flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Kiwifruit Extract Infusion on Consumer Sensory Outcomes of Striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and Outside Flat (M. biceps femoris) from Beef Carcasses
Foods 2019, 8(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080332 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Actinidin is a cysteine protease enzyme which occurs in kiwifruit and has been associated with improved tenderness in red meat. This study evaluated the impact of actinidin, derived from kiwifruit, on consumer sensory outcomes for striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and outside [...] Read more.
Actinidin is a cysteine protease enzyme which occurs in kiwifruit and has been associated with improved tenderness in red meat. This study evaluated the impact of actinidin, derived from kiwifruit, on consumer sensory outcomes for striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and outside flat (M. biceps femoris). Striploins and outside flats were collected from 87 grass-fed steers. Carcasses were graded to the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) protocols. Striploins and outside flats were then dissected in half and allocated to one of the following two treatments: (1) not infused (control) and (2) infused with a kiwifruit extract (enhanced), and then prepared as grill and roast samples. Grill and roast samples were then aged for 10 or 28 days. Consumer evaluations for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking were conducted using untrained consumer sensory panels consisting of 2080 individual consumers, in accordance with the MSA protocols. These scores were then used to calculate an overall eating quality (MQ4) score. Consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, overall liking, and MQ4 score were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Kiwifruit extract improved consumer scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, overall liking, and MQ4 scores for striploins and outside flat (p < 0.05). These results suggest that kiwifruit extract provides an opportunity to improve eating experiences for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Meat Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Procedures for Breadmaking Quality Assessment of Rye Wholemeal Flour
Foods 2019, 8(8), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080331 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 645
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the baking value of rye flours from industrial mills and to indicate which rye flour quality parameters are the most important predictors of wholemeal rye bread quality for commercially milled rye grains. Ten wholemeal rye [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the baking value of rye flours from industrial mills and to indicate which rye flour quality parameters are the most important predictors of wholemeal rye bread quality for commercially milled rye grains. Ten wholemeal rye flours, which were characterized by ash content ranging from 1.43% to 2.42% d.m. (dry mass), were used for the study. The parameters that characterize the flour properties and the baking test were assessed. The study revealed that for the analyzed commercial rye flours, the falling number test and the amylograph properties are insufficient parameters for predicting the quality of wholemeal rye bread. The manufacture of good quality wholemeal bread requires the use of rye flour with superior quality, such as fine granulation, low protein content, low total and insoluble pentosans content, and, in particular, a high percentage of water-soluble pentosans content. Breads with a higher volume were obtained from rye flours that were generally characterized by lower protein content, lower total and insoluble pentosans content, and higher water-soluble pentosans content. Flour granulation and the percentage of water-soluble pentosans content especially, had a significant impact on bread’s hardness of crumb and the hardness of crumb’s increase during bread storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution, Contents, and Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium, Lead, and Nickel in Bananas Produced in Ecuador
Foods 2019, 8(8), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080330 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 846
Abstract
In this study, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) contents were analyzed in sixteen banana composite samples from different commercial establishments from eleven Ecuadorian production provinces using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations (fresh weight) in the samples collected (9.3–47.3 μg·kg [...] Read more.
In this study, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) contents were analyzed in sixteen banana composite samples from different commercial establishments from eleven Ecuadorian production provinces using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations (fresh weight) in the samples collected (9.3–47.3 μg·kg−1 for Cd, 16.1–105.6 μg·kg−1 for Ni, and 36.9–538.0 μg·kg−1 for Pb) were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and target carcinogenic risk (CR) associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic metals. Cd and Ni results showed that every sample had EDIs lower than the oral reference dose and THQ values lower than 1, demonstrating that there was no non-carcinogenic risk related to the exposure to Cd and Ni. In the case of Pb, two EDIs results were higher than the reference dose, also their corresponding THQ values were higher than 1. The lead CR in all samples was less than 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. Thus, there is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with bananas with contamination levels of Cd, Ni, but there is Pb risk for toddlers (12 kg of body weight) intake comparable to the one detected in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Sensory Characteristics of Pastry Products
Foods 2019, 8(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080329 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of non-caloric sweeteners in pastry products considering the product made with sugar as a control sample. Sensory preference and acceptability with consumers were determined through ranking test and 9-point hedonic scale respectively. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the role of non-caloric sweeteners in pastry products considering the product made with sugar as a control sample. Sensory preference and acceptability with consumers were determined through ranking test and 9-point hedonic scale respectively. The satiation and satiety were determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, caloric intake; macronutrients; physical parameters such as yield, specific volume, hardness, cohesiveness, and gum; stability in storage time by microbiological analysis; and moisture variation of the samples were calculated. The results showed that the preference and sensory acceptability is significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the control sample; the sweeteners decreased the sensory response, but not the satiation and satiety, although these are not related to the sensory response and did not present significant differences with the control sample, except in the satiation parameter of the sample sweetened with Stevia. The physical and texture parameters highlight the best quality of the control sample and are related to the sensory response. The shelf life is also greater in the control sample, which shows that sugar contributes sweetness and other technological characteristics related to texture, stability during storage, aroma, color, and flavor, thanks to the Maillard reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Flavor Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicological Studies of Czech Beers and Their Constituents
Foods 2019, 8(8), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080328 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Background: Czech beers are unique because they are brewed using specific technology at a particular latitude and for being entirely produced in the area of the Czech Republic. The purpose of this work is the evaluation of toxicological effects of a variety of [...] Read more.
Background: Czech beers are unique because they are brewed using specific technology at a particular latitude and for being entirely produced in the area of the Czech Republic. The purpose of this work is the evaluation of toxicological effects of a variety of freeze-dried Czech beers, their raw materials (malts, hops and yeast) and processed-beer (wort, hopped wort and young beer). Methods: In vivo assays to evaluate the safety and protective effects in the Drosophila melanogaster eukaryotic system, and the in vitro evaluations of chemopreventive and DNA damage activity using the HL-60 tumour human cell line were carried out. Results: The safe effects for all the analysed substances and general protective effects against H2O2 were shown both at the individual and genomic level in the Drosophila animal model, with some exceptions. Moreover, all the substances were able to inhibit the tumour cell growth and to induce DNA damage in the HL-60 cells at different levels (proapoptotic, single/double strands breaks and methylation status). Conclusions: The promising effects shown by freeze-dried Czech beers due to their safety, protection against a toxin, chemopreventive potential and the induction of DNA damage in tumour cells, allow the proposition of Czech beer as a beverage with nutraceutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contribution of a Whey Protein Film Incorporated with Green Tea Extract to Minimize the Lipid Oxidation of Salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Foods 2019, 8(8), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080327 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Active packaging is becoming progressively more significant as a response to the dynamic changes in current consumer demand and market tendencies. Active packaging is projected to interact directly with the packaged food or with the headspace within the package with the aim of [...] Read more.
Active packaging is becoming progressively more significant as a response to the dynamic changes in current consumer demand and market tendencies. Active packaging is projected to interact directly with the packaged food or with the headspace within the package with the aim of maintaining or extending product quality and shelf-life. Aiming for sustainability, the potential application as biodegradable films of whey protein concentrate (WPC) was evaluated. Aromatic plant’s extracts present high antioxidant properties, representing an alternative for synthetic food additives. The main objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of an edible WPC film incorporated with a plant-based extract on retarding the lipid oxidation of fresh salmon. Green tea extract (GTE) was chosen to be incorporated into the active film. Fresh salmon was packaged with the control film (WPC) and with active film (WPC–GTE). The oxidation level of non-packaged samples and packaged samples were tested for different storage times. Four methods were applied to evaluate lipid oxidation state of fresh salmon: peroxide value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, and monitoring of hexanal. The results obtained in this study indicate that the whey protein active film was successfully produced, and it was effective in delaying lipid oxidation of fresh salmon samples until the 14th day of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Edible Films and Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Fruit Extract Alleviates Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Hypertrophied 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages
Foods 2019, 8(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080326 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertrophied adipose tissue with excessive fat accumulation play a crucial role in the development of obesity and accompanying metabolic dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the capacity of elderberry fruit (EDB) extract to decrease the elevated production of reactive oxygen [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertrophied adipose tissue with excessive fat accumulation play a crucial role in the development of obesity and accompanying metabolic dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the capacity of elderberry fruit (EDB) extract to decrease the elevated production of reactive oxygen species in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment with the EDB extract resulted in modulation of mRNA expression and protein secretion of key adipokines in hypertrophied adipocytes. Expression of leptin and adiponectin was, respectively, down- and up-regulated. Moreover, glucose uptake stimulation was noticed in mature adipocytes, both sensitive to insulin and insulin resistant. This may suggest a positive effect of EDB extract on insulin resistance status. The extract was also found to alleviate the inflammatory response in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS) and suppressing the enhanced production of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, NO). In vitro experiments showed that the EDB extract could inhibit digestive enzymes, including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase, leading to reduced intestinal absorption of dietary lipids and carbohydrates. Further in vivo studies could be postulated to support EDB as a functional food component for the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic-immune comorbidities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Packaging Methods on Protein Oxidation and Degradation of Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) During Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2019, 8(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080325 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 636
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of different packaging methods—namely, air packaging (AP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)—on the protein oxidation and degradation of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fillets during refrigerated storage. The carbonyl group, myofibril fragmentation index, free amino [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of different packaging methods—namely, air packaging (AP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)—on the protein oxidation and degradation of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fillets during refrigerated storage. The carbonyl group, myofibril fragmentation index, free amino acids, FTIR of myofibrillar proteins, and total protein SDS-PAGE were determined. The results showed that the protein oxidation degree of the fillets gradually increased as the storage time increased. The FTIR results indicated that the secondary structure transformed from an α-helix to an irregular curl. SDS-PAGE confirmed the degradation of the myosin heavy chain, and that myosin gradually occurred during refrigerated storage. Meanwhile, protein oxidation and degradation were highly correlated. Protein degradation was accelerated by protein oxidation in myofibrils, which included the increase of protein surface hydrophobicity and changes of the secondary structure. In fact, the protein oxidation and degradation of the grouper fillets were effectively inhibited by MAP and VP during refrigerated storage, and MAP (30% N2 and 70% CO2) had the best results. Full article
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