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The “Grass-Fed” Milk Story: Understanding the Impact of Pasture Feeding on the Composition and Quality of Bovine Milk

1
Department of Food Chemistry & Technology, Teagasc Food Research Center, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland
2
Teagasc, Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland
3
Department of Food Quality & Sensory Science, Teagasc Food Research Center, Moorepark, Fermoy, P61 C996 Cork, Ireland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(8), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080350
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
Milk is a highly nutritious food that contains an array of macro and micro components, scientifically proven to be beneficial to human health. While the composition of milk is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics, health, lactation stage etc., the animal’s diet remains a key mechanism by which its nutrition and processing characteristics can be altered. Pasture feeding has been demonstrated to have a positive impact on the nutrient profile of milk, increasing the content of some beneficial nutrients such as Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), while reducing the levels of Omega-6 fatty acids and palmitic acid. These resultant alterations to the nutritional profile of “Grass-Fed” milk resonate with consumers that desire healthy, “natural”, and sustainable dairy products. This review provides a comprehensive comparison of the impact that pasture and non-pasture feeding systems have on bovine milk composition from a nutritional and functional (processability) perspective, highlighting factors that will be of interest to dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy farming; pasture; milk; TMR; nutrition; grass-fed dairy farming; pasture; milk; TMR; nutrition; grass-fed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alothman, M.; Hogan, S.A.; Hennessy, D.; Dillon, P.; Kilcawley, K.N.; O’Donovan, M.; Tobin, J.; Fenelon, M.A.; O’Callaghan, T.F. The “Grass-Fed” Milk Story: Understanding the Impact of Pasture Feeding on the Composition and Quality of Bovine Milk. Foods 2019, 8, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080350

AMA Style

Alothman M, Hogan SA, Hennessy D, Dillon P, Kilcawley KN, O’Donovan M, Tobin J, Fenelon MA, O’Callaghan TF. The “Grass-Fed” Milk Story: Understanding the Impact of Pasture Feeding on the Composition and Quality of Bovine Milk. Foods. 2019; 8(8):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alothman, Mohammad, Sean A. Hogan, Deirdre Hennessy, Pat Dillon, Kieran N. Kilcawley, Michael O’Donovan, John Tobin, Mark A. Fenelon, and Tom F. O’Callaghan 2019. "The “Grass-Fed” Milk Story: Understanding the Impact of Pasture Feeding on the Composition and Quality of Bovine Milk" Foods 8, no. 8: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080350

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