Special Issue "Advances in Food and By-Products Processing Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nikolaos Kopsahelis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science & Technology, Ionian University, Argostoli, 28100, Kefalonia, Greece
Interests: industrial fermentations, food and by-products chemistry and analysis, valorization of renewable resources, biorefineries, food biotechnology
Dr. Vasiliki Kachrimanidou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading, PO Box 226, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6 AP, UK
Interests: bioprocess; waste and by-products valorisation; biorefineries; probiotics; technoeconomic assesment; food packaging; microbial fermentations; biotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The bioeconomy initially focused on resource substitution, including the production of biomass from various resources; its conversion, fractionation, and processing by means of biotechnology; and chemistry and process engineering towards the production and marketing of food, feed, fuel, and fibre. Nevertheless, although resource substitution is still considered important, the emphasis has been recently shifted to the biotechnological innovation perspective of the bioeconomy, in terms that ensure environmental sustainability.

It is estimated that around one-third of the food produced for human consumption is wasted throughout the world, posing not only a sustainability problem related to food security but also a significant environmental problem. Food waste streams, mainly derived from fruits and vegetables, cereals, oilseeds, meat, dairy, and fish processing, have unavoidably attracted the interest of the scientific community as an abundant reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and functional compounds, which can be utilized as raw materials for added-value product formulations.

This Special Issue focuses on innovative and emerging food and by-products processing methods for the sustainable transition to a bioeconomy era. Contributions addressing valorisation, the bioprocessing and biorefining of food industry-based streams, the isolation of high-added-value compounds, applications of resulting bio-based chemicals to food products, novel food formulations, economic policies for food waste management, and sustainability or technoeconomic analyses of the proposed processing methods are welcome in this Special Issue. We sincerely invite you to submit high-quality original research, review articles, and opinions that are related but not limited to the aforementioned topics.

Dr. Nikolaos Kopsahelis
Dr. Vasiliki Kachrimanidou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bio-economy
  • Biorefineries
  • Circular economy
  • Bioprocesses
  • Food waste and by-products valorization
  • Food sustainability
  • Food processing
  • Food biotechnology
  • Biocatalysis
  • Bio-based products

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Food and Byproducts Processing towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy
Foods 2019, 8(9), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090425 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
The bioeconomy concept was initially focused on resource substitution, aiming to mitigate the depletion of fossil resources and confer an alternative approach for resource utilization [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle
Development of a Circular Oriented Bioprocess for Microbial Oil Production Using Diversified Mixed Confectionery Side-Streams
Foods 2019, 8(8), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080300 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diversified mixed confectionery waste streams were utilized in a two-stage bioprocess to formulate a nutrient-rich fermentation media for microbial oil production. Solid-state fermentation was conducted for the production of crude enzyme consortia to be subsequently applied in hydrolytic reactions to break down starch, [...] Read more.
Diversified mixed confectionery waste streams were utilized in a two-stage bioprocess to formulate a nutrient-rich fermentation media for microbial oil production. Solid-state fermentation was conducted for the production of crude enzyme consortia to be subsequently applied in hydrolytic reactions to break down starch, disaccharides, and proteins into monosaccharides, amino acids, and peptides. Crude hydrolysates were evaluated in bioconversion processes using the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 4444 both in batch and fed-batch mode. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, during fed-batch cultures, the concentration of microbial lipids reached 16.6–17 g·L−1 with the intracellular content being more than 40% (w/w) in both hydrolysates applied. R. toruloides was able to metabolize mixed carbon sources without catabolite repression. The fatty acid profile of the produced lipids was altered based on the substrate employed in the bioconversion process. Microbial lipids were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid being the major fatty acid (61.7%, w/w). This study showed that mixed food side-streams could be valorized for the production of microbial oil with high unsaturation degree, pointing towards the potential to produce tailor-made lipids for specific food applications. Likewise, the proposed process conforms unequivocally to the principles of the circular economy, as the entire quantity of confectionery by-products are implemented to generate added-value compounds that will find applications in the same original industry, thus closing the loop. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Development of a Sorghum Bran-Based Biorefining Process to Convert Sorghum Bran into Value Added Products
Foods 2019, 8(8), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080279 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sorghum bran, a starch rich food processing waste, was investigated for the production of glucoamylase in submerged fungal fermentation using Aspergillus awamori. The fermentation parameters, such as cultivation time, substrate concentration, pH, temperature, nitrogen source, mineral source and the medium loading ratio [...] Read more.
Sorghum bran, a starch rich food processing waste, was investigated for the production of glucoamylase in submerged fungal fermentation using Aspergillus awamori. The fermentation parameters, such as cultivation time, substrate concentration, pH, temperature, nitrogen source, mineral source and the medium loading ratio were investigated. The glucoamylase activity was improved from 1.90 U/mL in an initial test, to 19.3 U/mL at 10% (w/v) substrate concentration, pH 6.0, medium loading ratio of 200 mL in 500 mL shaking flask, with the addition of 2.5 g/L yeast extract and essential minerals. Fermentation using 2 L bioreactors under the optimum conditions resulted in a glucoamylase activity of 23.5 U/mL at 72 h, while further increase in sorghum bran concentration to 12.5% (w/v) gave an improved gluco-amylase activity of 37.6 U/mL at 115 h. The crude glucoamylase solution was used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the sorghum bran. A sorghum bran hydrolysis carried out at 200 rpm, 55 °C for 48 h at a substrate loading ratio of 80 g/L resulted in 11.7 g/L glucose, similar to the results obtained using commercial glucoamylase. Large-scale sorghum bran hydrolysis in 2 L bioreactors using crude glucoamylase solution resulted in a glucose concentration of 38.7 g/L from 200 g/L sorghum bran, corresponding to 94.1% of the theoretical hydrolysis yield. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Emulsifiers from Partially Composted Olive Waste
Foods 2019, 8(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070271 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Partial (one month) composting of solid olive processing waste is shown to produce extractable emulsifiers. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) show that these consist of polysaccharides and proteins from the composted waste. Aqueous extraction at pH 5, pH 7, [...] Read more.
Partial (one month) composting of solid olive processing waste is shown to produce extractable emulsifiers. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) show that these consist of polysaccharides and proteins from the composted waste. Aqueous extraction at pH 5, pH 7, and pH 9 all yield extracts rich in oligosacchrides and oligopeptides which derive from the break-down of the macromolecules under composting, with the extract obtained at pH 5 being the richer in such components. Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy also confirms that these materials consist of proteinic and poly/oligosaccharidic populations. These materials can emulsify stable oil–in–water emulsions at pH 3 for a few days, while the same emulsions collapse in less than 24 h at pH 7. Confocal microscopy and droplet size distribution data suggest that Ostwald ripening, rather than coalescence, is the major course of emulsion instability. The above point to a short-process alternative to full composting in producing a high added value product from solid olive processing waste. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Biomass and Chitin Production of Morchella Mushrooms Grown on Starch-Based Substrates
Foods 2019, 8(7), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070239 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Morchella sp. is one of the most expensive mushrooms with a high nutritional profile. In this study, the polysaccharide content of Morchella species was investigated. Specifically, mycelium growth rate, biomass production, sclerotia formation, and glucosamine and total polysaccharides content of six Morchella species [...] Read more.
Morchella sp. is one of the most expensive mushrooms with a high nutritional profile. In this study, the polysaccharide content of Morchella species was investigated. Specifically, mycelium growth rate, biomass production, sclerotia formation, and glucosamine and total polysaccharides content of six Morchella species grown on a starch-based media were evaluated. Submerged fermentations in potato dextrose broth resulted in a glucosamine content of around 3.0%. In solid-state fermentations (SSF), using potato dextrose agar, a high linear growth rate (20.6 mm/day) was determined. Increased glucosamine and total polysaccharides content were observed after the formation of sclerotia. Biomass and glucosamine content were correlated, and the equations were used for the indirect estimation of biomass in SSF with agro-industrial starch-based materials. Wheat grains (WG), potato peels (PP), and a mixture of 1:1 of them (WG–PP) were evaluated as substrates. Results showed that the highest growth rate of 9.05 mm/day was determined on WG and the maximum biomass yield (407 mg/g) on WG–PP. The total polysaccharide content reached up to 18.4% of dried biomass in WG–PP. The results of the present study proved encouraging for the efficient bioconversion of potato and other starch-based agro-industrial waste streams to morel biomass and sclerotia eliciting nutritional and bioactive value. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Clarified Butter Sediment Waste as a Feedstock for Cost-Effective Production of Biodiesel
Foods 2019, 8(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070234 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The rising demand and cost of fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline), together with the need for sustainable, alternative, and renewable energy sources have increased the interest for biomass-based fuels such as biodiesel. Among renewable sources of biofuels, biodiesel is particularly attractive as it [...] Read more.
The rising demand and cost of fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline), together with the need for sustainable, alternative, and renewable energy sources have increased the interest for biomass-based fuels such as biodiesel. Among renewable sources of biofuels, biodiesel is particularly attractive as it can be used in conventional diesel engines without any modification. Oleaginous yeasts are excellent oil producers that can grow easily on various types of hydrophilic and hydrophobic waste streams that are used as feedstock for single cell oils and subsequently biodiesel production. In this study, cultivation of Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae on a hydrophobic waste (clarified butter sediment waste medium (CBM)) resulted in considerably high lipid accumulation (70.74% w/w). Maximum cell dry weight and total lipid production were 15.52 g/L and 10.98 g/L, respectively, following cultivation in CBM for 144 h. Neutral lipids were found to accumulate in the lipid bodies of cells, as visualized by BODIPY staining and fluorescence microscopy. Cells grown in CBM showed large and dispersed lipid droplets in the intracellular compartment. The fatty acid profile of biodiesel obtained after transesterification was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS), while its quality was determined to comply with ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 international standards. Hence, clarified sediment waste can be exploited as a cost-effective renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
How Do Arabinoxylan Films Interact with Water and Soil?
Foods 2019, 8(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060213 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biodegradable materials made from cereal arabinoxylan could provide an alternative source of packaging to replace current nonbiodegradable plastics. The main purpose of this research was to determine how arabinoxylan (AX) films made from wheat bran (WB) AX, maize bran (MB) AX, and dried [...] Read more.
Biodegradable materials made from cereal arabinoxylan could provide an alternative source of packaging to replace current nonbiodegradable plastics. The main purpose of this research was to determine how arabinoxylan (AX) films made from wheat bran (WB) AX, maize bran (MB) AX, and dried distillers grain (DDG) AX made with either glycerol or sorbitol at varying levels (10, 25 or 50%) interacts with soil and water. The biodegradability of all films ranged from 49.4% biodegradable (DDG AX with 10% sorbitol) to 67.7% biodegradable (MB AX with 50% glycerol). In addition, the MB AX films with 25% sorbitol had the lowest moisture content at 9.7%, the MB AX films with 10% glycerol had the highest water solubility at 95.6%, and the MB AX films with 50% glycerol had the highest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) at 90.8 g h−1 m−2. Despite these extreme trends in the MB AX films, the WB AX films were the least hydrophilic on average while the DDG AX films were the most hydrophilic on average. The 18 materials developed in this research demonstrate varying affinities for water and biodegradation. These materials can be used for many different packaging materials, based on their unique characteristics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Drying Methods and Ash Contents on Heat-Induced Gelation of Porcine Plasma Protein Powder
Foods 2019, 8(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040140 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of proteins with high nutritional and functional properties, which can be used as a food ingredient. The plasma is usually processed into powders in applications. In the present study, the effects of drying methods and ash [...] Read more.
Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of proteins with high nutritional and functional properties, which can be used as a food ingredient. The plasma is usually processed into powders in applications. In the present study, the effects of drying methods and ash contents on heat-induced gelation of plasma protein powder were investigated. The drying methods had a significant impact on the gel properties of the plasma powder heat-induced gels. The hardness and elasticity of the gels by freeze-dried and spray-dried plasma powders were lower than that of the liquid plasma (p < 0.05). The microstructures of dehydrated plasma were denser and the holes were smaller. The secondary structure of the gels from the spray-dried plasma protein powders exhibited more α-helixes and less β-turns than that from the freeze-dried powder and liquid plasma. The thermostability of dehydrated plasma powder was found to have decreased compared to the liquid plasma. Compared with the gels obtained from the high ash content plasma protein powders, the gel from the 6% ash content plasma powder had the highest water-holding capacity and had the lowest hardness and elasticity. However, the secondary structure and microstructures of the heat-induced gels were not affected by the ash contents in the plasma powders. These findings show that the gel properties of plasma protein powder can be finely affected by drying methods and ash contents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessPerspective
Cheese Whey Processing: Integrated Biorefinery Concepts and Emerging Food Applications
Foods 2019, 8(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080347 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins [...] Read more.
Cheese whey constitutes one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, due to its high organic load. Thus, in order to mitigate the environmental concerns, a large number of valorization approaches have been reported; mainly targeting the recovery of whey proteins and whey lactose from cheese whey for further exploitation as renewable resources. Most studies are predominantly focused on the separate implementation, either of whey protein or lactose, to configure processes that will formulate value-added products. Likewise, approaches for cheese whey valorization, so far, do not exploit the full potential of cheese whey, particularly with respect to food applications. Nonetheless, within the concept of integrated biorefinery design and the transition to circular economy, it is imperative to develop consolidated bioprocesses that will foster a holistic exploitation of cheese whey. Therefore, the aim of this article is to elaborate on the recent advances regarding the conversion of whey to high value-added products, focusing on food applications. Moreover, novel integrated biorefining concepts are proposed, to inaugurate the complete exploitation of cheese whey to formulate novel products with diversified end applications. Within the context of circular economy, it is envisaged that high value-added products will be reintroduced in the food supply chain, thereby enhancing sustainability and creating “zero waste” processes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop