Special Issue "Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ekaterini Moschopoulou
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Dairy Research, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: dairy science and technology; milk clotting enzymes; cheese microbiology; whey processing; membrane technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The conversion of milk to different dairy products has been a process technology for hundreds of years. Most dairy products are produced at commercial scale using traditional methods, and so many efforts are made to introduce novel technologies in their manufacture for improving their quality in general. More specifically, modern processing approaches are used with the aim of developing new dairy products, to extend their shelf life, to change their textural properties, to ensure their safety, to improve their organoleptic properties or to increase their nutritional and health value.

High hydrostatic pressure treatment, high-pressure homogenization, cold plasma processing, ultrasound processing, pulse electric field treatment, ohmic heating, irradiation, and enzymatic cross-linking are some of the novel processes which can be used in dairy technology. Consequently, articles dealing with their application in the production of fluid milk, yoghurt, cheese, butter, cream, dairy ice cream, as well as in whey products are welcome in this Special Issue.

Prof. Ekaterini Moschopoulou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • milk processing
  • cheese technology
  • yoghurt technology
  • ice cream technology
  • butter technology
  • non-thermal processing
  • pulse electric fields
  • high pressure
  • high-pressure homogenization
  • cold plasma processing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing High Pressure Processing Parameters to Produce Milkshakes Using Chokeberry Pomace
Foods 2020, 9(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040405 - 01 Apr 2020
Abstract
High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal treatment of great interest because of its importance for producing food with additional or enhanced benefits above their nutritional value. In the present study, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing parameters (200–500 MPa; 1–10 min) is [...] Read more.
High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal treatment of great interest because of its importance for producing food with additional or enhanced benefits above their nutritional value. In the present study, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing parameters (200–500 MPa; 1–10 min) is investigated through response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the treatment conditions, maximizing the phenol content and antioxidant capacity while minimizing microbiological survival, in milkshakes prepared with chokeberry pomace (2.5–10%). The measurement of fluorescence intensity of the samples was used as an indicator of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that the intensity of the treatments had different effects on the milkshakes. The RSM described that the greatest retention of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity with minimum microbiological survival were found at 500 MPa for 10 min and 10% (w/v) chokeberry pomace. Therefore, this study offers the opportunity to develop microbiologically safe novel dairy products of high nutritional quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of High-Pressure Process on Probiotics: Viability Kinetics and Evaluation of the Quality Characteristics of Probiotic Yoghurt
Foods 2020, 9(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030360 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The impact of high-pressure (HP) processing on the viability of two probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei) at varying pressure (100−400 MPa), temperature (20−40 °C) and pH (6.5 vs. 4.8) conditions was investigated. Appropriate mathematical models were developed to describe [...] Read more.
The impact of high-pressure (HP) processing on the viability of two probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei) at varying pressure (100−400 MPa), temperature (20−40 °C) and pH (6.5 vs. 4.8) conditions was investigated. Appropriate mathematical models were developed to describe the kinetics of the probiotics viability loss under the implemented HP conditions, aiming to the development of a predictive tool used in the design of HP-processed yoghurt-like dairy products. The validation of these models was conducted in plain and sweet cherry-flavored probiotic dairy beverage products pressurized at 100−400M Pa at ambient temperature for 10 min. The microbiological, rheological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the HP-treated probiotic dairy beverages were determined in two-week time intervals and for an overall 28 days of storage. Results showed that the application of HP in the range of 200−300 MPa had minimal impact on the probiotic strains viability throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the aforementioned HP processing conditions enhanced the rheological and sensory properties without affecting post-acidification compared to the untreated product analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Microfiltration of Ovine and Bovine Milk: Effect on Microbial Counts and Biochemical Characteristics
Foods 2020, 9(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030284 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
The aim of this research work was to assess the effect of the microfiltration (ceramic membranes 1.4 μm, 50 °C) of partially defatted ovine milk (fat 0.4%) and bovine milk (fat 0.3%) characteristics. Feed milks, permeates and retentates were analyzed for microbial counts, [...] Read more.
The aim of this research work was to assess the effect of the microfiltration (ceramic membranes 1.4 μm, 50 °C) of partially defatted ovine milk (fat 0.4%) and bovine milk (fat 0.3%) characteristics. Feed milks, permeates and retentates were analyzed for microbial counts, gross composition, protein fractions, the indigenous enzymes cathepsin D and alkaline phosphatase and the behavior during renneting. It was showed that the microbial quality of both ovine and bovine permeate was improved by reduction of the total mesophilic microflora about 4 Log and 2 Log, respectively. The protein contents and the total solids contents of both permeates were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. A further analysis of protein fractions by Reversed Phase -High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed lower αs1- and β-casein and higher κ-casein contents in permeates. The activity of alkaline phosphatase followed the allocation of the fat content, while activity of cathepsin D in permeates was not influenced, although somatic cells counts were removed. Regarding cheesemaking properties, the firmness of ovine curd made from the feed milk did not differ significantly from that made from the permeate. The obtained results suggested that microfiltration could be used for pre-treating of ovine milk prior to cheesemaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Hypoallergenic and Low-Protein Ready-to-Feed (RTF) Infant Formula by High Pressure Pasteurization: A Novel Product
Foods 2019, 8(9), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090408 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Infant milk formula (IMF) is designed to mimic the composition of human milk (9–11 g protein/L); however, the standard protein content of IMF (15 g/L) is still a matter of controversy. In contrast to breastfed infants, excessive protein in IMF is associated with [...] Read more.
Infant milk formula (IMF) is designed to mimic the composition of human milk (9–11 g protein/L); however, the standard protein content of IMF (15 g/L) is still a matter of controversy. In contrast to breastfed infants, excessive protein in IMF is associated with overweight and symptoms of metabolic syndrome in formula-fed infants. Moreover, the beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) content in cow milk is 3–4 g/L, whereas it is not present in human milk. It is considered to be a major reason for cow milk allergy in infants. In this respect, to modify protein composition, increasing the ratio of alpha-lactalbumin (α-Lac) to β-Lg would be a pragmatic approach to develop a hypoallergenic IMF with low protein content. Such a formula would ensure the necessary balance of essential amino acids, as 123 and 162 amino acid residues are available in α-Lac and β-Lg, respectively. Hence, in this study, a pasteurized form of hypoallergenic and low-protein ready-to-feed (RTF) formula, a new product, is developed to retain heat-sensitive bioactives and other components. Therefore, the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) under 300–600 MPa at approximately 20–40 °C and HTST pasteurization (72 °C for 15 and 30 s) were investigated and compared. The highest ratio of α-Lac to β-Lg was achieved after HPP (600 MPa for 5 min applied at 40.4 °C), which potentially explains the synergistic effect of HPP and heat on substantial denaturation of β-Lg, with significant retention of α-Lac in reconstituted IMF. Industrial relevance: This investigation showed the potential production of a pasteurized RTF formula, a niche product, with a reduced amount of allergenic β-Lg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Yoghurt-Type Gels from Skim Sheep Milk Base Enriched with Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysates and Processed by Heating or High Hydrostatic Pressure
Foods 2019, 8(8), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080342 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An objective of the present study was the enrichment of skim sheep yoghurt milk base with hydrolysates (WPHs) of whey protein concentrate (WP80) derived from Feta cheesemaking. Moreover, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at 600 MPa/55 °C/10 min as an [...] Read more.
An objective of the present study was the enrichment of skim sheep yoghurt milk base with hydrolysates (WPHs) of whey protein concentrate (WP80) derived from Feta cheesemaking. Moreover, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at 600 MPa/55 °C/10 min as an alternative for heat treatment of milk bases, was studied. In brief, lyophilized trypsin and protamex hydrolysates of WP80 produced under laboratory conditions were added in skim sheep milk. The composition and heat treatment conditions were set after the assessment of the heat stability of various mixtures; trisodium citrate was used as a chelating agent, when needed. According to the results, the conditions of heat treatment were more important for the physical properties of the gel than the type of enrichment. High pressure treatment resulted in inferior gel properties, irrespective of the type of enrichment. Supplementation of skim sheep milk with whey protein hydrolysates at >0.5% had a detrimental effect on gel properties. Finally, skim sheep milk base inoculated with fresh traditional yoghurt, resulted in yoghurt-type gels with high counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Str. thermophilus -close to the ideal 1:1- and with a high ACE inhibitory activity >65% that were not essentially affected by the experimental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
Open AccessCommunication
Characteristics of Instrumental Methods to Describe and Assess the Recrystallization Process in Ice Cream Systems
Foods 2019, 8(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040117 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Methods of testing and describing the recrystallization process in ice cream systems were characterized. The scope of this study included a description of the recrystallization process and a description and comparison of the following methods: microscopy and image analysis, focused beam reflectance measurement [...] Read more.
Methods of testing and describing the recrystallization process in ice cream systems were characterized. The scope of this study included a description of the recrystallization process and a description and comparison of the following methods: microscopy and image analysis, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), oscillation thermo-rheometry (OTR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), splat-cooling assay, and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT). All the methods presented were suitable for characterization of the recrystallization process, although they provide different types of information, and they should be individually matched to the characteristics of the tested product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Production of Milk Phospholipid-Enriched Dairy Ingredients
Foods 2020, 9(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030263 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Milk phospholipids (MPLs) have been used as ingredients for food fortification, such as bakery products, yogurt, and infant formula, because of their technical and nutritional functionalities. Starting from either buttermilk or beta serum as the original source, this review assessed four typical extraction [...] Read more.
Milk phospholipids (MPLs) have been used as ingredients for food fortification, such as bakery products, yogurt, and infant formula, because of their technical and nutritional functionalities. Starting from either buttermilk or beta serum as the original source, this review assessed four typical extraction processes and estimated that the life-cycle carbon footprints (CFs) of MPLs were 87.40, 170.59, 159.07, and 101.05 kg CO2/kg MPLs for membrane separation process, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME), SFE by DME, and organic solvent extraction, respectively. Regardless of the MPL content of the final products, membrane separation remains the most efficient way to concentrate MPLs, yielding an 11.1–20.0% dry matter purity. Both SFE and solvent extraction processes are effective at purifying MPLs to relatively higher purity (76.8–88.0% w/w). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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