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Distribution, Contents, and Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium, Lead, and Nickel in Bananas Produced in Ecuador

Center for Applied Studies in Chemistry, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, CESAQ-PUCE, Ecuador, Av. 12 de Octubre 1076 y Roca, Quito, Pichincha 17012184, Ecuador
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Foods 2019, 8(8), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080330
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
In this study, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) contents were analyzed in sixteen banana composite samples from different commercial establishments from eleven Ecuadorian production provinces using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations (fresh weight) in the samples collected (9.3–47.3 μg·kg−1 for Cd, 16.1–105.6 μg·kg−1 for Ni, and 36.9–538.0 μg·kg−1 for Pb) were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and target carcinogenic risk (CR) associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic metals. Cd and Ni results showed that every sample had EDIs lower than the oral reference dose and THQ values lower than 1, demonstrating that there was no non-carcinogenic risk related to the exposure to Cd and Ni. In the case of Pb, two EDIs results were higher than the reference dose, also their corresponding THQ values were higher than 1. The lead CR in all samples was less than 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. Thus, there is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with bananas with contamination levels of Cd, Ni, but there is Pb risk for toddlers (12 kg of body weight) intake comparable to the one detected in the present study. View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometry; exportation product; food contamination; graphite furnace; health risk; heavy metals; Musa sp. atomic absorption spectrophotometry; exportation product; food contamination; graphite furnace; health risk; heavy metals; Musa sp.
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Romero-Estévez, D.; Yánez-Jácome, G.S.; Simbaña-Farinango, K.; Navarrete, H. Distribution, Contents, and Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium, Lead, and Nickel in Bananas Produced in Ecuador. Foods 2019, 8, 330.

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