Special Issue "Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Raúl González-Domínguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, Pharmacy Faculty, University of Barcelona, Av Joan XXIII, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: metabolomics, mass spectrometry, food authentication, nutrition, polyphenols, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multiple factors can directly influence the chemical composition of foods, and consequently their organoleptic, nutritional, and bioactive properties, including their geographical origin; their variety or breed; as well as their conditions of cultivation, breeding, and/or feeding, among others. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of accurate, robust, and high-throughput analytical methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of foods. For these purposes, a large number of sensorial, physical, and chemical approaches can be used, which must be normally combined with advanced statistical tools.
The aim of this Special Issue is to gather original research papers and review articles focused on the development and application of analytical techniques and emerging approaches in food authentication. Works dealing with the characterization of food components potentially linked to its traceability and their role in human health are also welcome.

Dr. Raúl González-Domínguez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food authentication
  • Food traceability
  • Protected designation of origin
  • High-throughput methods
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Food composition

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Robust DNA Isolation Protocol from Filtered Commercial Olive Oil for PCR-Based Fingerprinting
Foods 2019, 8(10), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100462 - 09 Oct 2019
Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has elevated commercial value due to its health appeal, desirable characteristics and quantitatively limited production, and thus it has become an object of intentional adulteration. As EVOOs on the market might consist of a blend of olive varieties [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has elevated commercial value due to its health appeal, desirable characteristics and quantitatively limited production, and thus it has become an object of intentional adulteration. As EVOOs on the market might consist of a blend of olive varieties or sometimes even of a mixture of oils from different botanical species, an array of DNA-fingerprinting methods have been developed to check the varietal composition of the blend. Starting from a comparison between publicly available DNA extraction protocols, we set up a timely, low-cost, reproducible and effective DNA isolation protocol, which allows an adequate amount of DNA to be recovered even from commercial filtered EVOOs. Then, in order to verify the effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol herein proposed, we applied PCR-based fingerprinting methods starting from the DNA extracted from three EVOO samples of unknown composition. In particular, genomic regions harboring nine simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and eight genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were amplified for authentication and traceability of the three EVOO samples. The whole investigation strategy herein described might favor producers in terms of higher revenues and consumers in terms of price transparency and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Analyses in Combination with Chemometrics for the Discrimination of Four Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Northern Greece
Foods 2019, 8(10), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100442 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
A total of 56 sweet cherry samples belonging to four cultivars (Ferrovia, Canada Giant, Lapins, and Germersdorfer) grown in northern Greece were characterized and differentiated according to botanical origin. For the above purpose, the following parameters were determined: conventional quality parameters (titratable acidity [...] Read more.
A total of 56 sweet cherry samples belonging to four cultivars (Ferrovia, Canada Giant, Lapins, and Germersdorfer) grown in northern Greece were characterized and differentiated according to botanical origin. For the above purpose, the following parameters were determined: conventional quality parameters (titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolic content (TPC), mechanical properties and sensory evaluation, sugars by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), volatile compounds by GC/MS, and minerals by ICP-OES. Statistical treatment of the data was carried out using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The results showed that the combination of volatile compounds and conventional quality parameters provided a correct classification rate of 84.1%, the combination of minerals and conventional quality parameters 86.4%, and the combination of minerals, conventional quality parameters and sugars provided the highest correct classification rate of 88.6%. When the above four cherry cultivars were combined with previously studied Kordia, Regina, Skeena and Mpakirtzeika cultivars, collected from the same regions during the same seasons, the respective values for the differentiation of all eight cultivars were: 85.5% for the combination of conventional quality parameters, volatiles and minerals; and 91.3% for the combination of conventional quality parameters, volatiles, minerals, and sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Differentiation of Spanish Vinegars from Jerez and Condado de Huelva Protected Designations of Origin
Foods 2019, 8(8), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080341 - 12 Aug 2019
Abstract
Thirty one Jerez vinegar samples and 33 Huelva vinegar samples were analyzed for polyphenolic and volatile compound content in order to characterize them and attempt to differentiate them. Sixteen polyphenolic compounds were quantified by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with diode array [...] Read more.
Thirty one Jerez vinegar samples and 33 Huelva vinegar samples were analyzed for polyphenolic and volatile compound content in order to characterize them and attempt to differentiate them. Sixteen polyphenolic compounds were quantified by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection (UPLC–DAD), and 37 volatile compounds were studied by means of stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SBSE–GC–MS). Spectrophotometric CIELab parameters were also measured for all the samples. The results obtained from the statistical multivariate treatment of the data evidenced a clear difference between vinegars from the two geographical indications with regard to their polyphenolic content, with Jerez vinegars exhibiting a greater phenolic content. Differentiation by the volatile compound content was, however, not so evident. Nevertheless, a considerable differentiation between the two groups of vinegars based on their volatile fraction was achieved. This may bring to light the grape varieties and geographical factors that have a clear influence on such differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Hen Eggs by HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Chemometric Methods
Foods 2019, 8(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080310 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hen eggs are classified into four groups according to their production method: Organic, free-range, barn, or caged. It is known that a fraudulent practice is the misrepresentation of a high-quality egg with a lower one. In this work, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet [...] Read more.
Hen eggs are classified into four groups according to their production method: Organic, free-range, barn, or caged. It is known that a fraudulent practice is the misrepresentation of a high-quality egg with a lower one. In this work, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprints were proposed as a source of potential chemical descriptors to achieve the classification of hen eggs according to their labelled type. A reversed-phase separation was optimized to obtain discriminant enough chromatographic fingerprints, which were subsequently processed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Particular trends were observed for organic and caged hen eggs by PCA and, as expected, these groupings were improved by PLS-DA. The applicability of the method to distinguish egg manufacturer and size was also studied by PLS-DA, observing variations in the HPLC-UV fingerprints in both cases. Moreover, the classification of higher class eggs, in front of any other with one lower, and hence cheaper, was studied by building paired PLS-DA models, reaching a classification rate of at least 82.6% (100% for organic vs. non-organic hen eggs) and demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration by a Rapid Luminescent Method
Foods 2019, 8(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080287 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
The adulteration of virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil is a common fraud in the food industry, which makes mandatory the development of accurate methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of virgin olive oil. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of [...] Read more.
The adulteration of virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil is a common fraud in the food industry, which makes mandatory the development of accurate methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of virgin olive oil. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of a rapid luminescent method to characterize edible oils and to detect adulterations among them. A regression model based on five luminescent frequencies related to minor oil components was designed and validated, providing excellent performance for the detection of virgin olive oil adulteration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Supply Chain Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Sharing Information to Detect and Prevent Food Integrity Issues
Foods 2019, 8(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060225 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
One of the biggest challenges facing the food industry is assuring food integrity. Dealing with complex food integrity issues requires a multi-dimensional approach. Preventive actions and early reactive responses are key for the food supply chain. Information sharing could facilitate the detection and [...] Read more.
One of the biggest challenges facing the food industry is assuring food integrity. Dealing with complex food integrity issues requires a multi-dimensional approach. Preventive actions and early reactive responses are key for the food supply chain. Information sharing could facilitate the detection and prevention of food integrity issues. This study investigates attitudes towards a food integrity information sharing system (FI-ISS) among stakeholders in the European food supply chain. Insights into stakeholders’ interest in participating and their conditions for joining an FI-ISS are assessed. The stakeholder consultation consisted of three rounds. During the first round, a total of 143 food industry stakeholders—covering all major food sectors susceptible to food integrity issues—participated in an online quantitative survey between November 2017 and February 2018. The second round, an online qualitative feedback survey in which the findings were presented, received feedback from 61 stakeholders from the food industry, food safety authorities and the science community. Finally, 37 stakeholders discussed the results in further detail during an interactive workshop in May 2018. Three distinct groups of industry stakeholders were identified based on reported frequency of occurrence and likelihood of detecting food integrity issues. Food industry stakeholders strongly support the concept of an FI-ISS, with an attitude score of 4.49 (standard deviation (S.D.) = 0.57) on a 5-point scale, and their willingness to participate is accordingly high (81%). Consensus exists regarding the advantages an FI-ISS can yield towards detection and prevention. A stakeholder’s perception of the advantages was identified as a predictor of their intention to join an FI-ISS, while their perception of the disadvantages and the perceived risk of food integrity issues were not. Medium-sized companies perceive the current detection of food integrity issues as less likely compared to smaller and large companies. Interestingly, medium-sized companies also have lower intentions to join an FI-ISS. Four key success factors for an FI-ISS are defined, more specifically with regards to (1) the actors to be involved in a system, (2) the information to be shared, (3) the third party to manage the FI-ISS and (4) the role of food safety authorities. Reactions diverged concerning the required level of transparency, the type of data that stakeholders might be willing to share in an FI-ISS and the role authorities can have within an FI-ISS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics as an Enhanced Tool for the Detection of Pomegranate Juice Adulteration
Foods 2019, 8(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060212 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pomegranate juice is one of the most popular fruit juices, is well-known as a “superfood”, and plays an important role in healthy diets. Due to its constantly growing demand and high value, pomegranate juice is often targeted for adulteration, especially with cheaper substitutes [...] Read more.
Pomegranate juice is one of the most popular fruit juices, is well-known as a “superfood”, and plays an important role in healthy diets. Due to its constantly growing demand and high value, pomegranate juice is often targeted for adulteration, especially with cheaper substitutes such as apple and red grape juice. In the present study, the potential of applying a metabolomics approach to trace pomegranate juice adulteration was investigated. A novel methodology based on high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis was developed using targeted and untargeted screening strategies to discover potential biomarkers for the reliable detection of pomegranate juice adulteration from apple and red grape juice. Robust classification and prediction models were built with the use of unsupervised and supervised techniques (principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)), which were able to distinguish pomegranate juice adulteration to a level down to 1%. Characteristic m/z markers were detected, indicating pomegranate juice adulteration, and several marker compounds were identified. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics have the potential to be used as a reliable screening tool for the rapid determination of food adulteration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Prickly Pear Juice Geographical Origin Based on Mineral and Volatile Compound Contents Using LDA
Foods 2019, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040123 - 15 Apr 2019
Abstract
In the present work the mineral content and volatile profile of prickly pear juice prepared from wild cultivars was investigated. Fruits used in the study originated from three areas of the Peloponnese Peninsula. Twenty-five macro- and micro-minerals (K, Na, P, Ca, Mg, Al, [...] Read more.
In the present work the mineral content and volatile profile of prickly pear juice prepared from wild cultivars was investigated. Fruits used in the study originated from three areas of the Peloponnese Peninsula. Twenty-five macro- and micro-minerals (K, Na, P, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Ba, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Ti, Tl, V, Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Furthermore, analysis of the mineral content of soil samples with ICP-OES showed a perfect correlation with those of fruit juices. Volatile compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenoids, and others) were identified using an optimized headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) method. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the investigated parameters with respect to juice geographical origin. Prickly pear juice samples were classified according to geographical origin by 85.7% and 88.9% using 7 minerals and 21 volatile compounds, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title 1: Assessment of virgin olive oil genuity by a rapid luminescent method.

Authors: Ana Sayago, Raúl González-Domínguez, Maria Teresa Morales, Ángeles Fernández-Recamales

Title 2: Differentiation of strawberry varieties cultivated in soilless systems based on their nutritional and nutraceutical composition by data mining techniques.

Authors: Raúl González-Domínguez, Ikram Akhatou, Ana Sayago, Ángeles Fernández-Recamales

Title 3: Botanical and geographical differentiation of Greek orange juice based on volatile compounds, phenolic content and conventional physicο-chemical parameters in combination with chemometrics

Author: Michael Kontominas

Title 4: Characterization and differentiation of Spanish vinegars with Protected Geographical Indication from Jerez and Condado de Huelva

Author: Enrique Durán-Guerrero( University of Cádiz).

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