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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae fam.) are of great interest due to their antioxidant and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Extending the Grazing Period for Bulls, Prior to Finishing on a Concentrate Ration: Composition, Collagen Structure and Organoleptic Characteristics of Beef
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the longissimus thoracis muscle from suckler bulls (n = 56) finished on a concentrate-based system (C) or raised in a pasture-based system (P) incorporating 99 (P99), 162 (P162) or 231 days (P231) of grazing prior to [...] Read more.
The biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the longissimus thoracis muscle from suckler bulls (n = 56) finished on a concentrate-based system (C) or raised in a pasture-based system (P) incorporating 99 (P99), 162 (P162) or 231 days (P231) of grazing prior to indoor finishing on the concentrate-based diet were investigated. Age at slaughter increased with increasing period at pasture. Intramuscular fat concentration was lower (p < 0.001) for P99 than for C, P162 and P231 bulls, which did not differ. Soluble collagen proportion was lower (p < 0.01) for P162 and P231 than for P99 and C bulls. Collagen cross-link content was higher (p < 0.05) for P231 than for P99 and C bulls and for P162 than for C bulls. The proportion of type I muscle fibres was higher (p < 0.01) for P231 and P162 than for P99 and C bulls. Sensory tenderness was higher (p < 0.001) for C and P162 than for P99 and P231 bulls and overall liking was higher (p < 0.01) for C than for P99 and P231 bulls but similar to P162 bulls. Extending the grazing period to 162 days did not negatively influence the sensory qualities of beef compared to the intensive concentrate-based system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Selected Plant Essential Oils on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics in Pseudomonas Orientalis
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to estimate the antibacterial activity of selected essential oils on Pseudomonas orientalis strains isolated from foods. An attempt was also made to identify the mechanisms of the action of the plant oils. Classical methods of assessment of [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to estimate the antibacterial activity of selected essential oils on Pseudomonas orientalis strains isolated from foods. An attempt was also made to identify the mechanisms of the action of the plant oils. Classical methods of assessment of the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity of oils were linked with flow cytometry. It was observed that bergamot, lemongrass, bitter orange, juniper, and black pepper oils have bacteriostatic effect against P. orientalis P49. P. orientalis P110 is sensitive to lime, lemongrass, juniper, rosemary, and black pepper oils. Additionally, plant oils with biostatic effect on P. orientalis limited the intracellular metabolic activity of cells; this was closely linked with the ability of plant oils’ bioactive components to interact with bacteria cell membrane, causing the release of membrane proteins. As a result, the selective permeability of the cell membranes were damaged and the bacterial shape was transformed to coccoid in form. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rice Flour and Bran Enriched with Blueberry Polyphenols Increases Storage Stability and Decreases Arsenic Content in Bran
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
A low-cost method utilizing rice co-products to concentrate and stabilize blueberry polyphenols was developed that decreased the arsenic (As) content in rice bran. After concentration at 10 g/L, brown rice flour displayed a higher total anthocyanin content in both blueberry juice (2.7 mg/g) [...] Read more.
A low-cost method utilizing rice co-products to concentrate and stabilize blueberry polyphenols was developed that decreased the arsenic (As) content in rice bran. After concentration at 10 g/L, brown rice flour displayed a higher total anthocyanin content in both blueberry juice (2.7 mg/g) and pomace extract (2.6 mg/g) when compared to white rice flour. Defatted rice bran enriched with blueberry juice (10 g/L) had the highest concentration of polyphenols (16.0 mg/g), and defatted bran enriched with pomace extract had the highest concentration of anthocyanins (5.32 mg/g). Enriched rice flour and bran contained higher levels of anthocyanins when using pomace extracts. Polyphenols and anthocyanins were found to be highly stable at 37 °C in rice flour and bran samples combined with pomace extract. Polyphenol enrichment also produced lower total and inorganic arsenic (i-As) levels in defatted rice bran. Inorganic arsenic (i-As) concentrations in defatted rice bran enriched with blueberry juice and pomace extracts were reduced by 20.5% and 51.6%, respectively. Overall, rice flour and bran that are enriched with polyphenols and anthocyanins from blueberry pomace extracts are shelf and color stable, had low sugar content, and represent unique health-promoting food ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Understanding Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Profiles of Salmonella Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria Challenged with Disinfectants Commonly Used During Poultry Processing
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella that survive cleaning and disinfection during poultry processing are a public health concern because pathogens that survive disinfectants have greater potential to exhibit resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants after their initial disinfectant challenge. While the mechanisms conferring antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella that survive cleaning and disinfection during poultry processing are a public health concern because pathogens that survive disinfectants have greater potential to exhibit resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants after their initial disinfectant challenge. While the mechanisms conferring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) after exposure to disinfectants is complex, understanding the effects of disinfectants on Salmonella in both their planktonic and biofilm states is becoming increasingly important, as AMR and disinfectant tolerant bacteria are becoming more prevalent in the food chain. This review examines the modes of action of various types of disinfectants commonly used during poultry processing (quaternary ammonium, organic acids, chlorine, alkaline detergents) and the mechanisms that may confer tolerance to disinfectants and cross-protection to antibiotics. The goal of this review article is to characterize the AMR profiles of Salmonella in both their planktonic and biofilm state that have been challenged with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), peracetic acid (PAA), sodium hypochlorite (SHY) and trisodium phosphate (TSP) in order to understand the risk of these disinfectants inducing AMR in surviving bacteria that may enter the food chain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beef Tenderness Prediction by a Combination of Statistical Methods: Chemometrics and Supervised Learning to Manage Integrative Farm-To-Meat Continuum Data
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
This trial aimed to integrate metadata that spread over farm-to-fork continuum of 110 Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)Maine-Anjou cows and combine two statistical approaches that are chemometrics and supervised learning; to identify the potential predictors of beef tenderness analyzed using the instrumental Warner-Bratzler [...] Read more.
This trial aimed to integrate metadata that spread over farm-to-fork continuum of 110 Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)Maine-Anjou cows and combine two statistical approaches that are chemometrics and supervised learning; to identify the potential predictors of beef tenderness analyzed using the instrumental Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF). Accordingly, 60 variables including WBSF and belonging to 4 levels of the continuum that are farm-slaughterhouse-muscle-meat were analyzed by Partial Least Squares (PLS) and three decision tree methods (C&RT: classification and regression tree; QUEST: quick, unbiased, efficient regression tree and CHAID: Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) to select the driving factors of beef tenderness and propose predictive decision tools. The former method retained 24 variables from 59 to explain 75% of WBSF. Among the 24 variables, six were from farm level, four from slaughterhouse level, 11 were from muscle level which are mostly protein biomarkers, and three were from meat level. The decision trees applied on the variables retained by the PLS model, allowed identifying three WBSF classes (Tender (WBSF ≤ 40 N/cm2), Medium (40 N/cm2 < WBSF < 45 N/cm2), and Tough (WBSF ≥ 45 N/cm2)) using CHAID as the best decision tree method. The resultant model yielded an overall predictive accuracy of 69.4% by five splitting variables (total collagen, µ-calpain, fiber area, age of weaning and ultimate pH). Therefore, two decision model rules allow achieving tender meat on PDO Maine-Anjou cows: (i) IF (total collagen < 3.6 μg OH-proline/mg) AND (µ-calpain ≥ 169 arbitrary units (AU)) AND (ultimate pH < 5.55) THEN meat was very tender (mean WBSF values = 36.2 N/cm2, n = 12); or (ii) IF (total collagen < 3.6 μg OH-proline/mg) AND (µ-calpain < 169 AU) AND (age of weaning < 7.75 months) AND (fiber area < 3100 µm2) THEN meat was tender (mean WBSF values = 39.4 N/cm2, n = 30). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dispersive Solid–Liquid Extraction Coupled with LC-MS/MS for the Determination of Sulfonylurea Herbicides in Strawberries
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The monitoring of food quality and safety requires a suitable analytical method with simultaneous detection in order to control pesticide and herbicide residues. In this study, a novel analytical method, referred to as “dispersive solid–liquid extraction”, was applied to monitor seven sulfonylurea herbicides [...] Read more.
The monitoring of food quality and safety requires a suitable analytical method with simultaneous detection in order to control pesticide and herbicide residues. In this study, a novel analytical method, referred to as “dispersive solid–liquid extraction”, was applied to monitor seven sulfonylurea herbicides in strawberries. This method was optimized in terms of the amount of C18 and the volume of added water, and it was validated through satisfactory linearities (R2 > 0.99), recoveries of 70% to 84% with acceptable precisions, and limits of quantification lower than the maximum residue limits for the seven sulfonylurea herbicides in strawberries. The cleanup efficiency of the dispersive solid–liquid extraction technique was compared to that of the QuEChERS- (“quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe”) based method with dispersive solid phase extraction. The recoveries of the former were found to be comparable to those involving QuEChERS C18 cleanup (recoveries of 74%–87%). The method was used to determine sulfonylurea herbicide residues in ten strawberry samples. None of the samples had herbicide residues higher than that of limit of quantifications (LOQs) or maximum residue limits (MRLs). The results suggest that the dispersive solid–liquid extraction method combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is effective for the analysis of sulfonylurea herbicide residues in strawberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Residual Pesticide in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Physicochemical and Structural Properties of Blueberries by High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
The use of high pressure on fruits and vegetables is today widely studied as an alternative to the traditional thermal preservation techniques, with the aim of better preserving nutritional and organoleptic properties. The use of high hydrostatic pressures (400–600 MPa; 1–5 min; room [...] Read more.
The use of high pressure on fruits and vegetables is today widely studied as an alternative to the traditional thermal preservation techniques, with the aim of better preserving nutritional and organoleptic properties. The use of high hydrostatic pressures (400–600 MPa; 1–5 min; room temperature) was tested on the physicochemical and structural properties of blueberries, in comparison to raw and blanched samples. High hydrostatic pressures led to higher tissue damages than blanching, related to the intensity of the treatment. The cellular damages resulted in leakage of intracellular components, such as bioactive molecules and enzymes. As a consequence, among the high pressure treatments, the resulting antioxidant activity was higher for samples treated for longer times (5 min). Pectinmethyl esterase (PME), deactivated by blanching, but strongly barotolerant, was more active in blueberries treated with the more intense high pressure conditions. Blueberry texture was better retained after high pressure than blanching, probably because of the PME effect. Blueberry color shifted towards purple tones after all of the treatments, which was more affected by blanching. Principal component analysis revealed the mild impact of high pressure treatments on the organoleptic properties of blueberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Emulsifiers from Partially Composted Olive Waste
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Partial (one month) composting of solid olive processing waste is shown to produce extractable emulsifiers. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) show that these consist of polysaccharides and proteins from the composted waste. Aqueous extraction at pH 5, pH 7, [...] Read more.
Partial (one month) composting of solid olive processing waste is shown to produce extractable emulsifiers. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) show that these consist of polysaccharides and proteins from the composted waste. Aqueous extraction at pH 5, pH 7, and pH 9 all yield extracts rich in oligosacchrides and oligopeptides which derive from the break-down of the macromolecules under composting, with the extract obtained at pH 5 being the richer in such components. Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy also confirms that these materials consist of proteinic and poly/oligosaccharidic populations. These materials can emulsify stable oil–in–water emulsions at pH 3 for a few days, while the same emulsions collapse in less than 24 h at pH 7. Confocal microscopy and droplet size distribution data suggest that Ostwald ripening, rather than coalescence, is the major course of emulsion instability. The above point to a short-process alternative to full composting in producing a high added value product from solid olive processing waste. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Predicting the Intention of Eating an Insect-Based Product
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify [...] Read more.
This study provides a framework of the factors predicting the intention of eating an insect-based product. As part of the study, a seminar was carried out to explore how the provision of information about ecological, health, and gastronomic aspects of entomophagy would modify consumer beliefs regarding insects as food. Before and after the informative seminar, two questionnaires about sociodemographic attributes and beliefs about the consumption of insects as food were given. Participants were then asked to carry out a sensory evaluation of two identical bread samples, but one was claimed to be supplemented with insect powder. Results showed that perceived behavioral control is the main predictor of the intention, followed by neophobia and personal insect food rejection. The disgust factor significantly decreased after the participants attended the informative seminar. Sensory scores highlighted that participants gave “insect-labelled” samples higher scores for flavor, texture, and overall liking, nevertheless, participants indicated that they were less likely to use the “insect-labelled” bread in the future. Our findings provide a better understanding of insect food rejection behavior and help to predict the willingness to try insect-based products based on some important individual traits and information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Toxicity Characterization of Bacillus cereus in Food Products from Poland
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The prevalence of Bacillus cereus in a total of 585 samples of food products (herbs and spices, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, infant formulas, pasteurized milk, fresh acid and acid/rennet cheeses, mold cheeses and ripening rennet cheeses) marketed in Poland was investigated. The potential [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Bacillus cereus in a total of 585 samples of food products (herbs and spices, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, infant formulas, pasteurized milk, fresh acid and acid/rennet cheeses, mold cheeses and ripening rennet cheeses) marketed in Poland was investigated. The potential of 1022 selected isolates of B. cereus to hydrolyze casein, starch and tributyrin, to ferment lactose, to grow at 7 °C/10 days, to produce Nhe and Hbl toxin and to possess the ces gene was verified. B. cereus was found in 38.8% of the analyzed samples, reaching levels from 0.3 to 3.8 log CFU g−1 or mL−1. From the 1022 isolates, 48.8%, 36.0%, 98.9%, 80.0% and 25.0% were capable of fermenting lactose, producing amylase, protease, lipase and growing at 7 °C/10 days, respectively, indicating spoilage potentiality. The occurrence of toxigenic B. cereus strains in all tested market products, both of plant (55.8% Hbl(+), 70.7% Nhe(+) and 1.7% ces(+) isolates) and animal origin (84.9% Hbl(+), 82.7% Nhe(+) and 0.9% ces(+) isolates) indicates the possible risk of foodborne infections/intoxications that occur as a result of the possibility of the development of B. cereus in favorable conditions and consumption of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Foods)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Agave Fructans as Carrier on the Encapsulation of Blue Corn Anthocyanins by Spray Drying
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Effects of agave fructans as carrier agents on the encapsulation of blue corn anthocyanins using spray-drying were evaluated. Blue corn extract was mixed with 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% (w/v) of agave fructans in duplicate and dried at 150 [...] Read more.
Effects of agave fructans as carrier agents on the encapsulation of blue corn anthocyanins using spray-drying were evaluated. Blue corn extract was mixed with 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% (w/v) of agave fructans in duplicate and dried at 150 °C. The extract showed good contents of anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity. The increase of agave fructans in the encapsulated powders caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the humidity, water activity (aw), pH, bulk density, water solubility index (WSI), and color L* values. On the contrary, the agave fructan addition decreased the hygroscopicity, water absorption index (WAI), antioxidant activity, total anthocyanin, total polyphenol, and individual anthocyanin contents. The encapsulation of blue corn extract with 6% agave fructans (w/v) resulted in good physical, thermal, morphological, and high antioxidant properties. The results suggest that the use of agave fructans as wall material represents advantages in the conservation of anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds from blue corn extract during their encapsulation. The application of blue corn anthocyanin encapsulated powders as a food ingredient is promising for food pigmentation, representing additional advantages for their contribution as a soluble fiber that can benefit the health of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins in Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Structural Basis of Resistant Starch (RS) in Bread: Natural and Commercial Alternatives
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Bread is categorized as having a high amount of rapidly digested starch that may result in a rapid increase in postprandial blood glucose and, therefore, poor health outcomes. This is mostly the result of the complete gelatinization that starch undergoes during baking. The [...] Read more.
Bread is categorized as having a high amount of rapidly digested starch that may result in a rapid increase in postprandial blood glucose and, therefore, poor health outcomes. This is mostly the result of the complete gelatinization that starch undergoes during baking. The inclusion of resistant starch (RS) ingredients in bread formulas is gaining prominence, especially with the current positive health outcomes attributed to RS and the apparition of novel RS ingredients in the market. However, many RS ingredients contain RS structures that do not resist baking and, therefore, are not suitable to result in a meaningful RS increase in the final product. In this review, the structural factors for the resistance to digestion and hydrothermal processing of RS ingredients are reviewed, and the definition of each RS subtype is expanded to account for novel non-digestible structures recently reported. Moreover, the current in vitro digestion methods used to measure RS content are critically discussed with a view of highlighting the importance of having a harmonized method to determine the optimum RS type and inclusion levels for bread-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Preference Heterogeneity Evaluation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Decisions Using the Best–Worst Approach
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were [...] Read more.
This study assesses consumer preferences during fruit and vegetable (FV) sales, considering the sociodemographic variables of individuals together with their choice of point of purchase. A choice experiment was conducted in two metropolitan areas in Northwest Italy. A total of 1170 consumers were interviewed at different FV purchase points (mass retail chains and open-air markets) using a paper questionnaire. The relative importance assigned by consumers to 12 fruit and vegetable product attributes, including both intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues, was assessed by using the best–worst scaling (BWS) methodology. The BWS results showed that “origin”, “seasonality”, and “freshness” were the most preferred attributes that Italian consumers took into account for purchases, while no importance was given to “organic certification”, “variety”, or “brand”. Additionally, a latent class analysis was employed to divide the total sample into five different clusters of consumers, characterized by the same preferences related to FV attributes. Each group of individuals is described on the basis of sociodemographic variables and by the declared fruit and vegetable point of purchase. This research demonstrates that age, average annual income, and families with children are all discriminating factors that influence consumer preference and behavior, in addition to affecting which point of purchase the consumer prefers to acquire FV products from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Dairy Phospholipids Using Switchable Solvents: A Feasibility Study
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
A tertiary amine (N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, CyNMe2) was used as a switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) for extracting phospholipids (PLs) from raw cream (RC), buttermilk (BM), concentrated buttermilk (CBM), and beta-serum (BS). The SHS extractions were performed with varying solvent–sample weight ratio at room temperature. The [...] Read more.
A tertiary amine (N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine, CyNMe2) was used as a switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) for extracting phospholipids (PLs) from raw cream (RC), buttermilk (BM), concentrated buttermilk (CBM), and beta-serum (BS). The SHS extractions were performed with varying solvent–sample weight ratio at room temperature. The extracted PLs using CyNMe2 were recovered by bubbling CO2 at atmospheric pressure, switching the CyNMe2 into its respective salt. For comparison, the PLs were also extracted using Folch (FE) and Mojonnier (ME) extraction. The extraction efficiency of SHS varied from 0.33% to 99%, depending on the type of byproduct. The SHS extracted up to 99% of the PLs directly from BM, while only 11.37% ± 0.57% and 2.66% ± 0.56% of the PLs were extracted with FE and ME, respectively. These results demonstrate the applicability of SHS for the extraction of PLs from dairy byproducts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Suckler Bulls Slaughtered at 15 Months of Age: Effect of Different Production Systems on the Fatty Acid Profile and Selected Quality Characteristics of Longissimus Thoracis
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The objective was to compare the quality of beef from bulls reared in typical Irish indoor systems or in novel grass-based systems. Bulls were assigned to one of the following systems: (a) grass silage plus barley-based concentrate ad libitum (CON); (b) grass silage [...] Read more.
The objective was to compare the quality of beef from bulls reared in typical Irish indoor systems or in novel grass-based systems. Bulls were assigned to one of the following systems: (a) grass silage plus barley-based concentrate ad libitum (CON); (b) grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg of concentrate (SC); (c) grazed grass without supplementation (G0); (d) grazed grass plus 0.5 kg of the dietary dry matter intake as concentrate (GC) for (100 days) until slaughter (14.99 months). Carcass characteristics and pH decline were recorded. Longissimus thoracis was collected for analytical and sensory analysis. Lower carcass weight, conformation and fatness scores were found for grazing compared to CON and SC groups. CON bulls had highest intramuscular fat and lighter meat colour compared with grazing bulls. The SC meat (14 days aged) was rated higher for tenderness, texture, flavour and acceptability compared with grazing groups. CON saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentration was highest, conversely, omega-3 FA concentration was higher for GC compared with CON, while no differences were found in polyunsaturated FA. In conclusion, while market fatness specification was not reached by grazed grass treatments, beef eating quality was not detrimentally affected and nutritional quality was improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Safety and Quality Parameters for Preparation of Jellyfish Based Novel Food Products
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Edible jellyfish are mainly consumed and marketed in Southeastern Countries, generally produced by a multi-phase drying process, using mixtures of salt and alum. Recently, jellyfish have become very attractive also for Western food markets. They are novel food in Europe and no recognized [...] Read more.
Edible jellyfish are mainly consumed and marketed in Southeastern Countries, generally produced by a multi-phase drying process, using mixtures of salt and alum. Recently, jellyfish have become very attractive also for Western food markets. They are novel food in Europe and no recognized handling/processing steps have been set up yet. Moreover, no specific food safety and quality parameters are available. In this study, we identified a set of safety and quality parameters for jellyfish, based on standards and process hygiene criteria used in Europe for other products. These assays were tested on three different jellyfish preparations that can be used as raw materials for subsequent food processing. All jellyfish samples revealed the absence of pathogens (Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes), Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., even if a limited presence of Staphylococci was observed. No biogenic amine histamine was detected and negligible levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were revealed. Total bacterium, yeast and mold counts were negligible or undetectable by conventional accredited methods, and conversely the results were higher when optimized saline conditions were used. This study, for the first time, established a set of quality and safety parameters necessary for first-operations and subsequent processing of jellyfish as novel food. Highlights: Jellyfish can represent a novel food in Europe. Identification of safety and quality parameters for jellyfish food products. Saline conditions are essential for improving safety and quality assessment of jellyfish as food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Bridging the Knowledge Gap for the Impact of Non-Thermal Processing on Proteins and Amino Acids
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Proteins represent one of the major food components that contribute to a wide range of biophysical functions and dictate the nutritional, sensorial, and shelf-life of food products. Different non-thermal processing technologies (e.g., irradiation, ultrasound, cold plasma, pulsed electric field, and high-pressure treatments) can [...] Read more.
Proteins represent one of the major food components that contribute to a wide range of biophysical functions and dictate the nutritional, sensorial, and shelf-life of food products. Different non-thermal processing technologies (e.g., irradiation, ultrasound, cold plasma, pulsed electric field, and high-pressure treatments) can affect the structure of proteins, and thus their solubility as well as their functional properties. The exposure of hydrophobic groups, unfolding followed by aggregation at high non-thermal treatment intensities, and the formation of new bonds have been reported to promote the modification of structural and functional properties of proteins. Several studies reported the reduction of allergenicity of some proteins after the application of non-thermal treatments. The composition and concentration of free amino acids could be changed after non-thermal processing, depending on the processing time and intensity. The present review discusses the effects of different non-thermal treatments on protein properties in detail, and highlights the opportunities and disadvantages of these technologies in relation to protein functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Hurdle Technology for Food Preservation and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Sensory Characteristics of Traditional and Novel Fortified Blended Foods Used in Supplementary Feeding Programs
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Despite the wide use of traditional non-extruded fortified blended foods (FBFs), such as corn soy blend plus (CSB+), in supplementary feeding programs, there is limited evidence of its effectiveness on improving nutritional outcomes and little information on actual sensory properties. Fifteen novel extruded [...] Read more.
Despite the wide use of traditional non-extruded fortified blended foods (FBFs), such as corn soy blend plus (CSB+), in supplementary feeding programs, there is limited evidence of its effectiveness on improving nutritional outcomes and little information on actual sensory properties. Fifteen novel extruded FBFs were developed with variations in processing and ingredients in order to improve the quality of food aid products based on the Food Aid Quality Review (FAQR) recommendations. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed to determine the effects of the processing parameters and ingredients on the sensory properties of traditional and novel FBFs. The extrusion process affected the aroma and flavor of the tested products. Novel FBFs from the extrusion process had more pronounced toasted characteristics, probably because of the high temperature used during extrusion. The ingredient composition of the FBFs also had a significant impact on the sensory properties of the products. The addition of sugar to novel FBFs leads to a significant increase in sweetness, which could improve acceptance. The level of lipids in binary blends appeared to be mainly responsible for the bitterness of the product. In addition, legumes, which were a primary ingredient, contributed to the beany characteristics of the products. The higher amounts of legume used in the formulations led to beany characteristics that could be perceived from the products and could be a negative trait depending on consumers’ prior use of legume-based products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sweet Corn Residue on Micronutrient Fortification in Baked Cakes
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
Owing to the concept of modern life and health, traditional baked foods are seeking transition. In this study, sweet corn residue (SCR) was used to replace wheat flour in cakes. We conducted sensory evaluation and texture analysis to assess sample quality. Also, we [...] Read more.
Owing to the concept of modern life and health, traditional baked foods are seeking transition. In this study, sweet corn residue (SCR) was used to replace wheat flour in cakes. We conducted sensory evaluation and texture analysis to assess sample quality. Also, we simulated digestion in vitro, and determined the content of total sugar and dietary fiber. The content of vitamin E and carotenoids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the content of folate was determined by a microbiological method. With the increase of SCR, the content of dietary fiber, folate, vitamin E, and carotenoids significantly increased, and the digestive characteristics improved simultaneously. Based on the above evaluations, SCRC2 (sweet corn residue cake with 60% substitution) had similar sensory quality to the control (pure wheat flour cake) and had the characteristics of slow digestibility and high micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Hand-Feel Touch Cues and Their Influences on Consumer Perception and Behavior with Respect to Food Products: A Review
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
There has been a great deal of research investigating intrinsic/extrinsic cues and their influences on consumer perception and purchasing decisions at points of sale, product usage, and consumption. Consumers create expectations toward a food product through sensory information extracted from its surface (intrinsic [...] Read more.
There has been a great deal of research investigating intrinsic/extrinsic cues and their influences on consumer perception and purchasing decisions at points of sale, product usage, and consumption. Consumers create expectations toward a food product through sensory information extracted from its surface (intrinsic cues) or packaging (extrinsic cues) at retail stores. Packaging is one of the important extrinsic cues that can modulate consumer perception, liking, and decision making of a product. For example, handling a product packaging during consumption, even just touching the packaging while opening or holding it during consumption, may result in a consumer expectation of the package content. Although hand-feel touch cues are an integral part of the food consumption experience, as can be observed in such an instance, little has been known about their influences on consumer perception, acceptability, and purchase behavior of food products. This review therefore provided a better understanding about hand-feel touch cues and their influences in the context of food and beverage experience with a focus on (1) an overview of touch as a sensory modality, (2) factors influencing hand-feel perception, (3) influences of hand-feel touch cues on the perception of other sensory modalities, and (4) the effects of hand-feel touch cues on emotional responses and purchase behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioprocessed Production of Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Wine: Simultaneous Rice Wine Fermentation, Extraction, and Transformation of Piceid to Resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum Roots
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
A new bioprocess to produce resveratrol-enriched rice wine was established and the effects of adding Polygonum cuspidatum root powder to rice wine fermentation were investigated. In this new process, piceid and resveratrol were extracted from P. cuspidatum roots to rice wine and piceid [...] Read more.
A new bioprocess to produce resveratrol-enriched rice wine was established and the effects of adding Polygonum cuspidatum root powder to rice wine fermentation were investigated. In this new process, piceid and resveratrol were extracted from P. cuspidatum roots to rice wine and piceid was converted to resveratrol by β-glucosidase during fermentation. After 10 days co-fermentation, rice wine with high levels of resveratrol was obtained, which contained ~14% (v/v) ethanol, 122 mg/L piceid, and 86 mg/L resveratrol. The resveratrol-enriched rice wine had enhanced antioxidant activity with significantly stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating capability. Ultrafiltration (UF) was employed in this study using hollow fibers to clarify the end product, increase shelf life without heat treatment, and maintain the quality of the phenolic compounds. The boiled and UF-treated rice wine were evaluated for ethanol, piceid, resveratrol, clarity, aerobic plate count, total acidity, pH, reducing sugars, and amino acids. The quality of the resveratrol-enriched rice wine was maintained after four weeks storage at normal refrigeration temperatures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cooking Methods on Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates Content in Novel Cruciferous Foods
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, the influence of several common domestic cooking practices on the degradation of GLS and ITC in two novel Brassica spp.: broccolini (Brassica oleracea var italica Group x alboglabra Group) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.) was determined. On one hand, results showed that both varieties were rich in health-promoter compounds, broccolini being a good source of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane (≈79 and 2.5 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (F.W.), respectively), and kale rich in glucoiberin and iberin (≈12 and 0.8 mg 100 g−1 F.W., respectively). On the other hand, regarding cooking treatments, stir-frying and steaming were suitable techniques to preserve GLS and ITC (≥50% of the uncooked samples), while boiling was deleterious for the retention of these bioactive compounds (20–40% of the uncooked samples). Accordingly, the appropriate cooking method should be considered an important factor to preserve the health-promoting effects in these trending Brassica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
D-Tagatose as a Sucrose Substitute and Its Effect on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Acceptability of Strawberry-Flavored Yogurt
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Sugar not only provides the desirable sweetness but its reduction can also alter the physico-chemical properties of foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tagatose as a sugar substitute on selected physico-chemical properties and sensory acceptability of strawberry-flavored [...] Read more.
Sugar not only provides the desirable sweetness but its reduction can also alter the physico-chemical properties of foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tagatose as a sugar substitute on selected physico-chemical properties and sensory acceptability of strawberry-flavored yogurts. Six yogurt samples with decreasing concentrations of sucrose (8.50 to 1.70 g/100 g) and increasing concentrations of tagatose (0.00 to 9.24 g/100 g) were evaluated. Physico-chemical tests (pH, lactic acid (%), °Brix, water-holding capacity (WHC), viscosity, and color) were conducted to examine the quality and shelf-life of yogurts during 28 days of storage at 4 °C. An acceptability test (n = 55) was conducted to evaluate the sensory characteristics of yogurts. Sucrose reductions by the replacement of up to 80% tagatose showed marginal effects on the selected physico-chemical properties; however, the loss of red color (a*) and increase in yellowness (b*) of the tagatose-substituted samples were significant. Strawberry yogurts with tagatose replacements had similar acceptability scores for all attributes. Sucrose reduction showed a positive effect on the purchase intent of the strawberry yogurts (an increase of 3–30%). These findings can be used to understand the effects of tagatose/sucrose formulations on the acceptability and physico-chemical properties of yogurts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Anthocyanins, Phenolics and Color of Tart Cherry Jams
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of a set storage period on the phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, color, and texture of three types of jams made from tart cherry. The prepared samples of tart cherry jams were: (1) regular [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of a set storage period on the phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, color, and texture of three types of jams made from tart cherry. The prepared samples of tart cherry jams were: (1) regular jam; (2) extra jam; and (3) light jam. The samples were stored at room temperature for eight months. Results of the investigated parameters after storage were compared with the results after sample preparations, and between the different jam samples. The light jam had the highest phenolic content and anthocyanin content (3.34 g/kg and 985.52 mg/kg). Consequently, the light jam had the highest antioxidant activity determined by ABTS (2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil) method. After storage, the highest retention of the phenolics had regular jam and extra jam (85%), while the lowest retention (74%) were found in the light jam. Anthocyanin stability was the highest in the regular jam, then the extra jam (15%), and then the light jam, with retention of 22%, 15%, and 12%, respectively. Color parameters and textural parameters also depended on jam type, as well as on storage conditions. Since the investigated types of jams differed in content of fruit and water, these are the most important factors that cause the change in the retention of phenolics and anthocyanins, as well as a change in color and textural parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins in Foods)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Wood Chip Extracts Species on Color Changes and Anthocyanin Content in Synthetic Wine Solutions
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
There is restricted knowledge about the potential impact of the use of different wood species on color and anthocyanin changes during the red wine aging process. This lack of knowledge is even greater when no oak wood species are used. Thus, the aim [...] Read more.
There is restricted knowledge about the potential impact of the use of different wood species on color and anthocyanin changes during the red wine aging process. This lack of knowledge is even greater when no oak wood species are used. Thus, the aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the impact of wood chip extracts from oak, acacia, and cherry species on the color characteristics and anthocyanins changes using synthetic wine solutions. In this context, several methodologies were used to quantify, color, and anthocyanins changes during the aging time studied. The results indicated that the contact between wood chip extracts and grape skin isolated anthocyanin extracts induced a decrease of color intensity (particularly red color), and the anthocyanin content in the different experimental synthetic wine solutions studied. All chromatic modifications are potentially detected by human eyes because ΔE values were much higher than 3 CIELab units. These tendencies seem to be independent of the wood species used, but are more pronounced for higher contact time between wood chip extracts and anthocyanins. The obtained results may contribute to a better understanding of the chromatic changes of red wines when aged in contact with different wood chip species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Acceptability, Eye Fixation, and Physiological Responses: A Study of Novel and Familiar Chocolate Packaging Designs Using Eye-Tracking Devices
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Eye fixations on packaging elements are not necessarily correlated to consumer attention or positive emotions towards those elements. This study aimed to assess links between the emotional responses of consumers and the eye fixations on areas of interest (AOI) of different chocolate packaging [...] Read more.
Eye fixations on packaging elements are not necessarily correlated to consumer attention or positive emotions towards those elements. This study aimed to assess links between the emotional responses of consumers and the eye fixations on areas of interest (AOI) of different chocolate packaging designs using eye trackers. Sixty participants were exposed to six novel and six familiar (commercial) chocolate packaging concepts on tablet PC screens. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis were performed on eye tracking, facial expressions, and self-reported responses. The results showed that there were significant positive correlations between liking and familiarity in commercially available concepts (r = 0.88), whereas, with novel concepts, there were no significant correlations. Overall, the total number of fixations on the familiar packaging was positively correlated (r = 0.78) with positive emotions elicited in people using the FaceReader™ (Happy), while they were not correlated with any emotion for the novel packaging. Fixations on a specific AOI were not linked to positive emotions, since, in some cases, they were related to negative emotions elicited in people or not even associated with any emotion. These findings can be used by package designers to better understand the link between the emotional responses of consumers and their eye fixation patterns for specific AOI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessCommunication
Red Meat-Derived Nitroso Compounds, Lipid Peroxidation Products and Colorectal Cancer
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
About 20 years ago, the research group of Sheila Anne Bingham in Cambridge, UK, showed for the first time that volunteers consuming large amounts of red meat excrete high amounts of nitroso compounds via feces. In the meantime, it has been demonstrated that [...] Read more.
About 20 years ago, the research group of Sheila Anne Bingham in Cambridge, UK, showed for the first time that volunteers consuming large amounts of red meat excrete high amounts of nitroso compounds via feces. In the meantime, it has been demonstrated that heme leads to the enhanced formation of nitroso compounds in the gastrointestinal tract and that the main nitroso compounds formed in the gastrointestinal tract are S-nitrosothiols and the nitrosyl heme. Moreover, it has been postulated that these endogenously formed nitroso compounds may alkylate guanine at the O6-position, resulting in the formation of the promutagenic DNA lesions O6-methylguanine and O6-carboxymethylguanine, which, if not repaired (in time), could lead to gene mutations and, subsequently to the development of colorectal cancer. Alternatively, it has been postulated that heme iron could contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing lipid peroxidation. In the present review, the evidence supporting the above-mentioned hypotheses will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat for Diversifying Markets)
Open AccessArticle
Convective Drying of Fresh and Frozen Raspberries and Change of Their Physical and Nutritive Properties
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Raspberries are one of Serbia’s best-known and most widely exported fruits. Due to market fluctuation, producers are looking for ways to preserve this fresh product. Drying is a widely accepted method for preserving berries, as is the case with freeze-drying. Hence, the aim [...] Read more.
Raspberries are one of Serbia’s best-known and most widely exported fruits. Due to market fluctuation, producers are looking for ways to preserve this fresh product. Drying is a widely accepted method for preserving berries, as is the case with freeze-drying. Hence, the aim was to evaluate convective drying as an alternative to freeze-drying due to better accessibility, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness of Polana raspberries and compare it to a freeze-drying. Three factors were in experimental design: air temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C), air velocity (0,5 and 1,5 m · s−1), and state of a product (fresh and frozen). Success of drying was evaluated with several quality criteria: shrinkage (change of volume), color change, shape, content of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity. A considerable influence of convective drying on color changes was not observed, as ΔE was low for all samples. It was obvious that fresh raspberries had less physical changes than frozen ones. On average, convective drying reduced L–ascorbic acid content by 80.00–99.99%, but less than 60% for other biologically active compounds as compared to fresh raspberries. Convective dried Polana raspberry may be considered as a viable replacement for freeze-dried raspberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Bioaccessibility of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds and Minerals of Four Genotypes of Brassicaceae Microgreens
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Microgreens constitute an emerging class of fresh, healthy foods due to their nutritional composition. In this study the content of minerals and antioxidant bioactive compounds, and for the first time bioaccessibility, were evaluated in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), green [...] Read more.
Microgreens constitute an emerging class of fresh, healthy foods due to their nutritional composition. In this study the content of minerals and antioxidant bioactive compounds, and for the first time bioaccessibility, were evaluated in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), green curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.), red mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) hydroponic microgreens. Macro- (K, Ca, Mg) and oligo-elements (Fe, Zn), ascorbic acid, total soluble polyphenols, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, total isothiocyanates and total antioxidant capacity (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) were determined before and after the standardized simulated gastrointestinal digestion process. All microgreens provided relevant amounts of vitamin C (31–56 mg/100 g fresh weight) and total carotenoids (162–224 mg β-carotene/100 g dry weight). Mineral content was comparable to that normally found in hydroponic microgreens and the low potassium levels observed would allow their dietetic recommendation for patients with impaired kidney function. Both total soluble polyphenols and total isothiocyanates were the greatest contributors to the total antioxidant capacity after digestion (43–70% and 31–63% bioaccessibility, respectively) while macroelements showed an important bioaccessibility (34–90%). In general, radish and mustard presented the highest bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and minerals. Overall, the four hydroponic Brassicaceae microgreens present a wide array of antioxidant bioactive compounds. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crop Commodities in the Philippines: A Review
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated [...] Read more.
The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated from various agricultural crop commodities in the country. There are five mycotoxin groups (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, nivalenol, and zearalenone) that have been detected in both the raw form and the by-products of major crops grown in the country. Since the first scientific report of aflatoxin contamination in the Philippines in 1972, new information has been generated on mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi, but little has been known of other mycotoxins until the last two decades. Further, despite the increase in the understanding of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the country, very limited knowledge exists on practices and measures that control both the fungi and the toxins. This paper reviews the current literature on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the Philippines with emphasis on the last two decades and on other mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
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