Special Issue "The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mercedes Del Río Celestino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agri-food Laboratory. (CAPDER), Avda Menéndez Pidal, s/n 14080 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: food science; health; food processing; ready-to eat-vegetable
Prof. Dr. Rafael Font Villa
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Agri-food Laboratory. (CAPDER), Avda Menéndez Pidal, s/n 14080 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: food science; health; food processing; ready-to-eat vegetable

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diets high in fruits and vegetables contain abundant dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, in particular phytochemicals, which are recommended for their health-promoting properties. Epidemiological, toxicological and nutritional studies suggested the association between fruit and vegetable consumption with the lower incidence of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart problems, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. In this Special Issue, the protective roles for fruits and vegetables (antioxidant activity, in vivo studies, in vitro studies, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anticancer activity and others bioactivities of fruits and vegetables) cultivated under “conventional or organic agriculture” will be addressed. Both, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

Dr. Mercedes Del Río Celestino
Prof. Dr. Rafael Font Villa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Fruits
  • Horticultural products
  • health-promoting properties
  • phytochemicals
  • Epidemiological studies
  • toxicological studies
  • nutritional studies
  • conventional agriculture
  • organic food

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Processing Methods on Phytochemical Composition in Bergamot Juice
Foods 2019, 8(10), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100474 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Experimental and epidemiological studies show a positive relation between consumption of citrus juices and reduction of risk for some chronic disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the bergamot juice is characterized by noticeable amounts of phytochemicals such as flavanone glycosides, [...] Read more.
Experimental and epidemiological studies show a positive relation between consumption of citrus juices and reduction of risk for some chronic disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the bergamot juice is characterized by noticeable amounts of phytochemicals such as flavanone glycosides, limonoids, and quaternary ammonium compounds, all health-beneficial biomolecules. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-diabetic activities attributed to these compounds depending on their chemical structure. However, nutritional content of bergamot juice may vary as consequence of different processing techniques, thus needing to address this claim. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different processing systems on the proximate constituents, the composition, and the antioxidant activity of the correspondent juices. Overall, the results indicate that the process employed may influence the chemical composition and the functional properties of the ended juice. Screw press method produced a juice with greater content of flavanone glycosides (ranged from 37 to 402 mg/L) and limonoid aglycones (ranged from 65 to 67 mg/L) than the other processes (p < 0.001). However, the process used for extraction of bergamot juice did not affect significantly the N,N-dimethyl-L-proline content (p < 0.5). Moreover, the screw press juice showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 9.35 µg/mL, thus suggesting that this method maintains for health the nutritional quality of a fresh-pressed juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Properties and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Macrofungi
Foods 2019, 8(9), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090397 - 07 Sep 2019
Abstract
Many delicious and nutritional macrofungi are widely distributed and used in East Asian regions, considered as edible and medicinal foods. In this study, 11 species of dried and fresh, edible and medicinal macrofungi, Ganoderma amboinense, Agaricus subrufescens, Dictyophora indusiata, Pleurotus [...] Read more.
Many delicious and nutritional macrofungi are widely distributed and used in East Asian regions, considered as edible and medicinal foods. In this study, 11 species of dried and fresh, edible and medicinal macrofungi, Ganoderma amboinense, Agaricus subrufescens, Dictyophora indusiata, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus geesteranu, Hericium erinaceus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Pleurotus sapidus, Antrodia camphorata, and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing, were investigated to determine the content of their nutritional components, including proteins, fat, carbohydrates, trace minerals, coarse cellulose, vitamins, and amino acids. The amino acid patterns and similarity of macrofungi were distinguished through principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analyses, respectively. A total of 103 metabolic small molecules of macrofungi were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and were aggregated by heatmap. Moreover, the macrofungi were classified by principal component analysis based on these metabolites. The results show that carbohydrates and proteins are two main components, as well as the nutritional ingredients, that differ among various species and varied between fresh and dried macrofungi. The amino acid patterns in L. edodes and A. subrufescens were different compared with that of the other tested mushrooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Safety and Nutraceutical Potential of Caramel Colour Class IV Using In Vivo and In Vitro Assays
Foods 2019, 8(9), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090392 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Nutraceutical activity of food is analysed to promote the healthy characteristics of diet where additives are highly used. Caramel is one of the most worldwide consumed additives and it is produced by heating natural carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Nutraceutical activity of food is analysed to promote the healthy characteristics of diet where additives are highly used. Caramel is one of the most worldwide consumed additives and it is produced by heating natural carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the food safety and the possible nutraceutical potential of caramel colour class IV (CAR). For this purpose, in vivo toxicity/antitoxicity, genotoxicity/antigenotoxicity and longevity assays were performed using the Drosophila melanogaster model. In addition, cytotoxicity, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, single cell gel electrophoresis and methylation status assays were conducted in the in vitro HL-60 human leukaemia cell line. Our results reported that CAR was neither toxic nor genotoxic and showed antigenotoxic effects in Drosophila. Furthermore, CAR induced cytotoxicity and hipomethylated sat-α repetitive element using HL-60 cell line. In conclusion, the food safety of CAR was demonstrated, since Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was not reached in toxicity assay and any of the tested concentrations induced mutation rates higher than that of the concurrent control in D. melanogaster. On the other hand, CAR protected DNA from oxidative stress provided by hydrogen peroxide in Drosophila. Moreover, CAR showed chemopreventive activity and modified the methylation status of HL-60 cell line. Nevertheless, much more information about the mechanisms of gene therapies related to epigenetic modulation by food is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Acid Detergent Fibre Content in Turnip Greens and Turnip Tops (Brassica rapa L. Subsp. rapa) by Means of Near-Infrared Reflectance
Foods 2019, 8(9), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090364 - 26 Aug 2019
Abstract
Standard wet chemistry analytical techniques currently used to determine plant fibre constituents are costly, time-consuming and destructive. In this paper the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyse the contents of acid detergent fibre (ADF) in turnip greens and turnip tops has [...] Read more.
Standard wet chemistry analytical techniques currently used to determine plant fibre constituents are costly, time-consuming and destructive. In this paper the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyse the contents of acid detergent fibre (ADF) in turnip greens and turnip tops has been assessed. Three calibration equations were developed: in the equation without mathematical treatment the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.91, in the first-derivative treatment equation R2 = 0.95 and in the second-derivative treatment R2 = 0.96. The estimation accuracy was based on RPD (the ratio between the standard deviation and the standard error of validation) and RER (the ratio between the range of ADF of the validation as a whole and the standard error of prediction) of the external validation. RPD and RER values were of 2.75 and 9.00 for the treatment without derivative, 3.41 and 11.79 with first-derivative, and 3.10 and 11.03 with second-derivative. With the acid detergent residue spectrum the wavelengths were identified and associated with the ADF contained in the sample. The results showed a great potential of NIRS for predicting ADF content in turnip greens and turnip tops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicological Studies of Czech Beers and Their Constituents
Foods 2019, 8(8), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080328 - 08 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: Czech beers are unique because they are brewed using specific technology at a particular latitude and for being entirely produced in the area of the Czech Republic. The purpose of this work is the evaluation of toxicological effects of a variety of [...] Read more.
Background: Czech beers are unique because they are brewed using specific technology at a particular latitude and for being entirely produced in the area of the Czech Republic. The purpose of this work is the evaluation of toxicological effects of a variety of freeze-dried Czech beers, their raw materials (malts, hops and yeast) and processed-beer (wort, hopped wort and young beer). Methods: In vivo assays to evaluate the safety and protective effects in the Drosophila melanogaster eukaryotic system, and the in vitro evaluations of chemopreventive and DNA damage activity using the HL-60 tumour human cell line were carried out. Results: The safe effects for all the analysed substances and general protective effects against H2O2 were shown both at the individual and genomic level in the Drosophila animal model, with some exceptions. Moreover, all the substances were able to inhibit the tumour cell growth and to induce DNA damage in the HL-60 cells at different levels (proapoptotic, single/double strands breaks and methylation status). Conclusions: The promising effects shown by freeze-dried Czech beers due to their safety, protection against a toxin, chemopreventive potential and the induction of DNA damage in tumour cells, allow the proposition of Czech beer as a beverage with nutraceutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Variety and Storage Time of Fresh Garlic on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic
Foods 2019, 8(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080314 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Black garlic is made from the fresh kind, submitting it to a controlled temperature (~65 °C) and humidity (>85 °C) for a prolonged period of time. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the process and in the final [...] Read more.
Black garlic is made from the fresh kind, submitting it to a controlled temperature (~65 °C) and humidity (>85 °C) for a prolonged period of time. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the process and in the final product as a result of employing three garlic varieties (Spanish Roja, Chinese Spring and California White), and to check the influence of the storage time on fresh garlic in the quality of the final product by using garlic obtained in two different agricultural seasons, that of the current year (2014) and of the previous one (2013). The results revealed some differences in the parameters analysed during the manufacturing of the black garlic from the three varieties used, and even according to the harvest in question. However, when comparing initial and final values of the samples, a very similar evolution in their acidity, reducing sugars, °Brix, pH, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity was noted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Seed Oil Quality of Brassica napus and Brassica rapa Germplasm from Northwestern Spain
Foods 2019, 8(8), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080292 - 27 Jul 2019
Abstract
The seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of a germplasm collection of Brassica napus and Brassica rapa currently grown in Galicia (northwestern Spain) were evaluated in order to identify potentially interesting genotypes and to assess their suitability as oilseed crops for [...] Read more.
The seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of a germplasm collection of Brassica napus and Brassica rapa currently grown in Galicia (northwestern Spain) were evaluated in order to identify potentially interesting genotypes and to assess their suitability as oilseed crops for either edible or industrial purposes. The seeds of the B. rapa landraces had higher oil content (mean 47.3%) than those of B. napus (mean 42.8%). The landraces of both species showed a similar fatty acid profile (12% oleic acid, 13% linoleic acid, 8–9% linolenic acid, 8–9% eicosenoic acid, and 50–51% erucic acid). They were very high in erucic acid content, which is nutritionally undesirable in a vegetable oil, and very low in oleic and linoleic acid contents. Therefore, they could be used for industrial purposes but not as edible oil. The erucic acid content ranged from 42% to 54% of the total fatty acid composition with an average value of 50% in the B. napus landraces whereas in B. rapa, it ranged from 43% to 57%, with an average value of 51%. Considering the seed oil and the erucic acid content together, three varieties within the B. napus collection and two varieties within the B. rapa one seem to be the most promising genotypes for industrial purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutraceutic Potential of Two Allium Species and Their Distinctive Organosulfur Compounds: A Multi-Assay Evaluation
Foods 2019, 8(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060222 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the biological activities of two Allium species (garlic and onion) as well as diallyl disulphide (DADS) and dipropyl disulphide (DPDS) as their representative bioactive compounds in a multi-assay experimental design. The genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and lifespan effects of garlic, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the biological activities of two Allium species (garlic and onion) as well as diallyl disulphide (DADS) and dipropyl disulphide (DPDS) as their representative bioactive compounds in a multi-assay experimental design. The genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and lifespan effects of garlic, onion, DADS, and DPDS were checked in Drosophila melanogaster and their cytotoxic, pro-apoptotic, and DNA-clastogenic activities were analyzed using HL60 tumoral cells. All compounds were non-genotoxic and antigenotoxic against H2O2-induced DNA damage with a positive dose-response effect and different inhibition percentages (the highest value: 95% for DADS) at all tested concentrations. Daily intake of Allium vegetables, DADS, or DPDS had no positive effects on flies’ lifespan and health span. Garlic and DADS exerted the highest cytotoxic effects in a positive dose-dependent manner. Garlic and DADS exerted a DNA-internucleosomal fragmentation as an index of induced proapoptotic activity on HL60 cells. Allium vegetables and DADS were able to induce clastogenic strand breaks in the DNA of HL60 cells. This study showed the genomic safety of the assayed substances and their protective genetic effects against the hydrogen peroxide genotoxine. Long-term treatments during the whole life of the Drosophila genetic model were beneficial only at low-median concentrations. The chemo-preventive activity of garlic could be associated with its distinctive organosulfur DADS. We suggest that supplementary studies are needed to clarify the cell death pathway against garlic and DADS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Characterization and Biological Activities of Black and White Garlic: In Vivo and In Vitro Assays
Foods 2019, 8(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060220 - 21 Jun 2019
Abstract
White and three types of black garlic (13, 32, and 45 days of aging, named 0C1, 1C2, and 2C1, respectively) were selected to study possible differences in their nutraceutic potential. For this purpose, garlic were physicochemically characterized (Brix, pH, aW, L, polyphenol, and [...] Read more.
White and three types of black garlic (13, 32, and 45 days of aging, named 0C1, 1C2, and 2C1, respectively) were selected to study possible differences in their nutraceutic potential. For this purpose, garlic were physicochemically characterized (Brix, pH, aW, L, polyphenol, and antioxidant capacity), and both in vivo and in vitro assays were carried out. Black garlic samples showed higher polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity than the white ones. The biological assays showed that none of the samples (neither raw nor black garlic) produced toxic effects in the Drosophila melanogaster animal genetic model, nor exerted protective effects against H2O2, with the exception of the 0C1 black garlic. Moreover, only white garlic was genotoxic at the highest concentration. On the other hand, 0C1 black garlic was the most antigenotoxic substance. The in vivo longevity assays showed significant extension of lifespan at some concentrations of white and 0C1and 1C2 black garlic. The in vitro experiments showed that all of the garlic samples induced a decrease in leukemia cell growth. However, no type of garlic was able to induce proapoptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Taking into account the physicochemical and biological data, black garlic could be considered a potential functional food and used in the preventive treatment of age-related diseases. In addition, our findings could be relevant for black-garlic-processing agrifood companies, as the economical and timing costs can significantly be shortened from 45 to 13 days of aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Biological Effects of Food Coloring in In Vivo and In Vitro Model Systems
Foods 2019, 8(5), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050176 - 24 May 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: The suitability of certain food colorings is nowadays in discussion because of the effects of these compounds on human health. For this reason, in the present work, the biological effects of six worldwide used food colorings (Riboflavin, Tartrazine, Carminic Acid, Erythrosine, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The suitability of certain food colorings is nowadays in discussion because of the effects of these compounds on human health. For this reason, in the present work, the biological effects of six worldwide used food colorings (Riboflavin, Tartrazine, Carminic Acid, Erythrosine, Indigotine, and Brilliant Blue FCF) were analyzed using two model systems. (2) Methods: In vivo toxicity, antitoxicity, and longevity assays using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and in vitro cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation, and methylation status assays using HL-60 tumor human cell line were carried out. (3) Results: Our in vivo results showed safe effects in Drosophila for all the food coloring treatments, non-significant protective potential against an oxidative toxin, and different effects on the lifespan of flies. The in vitro results in HL-60 cells, showed that the tested food colorings increased tumor cell growth but did not induce any DNA damage or modifications in the DNA methylation status at their acceptable daily intake (ADI) concentrations. (4) Conclusions: From the in vivo and in vitro studies, these results would support the idea that a high chronic intake of food colorings throughout the entire life is not advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa)
Foods 2019, 8(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020077 - 19 Feb 2019
Abstract
Full-length cDNAs encoding ξ-carotene desaturase (CmZDS), lycopene ε-cyclase (CmLCYE), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (CmZEP), and partial-length cDNA encoding ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXE) were isolated in Chamoe (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa), an important commercial fruit. Sequence analyses revealed [...] Read more.
Full-length cDNAs encoding ξ-carotene desaturase (CmZDS), lycopene ε-cyclase (CmLCYE), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (CmZEP), and partial-length cDNA encoding ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXE) were isolated in Chamoe (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa), an important commercial fruit. Sequence analyses revealed that these proteins share high identity and common features with other orthologous genes. Expression levels of entire genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were investigated in the peel, pulp, and stalk of chamoe cultivars Ohbokggul and Gotgam. Most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were expressed at their highest levels in the stalk, whereas carotenoids were highly distributed in the peel. The expression levels of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes in fruits of the native cultivar Gotgam chamoe were higher than those in the cultivar Ohbokggul chamoe, consistent with the abundant carotenoid accumulation in Gotgam chamoe fruits and trace carotenoid content of Ohbokggul chamoe fruit. Lutein and β-carotene were the dominant carotenoids; high levels (278.05 μg g−1 and 112.02 μg g−1 dry weight, respectively) were found in the peel of Gotgam chamoe. Our findings may provide a foundation for elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic mechanism in C. melo and inform strategies for developing new chamoe cultivars with improved characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation of Adolescent Snack Food Choices and Preferences along a Continuum of Processing Levels: The Case of Apples
Foods 2019, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020050 - 01 Feb 2019
Abstract
Food processing is used for transforming whole food ingredients into food commodities or edible products. The level of food processing occurs along a continuum from unprocessed to minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed. Unprocessed foods use little to no processing and have zero additives. [...] Read more.
Food processing is used for transforming whole food ingredients into food commodities or edible products. The level of food processing occurs along a continuum from unprocessed to minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed. Unprocessed foods use little to no processing and have zero additives. Minimally processed foods use finite processing techniques, including drying, freezing, etc., to make whole food ingredients more edible. Processed foods combine culinary ingredients with whole foods using processing and preservation techniques. Ultra-processed foods are manufactured using limited whole food ingredients and a large number of additives. Ultra-processed snack foods are increasing in food environments globally with detrimental implications for human health. This research characterizes the choices, consumption, and taste preferences of adolescents who were offered apple snack food items that varied along a processing level continuum (unprocessed, minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed). A cross-sectional study was implemented in four elementary school classrooms utilizing a buffet of apple snack food items from the aforementioned four food processing categories. A survey was administered to measure students’ taste acceptance of the snacks. The study found that the students selected significantly (p < 0.0001) greater quantities of ultra-processed snack foods (M = 2.20 servings, SD = 1.23) compared to minimally processed (M = 0.56 servings, SD = 0.43) and unprocessed (M = 0.70 servings, SD = 0.37) snack foods. The students enjoyed the taste of ultra-processed snack foods (M = 2.72, SD = 0.66) significantly more (p < 0.0001) than minimally processed (M = 1.92, SD = 1.0) and unprocessed (M = 2.32, SD = 0.9) snack foods. A linear relationship was found between the selection and consumption quantities for each snack food item (R2 = 0.88). In conclusion, it was found that as processing levels increase in apple snack foods, they become more appealing and more heavily consumed by elementary school students. If applied broadly to snack foods, this conclusion presents one possible explanation regarding the high level of diet-related diseases and nutrient deficiencies across adolescents in America. Food and nutrition education, food product development, and marketing efforts are called upon to improve adolescent food choices and make less-processed snack food options more appealing and accessible to diverse consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Actinidia macrosperma (A Wild Kiwifruit) Inhibits Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme In Vitro
Foods 2018, 7(9), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7090146 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Increasing interest in flavonoids in kiwifruit is due to the health-promoting properties of these bioactives. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the main therapeutic targets in controlling hypertension. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich extracts obtained [...] Read more.
Increasing interest in flavonoids in kiwifruit is due to the health-promoting properties of these bioactives. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the main therapeutic targets in controlling hypertension. The present study investigated the ACE inhibitory activity of flavonoid-rich extracts obtained from different kiwifruit genotypes. The flavonoid-rich extracts were prepared from fruits of Actinidia macrosperma, Actinidia deliciosa cv Hayward (Green kiwifruit), and Actinidia chinensis cv Hort 16A (Gold kiwifruit) by steeping the lyophilized fruit samples in 70% aqueous acetone, followed by partitioning the crude extracts with hexane. The composition of each extract was analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The ACE inhibitory activity of the fruit extracts was performed using a fluorescence-based biochemical assay. The subclass flavonol was the most abundant group of flavonoids detected in all the extracts tested from three different kiwifruit cultivars. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoglucoside, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic, ferulic, isoferulic, and caffeic acid were prominent phenolics found in A. macrosperma kiwifruit. Overall, the flavonoid-rich extract from A. macrosperma showed a significantly (p < 0.05) high percentage of inhibition (IC50 = 0.49 mg/mL), and enzyme kinetic studies suggested that it inhibits ACE activity in vitro. The kiwifruit extracts tested were found to be moderately effective as ACE inhibitors in vitro when compared to the other plant extracts reported in the literature. Further studies should be carried out to identify the active compounds from A. macrosperma and to validate the findings using experimental animal models of hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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