Special Issue "Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Meat Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andrea Garmyn
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University | TTU
Interests: meat science; meat quality; eating quality; palatability; consumers; sensory evaluation; sensory analysis of meat; meat processing; tenderness; flavor; beef; lamb

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At the point of purchase, consumers often use extrinsic cues such as color, marbling, leanness, packaging, and price to determine which meat product(s) to buy. The value placed on such cues may vary regionally or even be influenced by the demographic characteristics of the consumer. Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor remain the three pillars of cooked meat palatability, all linked to consumer satisfaction. Historically, tenderness has been the single most important factor affecting beef palatability, yet previous work has shown that flavor becomes the most important aspect of eating satisfaction when tenderness is acceptable. Consumers can distinguish marbling and consequently flavor differences in some muscles, and are willing to pay premiums for the type of flavor they prefer. Several consumer studies over the past two decades have collectively shown that consumer overall acceptability ratings are more highly correlated with flavor ratings than tenderness or juiciness ratings in beef and lamb. However, the role of flavor in the acceptability of muscles outside the middle meats remains to be unseen. Moreover, consumer acceptance of and preference for flavor completely alters when dealing with value-added or processed meats as opposed to fresh meats.

This Special Issue of Foods will focus on factors that influence the sensory acceptability of meat products. This includes both extrinsic and intrinsic cues consumers rely on to ultimately derive the eating quality of cooked meat. What drives consumer preference for meat products, and how do these preferences influence acceptability and consumers’ willingness to pay? You are cordially invited to submit review articles and original research papers related to consumer preference and acceptance of meat products.

Dr. Andrea Garmyn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Palatability
  • Eating quality
  • Meat
  • Consumer
  • Meat tenderness
  • Meat flavor
  • Sensory evaluation
  • Sensory acceptance
  • Willingness to pay
  • Satisfaction

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Consumer Preferences and Acceptance of Meat Products
Foods 2020, 9(6), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060708 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
At the point of purchase, consumers often use extrinsic cues such as color, marbling, leanness, packaging, and price to determine which meat product(s) to buy [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Demographic Factors on Sheepmeat Sensory Scores of American, Australian and Chinese Consumers
Foods 2020, 9(4), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040529 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Along with animal production factors, it is important to understand whether demographic factors influence untrained consumer perceptions of eating quality. This study examined the impact of demographic factors and sheepmeat consumption preferences on eating quality scores of American, Australian and Chinese untrained consumers. [...] Read more.
Along with animal production factors, it is important to understand whether demographic factors influence untrained consumer perceptions of eating quality. This study examined the impact of demographic factors and sheepmeat consumption preferences on eating quality scores of American, Australian and Chinese untrained consumers. M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) were grilled according to sheep Meat Standards Australia protocols and evaluated by 2160 consumers for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyse the impact of demographic factors and sheepmeat consumption habits on eating quality scores. Consumer age, gender, number of adults in a household and income had the strongest effect on sensory scores (P ≤ 0.05), although, the impact was often different across countries. Frequency of lamb consumption had an impact on sensory scores of American, Australian and Chinese consumers but larger sample sizes in some underrepresented subclasses for Australian and Chinese consumers are needed. Results suggest it is important to balance sensory panels for demographic factors of age, gender, number of adults and income to ensure sensory preferences are accurately represented for these particular populations. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exploring Meal and Snacking Behaviour of Older Adults in Australia and China
Foods 2020, 9(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040426 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sensory perception and food preferences change as we age. This paper encompassed two studies with the aim being to investigate meal and snacking behaviour of older adults towards food, especially meat products, and understand the desirable characteristics of those products. A qualitative multivariate [...] Read more.
Sensory perception and food preferences change as we age. This paper encompassed two studies with the aim being to investigate meal and snacking behaviour of older adults towards food, especially meat products, and understand the desirable characteristics of those products. A qualitative multivariate analysis (QMA) focus group with Australian and Chinese older (60–81 years old) adults was conducted. A conjoint concept database was used to determine older consumers’ wants and needs for food in Australia and China. The QMA suggested that Australian consumers are not eating a proper breakfast or dinner but are ‘snacking’ throughout the day. In contrast, Chinese consumers are eating three regular meals through the day and occasionally snacks. For both groups, texture and flavour were key drivers for food choice. Difficulty in eating meat products was evident, e.g., beef jerky was found too dry and hard. Older consumers in China and Australia differed in responses to the four food categories investigated in terms of product traits and segmentation. Both the conjoint analysis and QMA showed that demographics have an impact on consumer preferences towards food. This research suggested that there is an opportunity to create ready-to-eat, nutrient dense products to enhance the wellness of older consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beef Quality Preferences: Factors Driving Consumer Satisfaction
Foods 2020, 9(3), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030289 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The current study was designed to broaden the understanding of the attributes impacting the sensory properties of beef when consumed. Using a survey of consumers from three different geographical regions in the United States (US), we determined the impacts of three attributes on [...] Read more.
The current study was designed to broaden the understanding of the attributes impacting the sensory properties of beef when consumed. Using a survey of consumers from three different geographical regions in the United States (US), we determined the impacts of three attributes on overall satisfaction in several different ways. The two main statistical methods used were an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model and the Conditional Logit model. Perhaps the most important finding of this study was that flavor was the largest contributor to consumer satisfaction. This finding was consistent throughout all the models. In the base model, flavor represented 59% of the satisfaction rating. Additionally, results indicated domestic beef was preferred over Australian beef by US consumers. Another important finding of the study was the impact of the demographic variables of age, income, and gender on satisfaction. The older group generally placed more emphasis on tenderness, while younger people preferred juicier beef. Males were more responsive than females for all attributes, especially tenderness. Those with higher income were more responsive to tenderness for all quality levels, but the lower income group was more responsive to juiciness. Overall, flavor had the largest impact on consumers’ satisfaction level in comparison to tenderness or juiciness. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Extending Aging of Beef Longissimus Lumborum From 21 to 84 Days Postmortem Influences Consumer Eating Quality
Foods 2020, 9(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020208 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Our objective was to determine the effect of extending postmortem aging from 21 to 84 days on consumer eating quality of beef longissimus lumborum. Strip loins were collected from 108 carcasses. The longissimus lumborum muscle was isolated from strip loins and assigned [...] Read more.
Our objective was to determine the effect of extending postmortem aging from 21 to 84 days on consumer eating quality of beef longissimus lumborum. Strip loins were collected from 108 carcasses. The longissimus lumborum muscle was isolated from strip loins and assigned to one of ten postmortem aging periods from 21 to 84 days (7-day increments) and balanced within four anatomical positions within the muscle. Consumer evaluations for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking were conducted using untrained consumer sensory panels consisting of 1080 individual consumers, in accordance with the Meat Standards Australia protocols. These scores were then used to calculate an overall eating quality (MQ4) score. Postmortem aging had no effect (P > 0.05) on tenderness, but juiciness, flavor liking, overall liking, and MQ4 declined (P < 0.05) as aging period increased. Samples aged 21 to 42 days were most preferred having greater (P < 0.05) overall liking and greater (P < 0.05) MQ4 scores than samples aged 70 to 84 days postmortem. These results suggest that longissimus lumborum samples should not be wet-aged longer than 63 days to prevent potential negative eating experiences for consumers; however, altering storage conditions, specifically reducing temperature, could potentially allow for longer chilled storage without such negative effects on flavor and overall liking. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Attitudinal Determinants of Beef Consumption in Venezuela: A Retrospective Survey
Foods 2020, 9(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020202 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Consumer surveys were conducted in the Western, Central, and Eastern regions of Venezuela to determine buying expectations, motivations, needs, perceptions, and preferences of beef consumers, and their acceptance of domestic (and foreign) beef, as affected by different intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Data ( [...] Read more.
Consumer surveys were conducted in the Western, Central, and Eastern regions of Venezuela to determine buying expectations, motivations, needs, perceptions, and preferences of beef consumers, and their acceptance of domestic (and foreign) beef, as affected by different intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Data (n = 693) were gathered by face-to-face interviews on the way out of fresh markets, butcher stores, supermarkets, and, in some cases, at home by using a 45-question structured questionnaire. Responses were subjected to factorial analysis of correspondence (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. From the FA, the first two factors explain 74% of the common variance. Factor 1 comprises intrinsic attributes such as color, smell, tenderness, flavor, juiciness, and freshness; while Factor 2 contains extrinsic attributes, mostly related to the origin. The FA profiling data showed that it is possible to concentrate on the traits that consumers usually use as a criterion to perceive beef quality, and to purchase beef. Using cluster analysis, four groups of consumers were mainly distinguished by region, intrinsic attributes, and credence attributes related to production system, aging, traceability, and hygiene. Results from this study will be helpful in designing strategies for recovering and enhancing the future, domestic beef demand. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lamb Age has Little Impact on Eating Quality
Foods 2020, 9(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020187 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
There is an industry wide perception that new season lamb has better eating quality than old season lamb. This study aims to identify differences in consumer eating quality scores between two age classes in lamb. Consumer eating quality scores from eight cuts across [...] Read more.
There is an industry wide perception that new season lamb has better eating quality than old season lamb. This study aims to identify differences in consumer eating quality scores between two age classes in lamb. Consumer eating quality scores from eight cuts across the carcass were evaluated from new season (NS; n = 120; average age = 240 days) and old season lambs (OS; n = 121; average age = 328 days), sourced from four different flocks. Cuts were grilled (loin, topside, outside, knuckle and rump) or roasted (leg, shoulder, rack) and scored by untrained consumers for tenderness, juiciness, liking of flavour and overall liking. There was no difference in eating quality scores between the two age classes for the loin, leg, shoulder and rack. This was similarly shown in the topside with the exception of juiciness scores where NS lambs were higher than OS lambs. There was also a lack of age difference in the outside with the exception of flock 3 where NS lambs scored higher than OS lambs for all sensory traits. Across all sensory traits, OS lambs received on average 2.8 scores lower for the knuckle and 3.1 scores lower for the rump compared to NS lambs. These results show little difference in eating quality between NS and OS lamb, and highlight the potential to develop high quality OS or “autumn lamb” products, with a similar premium price at retail as NS lambs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Consumer Palatability of Australian Beef Fajita Meat Enhanced with Phosphate or Sodium Bicarbonate
Foods 2020, 9(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020177 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the consumer eating quality of five Australian beef muscles (outside skirt/diaphragm, inside skirt/transversus abdominis, inside round cap/gracilis, bottom sirloin flap/obliquus abdominis internus, and flank steak/rectus abdominis [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the consumer eating quality of five Australian beef muscles (outside skirt/diaphragm, inside skirt/transversus abdominis, inside round cap/gracilis, bottom sirloin flap/obliquus abdominis internus, and flank steak/rectus abdominis) served as fajita strips. All the muscles were divided in half and enhanced (12%) with a brine solution containing either phosphate, a “clean label” ingredient sodium bicarbonate, or not enhanced. Muscle and enhancement independently influenced (P < 0.01) tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Overall, the bottom sirloin flap was liked the most (P < 0.05) when compared with all the other muscles, while the inside round cap was liked less but did not differ (P > 0.05) from the inside skirt or flank steak. Samples enhanced with sodium bicarbonate were the most (P < 0.05) tender and juicy; samples enhanced with phosphate were intermediate, and the control samples were the least tender and juicy, regardless of the muscle. Flavor and overall liking were similar (P > 0.05) between clean and phosphate-enhanced samples, and both were liked more than the control samples. Enhancement was necessary for acceptable eating quality of all the muscles evaluated in this study; however, the inside round cap was the least suitable. These results indicate that a “clean label” enhanced fajita product is possible without compromising cooking yield or consumer satisfaction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Mixed Method Approach for the Investigation of Consumer Responses to Sheepmeat and Beef
Foods 2020, 9(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020126 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Coupling qualitative and quantitative consumer research methodologies enables the development of more holistic and comprehensive perspectives of consumer responses. In this study, consumer responses to beef and sheepmeat were investigated using a mixed method approach combining perceptual mapping (qualitative), and sensory (quantitative) methodologies. [...] Read more.
Coupling qualitative and quantitative consumer research methodologies enables the development of more holistic and comprehensive perspectives of consumer responses. In this study, consumer responses to beef and sheepmeat were investigated using a mixed method approach combining perceptual mapping (qualitative), and sensory (quantitative) methodologies. Qualitative insights indicated Australian and Asian consumers differ in perception of familiarity and ‘premiumness’ of meat products. Specific findings included: Australians consume grilled or roasted meat as a centre of the plate ‘hero’ ingredient, while Asians prefer stovetop cooking methods where meat is one ingredient in a complex dish. Labelling meat as ‘Australian’ was important for Australian consumers but not for Asian consumers. Quantitative data demonstrated that older consumers (31–70 years) scored sheepmeat higher than younger consumers (18–30 years) for healthiness (p = 0.004), juiciness (p = 0.029), odour liking (p = 0.005) and tenderness (p = 0.042). Older consumers also had a lower willingness to pay than younger consumers for “premium” quality meat; 30–40 vs. 40–50 AUD (Australian dollar) per kg respectively for sheepmeat, and 40–50 vs. 50–60 AUD per kg respectively for beef. In conclusion, the approach used effectively integrated consumer attitudes, usage information and sensory assessments with socio-demographic factors to generate insights for the refinement of market strategies and product offerings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumers’ Perceptions and Sensory Properties of Beef Patty Analogues
Foods 2020, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010063 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The present study was carried out to gain consumer insights on the use of tempeh (a fermented soy bean product) to improve the healthiness of beef patties and to determine the acceptable level of tempeh (10%, 20%, or 30%) in the patty. The [...] Read more.
The present study was carried out to gain consumer insights on the use of tempeh (a fermented soy bean product) to improve the healthiness of beef patties and to determine the acceptable level of tempeh (10%, 20%, or 30%) in the patty. The study consisted of conducting two focus groups (n = 15), a pilot sensory evaluation, and a full consumer sensory study. The focus groups were asked about their consumption of beef patties, attitudes towards processed meat, attitudes towards negative aspects of red meat consumption, and attitudes towards tempeh consumption, as well as sensory perceptions of the cooked patties and their visual acceptance of raw patties. Focus group discussions suggested that there was a market for the product if consumers were informed of tempeh health benefits. Participants seemed more willing to choose how to balance their diet with an antioxidant source than buy a beef patty with added antioxidants. The focus group participants rated the visual attributes of raw patties from all treatments and it was found that the 20% tempeh and 30% tempeh patties were ranked lower (p < 0.05) than the others. Overall, the sensory experiments showed that the inclusion of 10% tempeh was the most acceptable level of addition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the control and 10% tempeh patties for overall acceptability or acceptance of flavor. However, 10% tempeh patties were found to be more tender and juicier than the control (p < 0.05). A proper knowledge and awareness of consumers about the benefits of tempeh could allow the development of beef containing tempeh products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaging Negatively Influences Consumer Acceptability Traits of Pork
Foods 2019, 8(11), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110567 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed [...] Read more.
Current trends in meat packaging have seen a shift from conventional overwrap to vacuum packing (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of high oxygen MAP (HiOxMAP) of pork loins compared with vacuum packed (VAC) on eating quality and colour, after storage in simulated illuminated retail display conditions. Pork loins (n = 40) were cut and stored under two packaging methods (HiOxMAP, 80% O2, 20% CO2; VAC) for up to 14 days, with samples taken at various times for measurements. After 7 days of storage, HiOxMAP samples exhibited inferior consumer acceptability for tenderness, flavor, overall liking, quality and re-purchase intention as well as higher shear force and hardness, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). Loins stored in HiOxMAP had higher lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 3 and 7 days, but lower ratio of oxymoglobin to metmyoglobin (oxy/met) values in the meat surface at 14 days of display, relative to VAC samples (p < 0.05 for all). The oxy/met ratio declined from 2.3 to 1.7 between days 3 and 14 of display in HiOxMAP samples (p < 0.05), whereas the ratio was similar and stayed relatively high for VAC samples. VAC samples produced consistently higher colour values (a*, b*, oxy/met) when left to bloom 30 min after removal from packaging (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation values, measured using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, in HiOxMAP pork loins, were higher at all time points compared to VAC during the 14 day storage period (p < 0.05). The use of vacuum packing for retail shelves, should be considered as the preferred option, over HiOxMAP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Kiwifruit Extract Infusion on Consumer Sensory Outcomes of Striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and Outside Flat (M. biceps femoris) from Beef Carcasses
Foods 2019, 8(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080332 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Actinidin is a cysteine protease enzyme which occurs in kiwifruit and has been associated with improved tenderness in red meat. This study evaluated the impact of actinidin, derived from kiwifruit, on consumer sensory outcomes for striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and outside [...] Read more.
Actinidin is a cysteine protease enzyme which occurs in kiwifruit and has been associated with improved tenderness in red meat. This study evaluated the impact of actinidin, derived from kiwifruit, on consumer sensory outcomes for striploin (M. longissimus lumborum) and outside flat (M. biceps femoris). Striploins and outside flats were collected from 87 grass-fed steers. Carcasses were graded to the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) protocols. Striploins and outside flats were then dissected in half and allocated to one of the following two treatments: (1) not infused (control) and (2) infused with a kiwifruit extract (enhanced), and then prepared as grill and roast samples. Grill and roast samples were then aged for 10 or 28 days. Consumer evaluations for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking were conducted using untrained consumer sensory panels consisting of 2080 individual consumers, in accordance with the MSA protocols. These scores were then used to calculate an overall eating quality (MQ4) score. Consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, overall liking, and MQ4 score were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Kiwifruit extract improved consumer scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, overall liking, and MQ4 scores for striploins and outside flat (p < 0.05). These results suggest that kiwifruit extract provides an opportunity to improve eating experiences for consumers. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Drivers of Consumer Liking for Beef, Pork, and Lamb: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040428 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor have been associated with consumer acceptance of beef, lamb, and pork. Drivers of consumer liking are interrelated across these species, but there are differences in consumer preferences. Animal age, animal diet, and subsequent marbling impact consumer liking across species. [...] Read more.
Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor have been associated with consumer acceptance of beef, lamb, and pork. Drivers of consumer liking are interrelated across these species, but there are differences in consumer preferences. Animal age, animal diet, and subsequent marbling impact consumer liking across species. For beef, consumer research prior to the 1990s showed that tenderness was the main driver of liking. Consumer tenderness and juiciness liking are highly correlated. More recent research has shown that as overall tenderness improved and tenderness variation decreased, flavor has become a more important driver of beef consumer liking. Flavor is affected by consumer preparation methods, familiarity with different flavor presentations, and animal production systems. Animal diet impacts consumer perception of beef tenderness and flavor, especially when comparing forage-fed versus grain-fed beef. Flavor preferences vary across countries more so than preferences for beef based on consumer tenderness preferences and are most likely influenced by the consumption of locally produced beef and the flavor-derived type of beef traditionally consumed. Drivers of pork consumer liking have been shown to be affected by pH, color, water holding capacity, animal diet, and the presence of boar taint compounds. While tenderness and juiciness continue to be drivers of consumer liking for pork, flavor, as impacted by animal diet and the presence of boar taint compounds, continues to be a driver for consumer liking. For lamb, the flavor, as affected by diet, and animal age continue to be the main drivers of consumer liking. Lamb consumers vary across countries based on the level of consumption and preferences for flavor based on cultural effects and production practices. Full article
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