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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Many efforts have been made in order to overcome the Valley of Death. The strategy of designing, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Modeling Techniques for Assessing Sesame Oil Extraction under Various Operating Conditions and Solvents
Foods 2019, 8(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040142 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 927
Abstract
This paper compares four different modeling techniques: Response Surface Method (RSM), Linear Radial Basis Functions (LRBF), Quadratic Radial Basis Functions (QRBF), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The models were tested by monitoring their performance in predicting the optimum operating conditions for Sesame seed [...] Read more.
This paper compares four different modeling techniques: Response Surface Method (RSM), Linear Radial Basis Functions (LRBF), Quadratic Radial Basis Functions (QRBF), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The models were tested by monitoring their performance in predicting the optimum operating conditions for Sesame seed oil extraction yields. Experimental data using three different solvents—hexane, chloroform, and acetone—with varying ratios of solvents to seeds, all under different temperatures, rotational speeds, and mixing times, were modeled by the three proposed techniques. Efficiency for model predictions was examined by monitoring error value performance indicators (R2, R2adj, and RMSE). Results showed that the applied modeling techniques gave good agreements with experimental data regardless of the efficiency of the solvents in oil extraction. On the other hand, the ANN model consistently performed more accurate predictions with all tested solvents under all different operating conditions. This consistency is demonstrated by the higher values of R2 and R2adj ratio equals to one and the very low value of error of RMSE (2.23 × 10−3 to 3.70 × 10−7), thus concluding that ANN possesses a universal ability to approximate nonlinear systems in comparison to other models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationships Between Cull Beef Cow Characteristics, Finishing Practices and Meat Quality Traits of Longissimus thoracis and Rectus abdominis
Foods 2019, 8(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040141 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The aim of study was to investigate the relationships between the characteristics of cull beef cows in the Rouge des Prés breed, finishing practices and physicochemical characteristics and sensory traits of Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Rectus abdominis (RA) muscles from 111 cows. On [...] Read more.
The aim of study was to investigate the relationships between the characteristics of cull beef cows in the Rouge des Prés breed, finishing practices and physicochemical characteristics and sensory traits of Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Rectus abdominis (RA) muscles from 111 cows. On the basis of our surveys, which qualify at cow level the animal characteristics and finishing diet, clusters of cull cows and finishing practices are created and their effects tested on LT and RA meat quality. Old and heavy cows with good suckling ability (95 months, 466 kg and 7.1/10) are characterized by LT with larger fibers, and higher intramuscular fat content and fat-to-muscle ratio. Young and heavy cows with low suckling ability (54 months, 474 kg and 4.4/10) are characterized by LT and RA with lower MyHC IIx and higher MyHC IIa and MyHC I proportions. MyHC IIx and IIa proportions are lower and a* and b* color indices higher when cows are finished on pasture, probably related to grass diet and physical activity. The fat-to-muscle ratio is higher without any effect on the intramuscular fat content when cows are finished over a short period (107 days) with a high level of concentrate (9.7 kg/day). The opposite effect is observed over a long period (142 days) with a low level of concentrate (5.8 kg/day), confirming the interaction effect between finishing duration and amount of energy concentrate on the allotment of adipose tissue deposit. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Drying Methods and Ash Contents on Heat-Induced Gelation of Porcine Plasma Protein Powder
Foods 2019, 8(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040140 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of proteins with high nutritional and functional properties, which can be used as a food ingredient. The plasma is usually processed into powders in applications. In the present study, the effects of drying methods and ash [...] Read more.
Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of proteins with high nutritional and functional properties, which can be used as a food ingredient. The plasma is usually processed into powders in applications. In the present study, the effects of drying methods and ash contents on heat-induced gelation of plasma protein powder were investigated. The drying methods had a significant impact on the gel properties of the plasma powder heat-induced gels. The hardness and elasticity of the gels by freeze-dried and spray-dried plasma powders were lower than that of the liquid plasma (p < 0.05). The microstructures of dehydrated plasma were denser and the holes were smaller. The secondary structure of the gels from the spray-dried plasma protein powders exhibited more α-helixes and less β-turns than that from the freeze-dried powder and liquid plasma. The thermostability of dehydrated plasma powder was found to have decreased compared to the liquid plasma. Compared with the gels obtained from the high ash content plasma protein powders, the gel from the 6% ash content plasma powder had the highest water-holding capacity and had the lowest hardness and elasticity. However, the secondary structure and microstructures of the heat-induced gels were not affected by the ash contents in the plasma powders. These findings show that the gel properties of plasma protein powder can be finely affected by drying methods and ash contents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rhus and Safflower Extracts as Potential Novel Food Antioxidant, Anticancer, and Antimicrobial Agents Using Nanotechnology
Foods 2019, 8(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040139 - 23 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts offers a safe and attractive alternate to the chemical methods. The present work aims at preparing metal nanoparticles of rhus (Rhus coriaria L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) extracts using Fe2+, [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts offers a safe and attractive alternate to the chemical methods. The present work aims at preparing metal nanoparticles of rhus (Rhus coriaria L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) extracts using Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ag+ ions. The water extracts were prepared, and the total polyphenols and flavonoids contents were determined. The safflower extract contained the highest number of total polyphenols and total flavonoids (87.20 mg GAE/g and 36.32 mg QE/g), respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The studied extracts and their nanoparticles were evaluated as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents. The plant extracts and their nanoparticles showed significant antioxidant activity using (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Safflower silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were the most powerful antimicrobial agent compared to the other nanoparticles. The Sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxic activity was evaluated against three cancer cell lines. The results revealed that CuNP safflower nanoparticles displayed the highest activity as anticancer agent with values (98.94% with T47D, 97.68% with HEPG2, and 89.33% against Caco-2). The data revealed that rhus and safflower extracts and their nanoparticles possess high potential activity as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanotechnology in Developing Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Evaluation of Ready-to-Use Vegetable Pâté Added with Olive Leaf Extract
Foods 2019, 8(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040138 - 23 Apr 2019
Viewed by 903
Abstract
The shelf-life extension implicates the reduction of food waste. Plant polyphenols can have a crucial role in the shelf-life extension of foods. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is rich in phenolic compounds such as oleuropein, which is well-known for its antioxidant properties. Physico-chemical, microbiological [...] Read more.
The shelf-life extension implicates the reduction of food waste. Plant polyphenols can have a crucial role in the shelf-life extension of foods. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is rich in phenolic compounds such as oleuropein, which is well-known for its antioxidant properties. Physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects of non-thermally stabilized olive-based pâté fortified with OLE at concentrations of 0.5 (EX0.5) and 1 mg kg−1 (EX1) were investigated. These samples were compared with olive-based pâté fortified with the synthetic antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and with a control sample (CTR) without antioxidants. No sensory defects were perceived in all samples, even if a more intense typical olive flavour was perceived in samples containing OLE compared to those containing BHT and CTR. This result was confirmed by significantly higher levels of 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal in samples containing OLE compared to CTR and BHT. Moreover, the main microbial groups registered a significant loss of 0.5–1 logarithmic cycles in samples containing OLE, especially in EX1. The results of the present study indicate the potentiality of using OLE as natural preservatives in non-thermally stabilized olive-based pâté, since some spoilage-related microbial groups were negatively affected by the addition of OLE at the highest concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Supplemental Feed Choice for Pasture-Based Cows on the Fatty Acid and Volatile Profile of Milk
Foods 2019, 8(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040137 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a variety of supplemental feeds on the composition and quality of milk in a pasture-based dairy system. Four pasture-supplemented feeding systems were compared: Group 1 supplementation with 16% crude protein parlour concentrate [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a variety of supplemental feeds on the composition and quality of milk in a pasture-based dairy system. Four pasture-supplemented feeding systems were compared: Group 1 supplementation with 16% crude protein parlour concentrate (CONC); Group 2 supplementation with palm kernel expeller plus parlour concentrate (PKE); Group 3 supplemented with soya hulls plus parlour concentrate (SOYA); Group 4 was supplemented with molassed beet pulp plus parlour concentrate (BEET). Supplemental feeding system was demonstrated to have a significant effect on the size of native casein micelles and the gelation properties of milks. While CONC feeding produced significantly higher casein micelle size, gel strength (Young’s Modulus) was significantly negatively correlated with casein micelle size. Supplemental feeding system had a significant effect on a number of fatty acids (FA) and indices derived therefrom, including total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, de novo produced FA, omega 3, and omega 6 FA. The volatile profile of milks was also affected by supplemental feed choice, whereby multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CONC diet was distinctly different to that of the PALM, SOYA, and BEET milks. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish milks from different pasture-supplemented feeding systems by their FA profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Characteristics Analysis and Remaining Shelf Life Prediction of Fresh Tibetan Tricholoma matsutake under Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Cold Chain
Foods 2019, 8(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040136 - 22 Apr 2019
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Tricholoma matsutake (T. matsutake) growing in Tibet is very popular for its high economic and medicinal value, but fresh T. matsutake has an extremely short shelf life. The shelf life of T. matsutake is complex, influenced by product characteristics, surrounding environmental conditions, and [...] Read more.
Tricholoma matsutake (T. matsutake) growing in Tibet is very popular for its high economic and medicinal value, but fresh T. matsutake has an extremely short shelf life. The shelf life of T. matsutake is complex, influenced by product characteristics, surrounding environmental conditions, and spoilage development. The objective of this work was to study the quality characteristics of fresh T. matsutake during its shelf life period in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions and establish its remaining shelf life prediction models in a cold chain. In this study, we measured and analyzed quality indicators of fresh T. matsutake, including hardness (cap, stipe), color, odor of sensory characteristics, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and moisture content (MC) of physical and chemical characteristics under the temperature condition of 4 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 90%. The sensory evaluation results showed that the odor indicator in sensory characteristics was more sensitive to the freshness of T. matsutake. The changes of pH, SSC, and MC were divided into three periods to analyze the physiological changes of T. matsutake. The cap spread process could affect the changes of pH, SSC, and MC in period S1, and they changed gradually in period S2. In the period S3, they changed complicatedly because of deterioration. The remaining shelf life prediction model of T. matsutake was established by the back propagation (BP) neural network method to quantify the relationship between the quality indicators and the remaining shelf life. The shelf life characteristics are complex, which were optimized by correlation analysis. Significant benefits of this work are anticipated on the transportation and preservation of fresh T. matsutake to the market and the reduction of its losses in the postharvest chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Two Different Irrigation Systems on the Amino Acid Concentrations, Volatile Composition and Sensory Profiles of Godello Musts and Wines
Foods 2019, 8(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040135 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
The concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar may be modified by climate variability between years and by management practices, such as irrigation, that may alter the typicality of its wines. The current study aimed at assessing the [...] Read more.
The concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar may be modified by climate variability between years and by management practices, such as irrigation, that may alter the typicality of its wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar Godello under rain-fed and two drip irrigation systems (above, drip irrigation (DI), and under the soil surface, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI)) over three consecutive years. Irrigation tended to increase must and wine total acidity; however, it did not alter must amino acid concentrations significantly. Irrigation reduced the concentrations of acetaldehyde and methanol in Godello wines. Moreover, irrigation tended to decrease the concentrations of compounds giving fruity aromas, such as acetaldehyde (by 31% in SDI) and isoamyl acetate (by 21% in SDI), when compared to rain-fed conditions. Sensory analysis revealed slight differences between treatments. Rain-fed and SDI were the treatments showing the greatest differences. Weather conditions affected more must and wine composition than in-season effects caused by irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Food Aroma)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Biofilm-Forming Bacillus Isolates from the Dairy Environment Demonstrate an Enhanced Resistance to Cleaning-in-Place Procedures
Foods 2019, 8(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040134 - 20 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
One of the main strategies for maintaining the optimal hygiene level in dairy processing facilities is regular cleaning and disinfection, which is incorporated in the cleaning-in-place (CIP) regimes. However, a frail point of the CIP procedures is their variable efficiency in eliminating biofilm [...] Read more.
One of the main strategies for maintaining the optimal hygiene level in dairy processing facilities is regular cleaning and disinfection, which is incorporated in the cleaning-in-place (CIP) regimes. However, a frail point of the CIP procedures is their variable efficiency in eliminating biofilm bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the susceptibility of strong biofilm-forming dairy Bacillus isolates to industrial cleaning procedures using two differently designed model systems. According to our results, the dairy-associated Bacillus isolates demonstrate a higher resistance to CIP procedures, compared to the non-dairy strain of B. subtilis. Notably, the tested dairy isolates are highly persistent to different parameters of the CIP operations, including the turbulent flow of liquid (up to 1 log), as well as the cleaning and disinfecting effects of commercial detergents (up to 2.3 log). Moreover, our observations indicate an enhanced resistance of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA)-overproducing B. subtilis, which produces high amounts of proteinaceous extracellular matrix, to the CIP procedures (about 0.7 log, compared to the wild-type non-dairy strain of B. subtilis). We therefore suggest that the enhanced resistance to the CIP procedures by the dairy Bacillus isolates can be attributed to robust biofilm formation. In addition, this study underlines the importance of evaluating the efficiency of commercial cleaning agents in relation to strong biofilm-forming bacteria, which are relevant to industrial conditions. Consequently, we believe that the findings of this study can facilitate the assessment and refining of the industrial CIP procedures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Adding Different Stabilizers in Brine on the Physicochemical, Sensory, Microbiological and Textural Properties of White Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040133 - 19 Apr 2019
Viewed by 899
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four different thickening agents (guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum, and gelatin) on the textural and sensory properties of white cheese. For this purpose, various white cheeses were manufactured with brines (the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four different thickening agents (guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum, and gelatin) on the textural and sensory properties of white cheese. For this purpose, various white cheeses were manufactured with brines (the salt ratio was 8% and 12%) that contained different types and concentrations of gums; white cheese textural and sensory properties were studied during storage (at 4 °C). Also, microbiological properties including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were investigated. The physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and sensory properties of the cheeses were determined on the 1st, 15th, and 30th days of storage. During the storage period of cheese, the top-rated samples in terms of sensory properties were cheeses with gelatin and carrageenan gum. The microbiological data displayed that there was an inverse relationship between the number of bacteria and the amount of gum used, although it was not precisely linear. At the same time, the highest values were generally determined in the control samples, and although not to a very great extent, gelatinous examples were found to contain a lower number of lactic acid bacteria than others. Regarding the textural properties, the hardness value of all samples containing gelatin showed a continuous increasing trend, while the springiness values increased only in the samples with xanthan gum and guar gum. At the end of storage, it was observed that the inherent adhesiveness of the samples decreased by more than half and the use of gelatin resulted in an increase in the gumminess of the cheeses. As a result, it was determined that reducing the salt used in the brine by up to 8% did not cause any defect since stabilizers were preventing water passage into the cheese by holding water. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils and Antibacterial Screening of Solvent Extract from Downy Lavender
Foods 2019, 8(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040132 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The discovery of a new species exhibiting more effective antibacterial properties is necessary because of the demand on Lavandula species, which continues to increase in a variety of industries. Lavandula pubescens might be a good alternative, as it exhibits strong antibacterial activity. In [...] Read more.
The discovery of a new species exhibiting more effective antibacterial properties is necessary because of the demand on Lavandula species, which continues to increase in a variety of industries. Lavandula pubescens might be a good alternative, as it exhibits strong antibacterial activity. In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oils from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems, and roots) of L. pubescens was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, hexane, and ethyl acetate) and different organ (flower, leaf, stem, and root) extracts of L. pubescens were evaluated. Only the ethyl acetate extracts of L. pubescens exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested, including Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Escherichia coli (KF 918342), Aeromonas hydrophila (KCTC 12487), E. coli (ATCC 35150), Cronobacter sakazakii (ATCC 29544), and Aeromonas salmonicida (KACC 15136). In particular, the extracts exhibited significant activity against S. haemolyticus. Ethyl acetate extract of the leaf exhibited the best activity against all bacterial strains. This study provides valuable information on the chemical compositions in essential oils and antimicrobial properties of L. pubescens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Process-Structure-Function in Association with the Main Bioactive of Black Rice Flour Sieving Fractions
Foods 2019, 8(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040131 - 18 Apr 2019
Viewed by 841
Abstract
The aim of this work was to advance knowledge on the potential use of black rice different sieving fractions for various functional applications, through proximate analysis, thermal degradation kinetics of phytochemical and characterization of the thermal behavior of the main proteins, from the [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to advance knowledge on the potential use of black rice different sieving fractions for various functional applications, through proximate analysis, thermal degradation kinetics of phytochemical and characterization of the thermal behavior of the main proteins, from the perspectives of their use as a food ingredient. The results indicated that the thermal degradation of phytochemicals followed a first-order reaction kinetics for all the tested fractions. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled according to the Arrhenius equation. The calculated activation energies (Ea) and k values were different among the four studied parameters. The kinetic parameters depended on the grinding and sieving degree, the anthocyanins being the most thermolabile compounds, thus affecting the antioxidant activity. Three protein fractions were identified by electrophoresis with different molecular weight, such as albumin, globulin, and glutelin. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments revealed the sequential character of the heat-induced conformational changes, different molecular events being suggested, such as folding in the lower temperature range and unfolding at higher temperature. The significance of the study is evidenced by the need to identify and advance the process-structure-function relationships for various biologically active compounds from the perspective of obtaining food or ingredients nutritionally optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Compounds in Cereal Grains)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Dose of Radiation and Radurisation Effects on the Antioxidant Activity of Fish and the Thermophysical Characteristics of Fish Muscle Tissue
Foods 2019, 8(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040130 - 18 Apr 2019
Viewed by 831
Abstract
The aim of this article is to develop a method for determining the dose of radiation in the processing of chilled fish and its effect on the antioxidant activity and thermophysical characteristics of muscle tissue. Radiation processing of chilled fish was performed using [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to develop a method for determining the dose of radiation in the processing of chilled fish and its effect on the antioxidant activity and thermophysical characteristics of muscle tissue. Radiation processing of chilled fish was performed using a linear electron accelerator model LEA-10-10S2. The dose of radiation was determined by the method of electron-paramagnetic resonance. After being treated with ionizing radiation, the cooled fish meets the requirements of the technical regulations of TR TU 021/2011 “On food safety” and TR EAEU 040/2016 “On the safety of fish and fish products”. As a result of our research, a correlation was established between the area of the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) signal and the absorbed dose of the radiation dose. We proved a decrease in the antioxidant activity of muscle tissue of fish with an increase in radiation dose. It is established that radiation treatment of chilled fish affects the thermophysical properties of muscle tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Safety, Quality and Processing)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in the Use of Sourdough Biotechnology in Pasta Making
Foods 2019, 8(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040129 - 18 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The growing consumers’ request for foods with well-balanced nutritional profile and functional properties promotes research on innovation in pasta making. As a staple food and a common component of diet, pasta can be considered as a vector of dietary fiber, vegetable proteins, vitamins, [...] Read more.
The growing consumers’ request for foods with well-balanced nutritional profile and functional properties promotes research on innovation in pasta making. As a staple food and a common component of diet, pasta can be considered as a vector of dietary fiber, vegetable proteins, vitamins, minerals, and functional compounds. The conventional process for pasta production does not include a fermentation step. However, novel recipes including sourdough-fermented ingredients have been recently proposed, aiming at enhancing the nutritional and functional properties of this product and at enriching commercial offerings with products with new sensorial profiles. The use of sourdough for pasta fortification has been investigated under several aspects, including fortification in vitamin B, the reduction of starch digestibility, and gluten content. Sourdough fermentation has also been successfully applied to non-conventional flours, (e.g., from pseudocereals and legumes), in which an overall increase of the nutritional value and health-promoting compounds, such as a significant decrease of antinutritional factors, were observed. Fermented non-conventional flours, obtained through spontaneous fermentation or using selected starters, have been proposed as pasta ingredients. As the result of wheat replacement, modification in textural properties of pasta may occur. Nonetheless, fermentation represents an efficient tool in improving, besides nutritional and functional profile, the sensory and technological features of fortified pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Technology and Quality of Fermented Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Milk Type on the Proteolysis and Antioxidant Capacity of White-Brined Cheese Manufactured from High-Heat-Treated Milk Pretreated with Chymosin
Foods 2019, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040128 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
We investigated the effect of milk type on the proteolysis and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of white-brined cheeses prepared from high-heat-treated (90 °C, 10 min) cow’s and goat’s milk, pretreated with chymosin at a low temperature (4 °C). The cheeses produced showed improved [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of milk type on the proteolysis and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of white-brined cheeses prepared from high-heat-treated (90 °C, 10 min) cow’s and goat’s milk, pretreated with chymosin at a low temperature (4 °C). The cheeses produced showed improved antioxidant characteristics and a high content of denatured whey proteins. However, these characteristics depend on the type of milk and the ripening time. Ripened cow’s milk cheese had higher values of WSN/TN (water-soluble nitrogen per total nitrogen content) and TCA-SN/TN (nitrogen soluble in 12% trichloroacetic acid per total nitrogen), but similar PTA-SN/TN (nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid per total nitrogen) values were observed in ripened cheeses. The antioxidant potential of a WSF (water-soluble fraction) was higher in goat’s milk cheese, but higher TEAC (total antioxidant capacity) values of WINF (water-insoluble fraction) were observed in matured cow’s milk cheese. In vitro digestion slightly improved the radical scavenging capacity of WSF, whereas digested WINF had more than twice the capacity of their undigested counterparts. The cheeses prepared in this study could be a good source of antioxidant peptides. Further investigations of their in vitro and in vivo functionality need to be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Pistacia terebinthus Resin as Yeast Immobilization Support for Alcoholic Fermentation
Foods 2019, 8(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040127 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
A natural resin retrieved from Pistacia terebinthus tree was evaluated as an immobilization carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 cells targeting successive fermentation batches of sugar synthetic mediums. Fermentation times below 54 h were recorded at temperatures 28–14 °C. In total, 147 compounds were [...] Read more.
A natural resin retrieved from Pistacia terebinthus tree was evaluated as an immobilization carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 cells targeting successive fermentation batches of sugar synthetic mediums. Fermentation times below 54 h were recorded at temperatures 28–14 °C. In total, 147 compounds were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, including alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes, acids, and terpenes. Principal component analysis indicated that the state of cells (free/immobilized) and the fermentation temperature primarily affected terpenes’ composition. Importantly, no spoilage of the fermented beverages was noted during 90 days of storage at room temperature, most likely due to the high content of extracted terpenoids and phenols (up to 579.01 mg L−1 and 171.8 mg gallic acid equivalent L−1, respectively). Likewise, the developed novel biocatalyst (yeast cells immobilized within Pistacia terebinthus resin) was suitable for the production of low alcohol beverages with an enhanced aromatic profile. The obtained results revealed that the proposed bioprocess shows great commercialization potential in the new fast-growing low-alcohol beverages sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods and Bioproducts: Novel Insights/ New Knowledge)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Properties and Pollen Profile of Oak Honeydew and Evergreen Oak Honeydew Honeys from Spain: A Comparative Study
Foods 2019, 8(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040126 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
This work investigates the similarities and differences of oak honeydew (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and evergreen honeydew (Quercus ilex L.) honey produced in Spain. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of 17 samples from oak honeydew and 11 samples from evergreen honeydew [...] Read more.
This work investigates the similarities and differences of oak honeydew (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and evergreen honeydew (Quercus ilex L.) honey produced in Spain. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of 17 samples from oak honeydew and 11 samples from evergreen honeydew collected in different geographical regions were analyzed. All the samples accomplished European Union requirements for honey consumption. Both honey types had amber dark color; however, the evergreen oak honey was clearer than oak honey, having higher mean values in a* and b* coordinates of CIELab scale. In general, both honey types exhibited high electrical conductivity, a moderate value of pH, medium to low water content, and high diastase activity. The reducing sugar content was significantly lower and maltose content was significantly higher in evergreen honeydew. In addition, total phenols and total flavonoid contents, the antioxidant activity and the melissopalynological analysis was performed. The oak honeydew honey had a higher abundance of Castanea, Rubus and Erica pollen grains, while the evergreen oak honeydew honey had a higher abundance of Lavandula, Olea europaea or Anthyllis cytisoides. A multivariate analysis using the most representative pollen types and physicochemical components facilitated the differentiation of the honey samples, thus this information can be useful for the honey characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity)
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Refinement of Omega-3 Rich Oils from Processing By-Products of Farmed Fish Species
Foods 2019, 8(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040125 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of a four-stage chemical refining process (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization) on the quality parameters, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of crude oils produced from processing by-products of farmed fish species (tuna, seabass and gilthead seabream) was evaluated. The quality of the oils was compared to commercially available cod liver oil on the basis of free fatty acid, peroxide value, p-anisidine, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), oxidative stability at 80, 100 and 120 °C, tocopherol content, and volatile components, while the fatty acid profile and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were used as an indicator of the nutritional values of fish oils. Quality parameters of the studied oils and oil oxidative stability were enhanced with refining and were within the limits recommended for fish oils without the loss of PUFAs. In tuna by-product refined oils, the proportion of PUFAs was over 40%, with 30% of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The volatile compounds of the oils were quantified (in mg/kg) and major components were 2,4-heptadienal, pentadecane, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-nonadienal and dodecane. The use of aquaculture by-products as an alternative source for fish oil production could contribute to a more sustainable and profitable aquaculture production, providing economic benefits for the producers and setting new standards for a fish by-product disposal strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Sounds Influence the Multisensory Perception of Chocolate Gelati
Foods 2019, 8(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040124 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Recently, it has been shown that various auditory stimuli modulate flavour perception. The present study attempts to understand the effects of environmental sounds (park, food court, fast food restaurant, cafe, and bar sounds) on the perception of chocolate gelato (specifically, sweet, bitter, milky, [...] Read more.
Recently, it has been shown that various auditory stimuli modulate flavour perception. The present study attempts to understand the effects of environmental sounds (park, food court, fast food restaurant, cafe, and bar sounds) on the perception of chocolate gelato (specifically, sweet, bitter, milky, creamy, cocoa, roasted, and vanilla notes) using the Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) method. Additionally, affective ratings of the auditory stimuli were obtained using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in terms of their valence, arousal, and dominance. In total, 58 panellists rated the sounds and chocolate gelato in a sensory laboratory. The results revealed that bitterness, roasted, and cocoa notes were more evident when the bar, fast food, and food court sounds were played. Meanwhile, sweetness was cited more in the early mastication period when listening to park and café sounds. The park sound was significantly higher in valence, while the bar sound was significantly higher in arousal. Dominance was significantly higher for the fast food restaurant, food court, and bar sound conditions. Intriguingly, the valence evoked by the pleasant park sound was positively correlated with the sweetness of the gelato. Meanwhile, the arousal associated with bar sounds was positively correlated with bitterness, roasted, and cocoa attributes. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate that people’s perception of the flavour of gelato varied with the different real-world sounds used in this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Prickly Pear Juice Geographical Origin Based on Mineral and Volatile Compound Contents Using LDA
Foods 2019, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040123 - 15 Apr 2019
Viewed by 945
Abstract
In the present work the mineral content and volatile profile of prickly pear juice prepared from wild cultivars was investigated. Fruits used in the study originated from three areas of the Peloponnese Peninsula. Twenty-five macro- and micro-minerals (K, Na, P, Ca, Mg, Al, [...] Read more.
In the present work the mineral content and volatile profile of prickly pear juice prepared from wild cultivars was investigated. Fruits used in the study originated from three areas of the Peloponnese Peninsula. Twenty-five macro- and micro-minerals (K, Na, P, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Ba, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Ti, Tl, V, Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Furthermore, analysis of the mineral content of soil samples with ICP-OES showed a perfect correlation with those of fruit juices. Volatile compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenoids, and others) were identified using an optimized headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) method. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among the investigated parameters with respect to juice geographical origin. Prickly pear juice samples were classified according to geographical origin by 85.7% and 88.9% using 7 minerals and 21 volatile compounds, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Acceptability of Dry-Cured Belly (Pancetta) from Entire Males, Immunocastrates or Surgical Castrates: Study with Slovenian Consumers
Foods 2019, 8(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040122 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Abandoning of male piglets castration in the European Union is a challenge for the pork production sector in particular for high-quality dry-cured traditional products. The information on consumer acceptability of dry-cured products from alternatives is limited, so the objective was to test the [...] Read more.
Abandoning of male piglets castration in the European Union is a challenge for the pork production sector in particular for high-quality dry-cured traditional products. The information on consumer acceptability of dry-cured products from alternatives is limited, so the objective was to test the consumer acceptability of unsmoked traditional dry-cured belly (Kraška panceta) processed from three sex categories, i.e., surgical castrates (SC), entire males (EM) and immunocastrates (IC). Consumers (n = 331) were asked to taste dry-cured bellies from EM, IC and SC and to score the taste appreciation on a 9 cm unstructured scale. After tasting the pancetta of three sex categories, the consumers attributed the lowest acceptability scores to SC, whereas IC and EM received similar scores. Only about a quarter of consumers attributed the lowest score to EM, mainly when boar taint compounds were present. The results of this study indicate that a certain share of consumers was sensitive to taste deficiencies and that the leanness of this product is very important for consumers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Industrial Ultrasound Applications in the Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Extraction Process: History, Approaches, and Key Questions
Foods 2019, 8(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040121 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Taking an idea from a basic concept to a commercially available product is highly rewarding, but it can be a very long, complex, and difficult journey. Recognizing and understanding the stages of the process and using the right support to help you navigate [...] Read more.
Taking an idea from a basic concept to a commercially available product is highly rewarding, but it can be a very long, complex, and difficult journey. Recognizing and understanding the stages of the process and using the right support to help you navigate through it can mean all the difference between success and failure. The road from concept to market is marred with obstacles, and many businesses fail to pass beyond the development stage. A better understanding of the innovation process is essential from the outset if the pioneers of innovation are to overcome the dangers that they are likely to face along the way and maximize their opportunities for success. In the olive oil sector, the most recent radical innovation is the introduction of ultrasound into the industrial extraction process. Many efforts have been made in order to overcome the Valley of Death. The strategy of designing, implementing, and testing an innovative system that combines the mechanical energy of ultrasound with the possibility of modulating the thermal exchange of olive paste (heating or cooling) has enabled the following: (1) Eliminating malaxation by realizing a real continuous process; (2) raising extraction yields by recovering a further quota of extra-virgin olive oil that is usually lost in the pomace; (3) improving the content of antioxidant molecules simultaneously with yields; and (4) offering a sustainable plant solution that can guarantee the right income for producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Lycopene Production from Different Substrates by Mated Fermentation of Blakeslea Trispora
Foods 2019, 8(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040120 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The production of lycopene from different substrates by Blakeslea trispora in fermentation was investigated. Lycopene productions from 4 and 6% glucose (pH 6.5) in shake flask fermentation were 77.7 and 28.1 mg L−1. Increasing the glucose concentration to 6% resulted in [...] Read more.
The production of lycopene from different substrates by Blakeslea trispora in fermentation was investigated. Lycopene productions from 4 and 6% glucose (pH 6.5) in shake flask fermentation were 77.7 and 28.1 mg L−1. Increasing the glucose concentration to 6% resulted in a decrease in lycopene production by 36.2%. A maximum lycopene concentration of 944.8 mg L−1 was detected with 4% glucose supplemented with 1.0 % sunflower oil in fermentor studies. Lycopene productions in the presence of sunflower and corn oils in the fermentor were 12.2 and 11.1 times higher, respectively, then without oil from 4 % glucose in a shake flask. Lycopene production from orange peel was two times higher in the fermentor than in the shake flask. Zygospores of B. trispora are the morphological forms, which are responsible for the production of the lycopene. The highest level of zygospores was correlated with the highest amount of intracellular lycopene in the total biomass dry weight. The media containing only orange powder (1%) gave a 4.9 mg L−1 lycopene production in a fermentor. The biosynthesis of lycopene has been started in most cases simultaneously in the early growth phase even in trace amounts. Maximum lycopene concentration was obtained when the medium was supplied with sunflower and corn oils. There is an indirect relationship between biomass and lycopene concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Calcium and Manganese on Sporulation of Bacillus Species Involved in Food Poisoning and Spoilage
Foods 2019, 8(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040119 - 07 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Spores are resistant against many extreme conditions including the disinfection and sterilization methods used in the food industry. Selective prevention of sporulation of Bacillus species is an ongoing challenge for food scientists and fermentation technologists. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Spores are resistant against many extreme conditions including the disinfection and sterilization methods used in the food industry. Selective prevention of sporulation of Bacillus species is an ongoing challenge for food scientists and fermentation technologists. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of single and combined supplementation of calcium and manganese on sporulation of common pathogenic and food spoilage Bacillus species: B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and B. coagulans. Sporulation of Bacillus vegetative cells was induced on sporulation media supplemented with diverse concentrations of the minerals. Under the various mineral supplementation conditions, the degree of sporulation was quantified with colonies formed by the Bacillus spores. The results revealed that B. licheniformis and B. cereus displayed the weakest sporulation capabilities on media with minimal supplementation levels of calcium and manganese. The lowest sporulation of B. subtilis and B. coagulans was observed on media supplemented with the highest level of calcium and low levels of manganese. Depending on effect of supplementation on sporulation, the Bacillus species were divided into two distinct groups: B. licheniformis and B. cereus; and B. subtilis and B. coagulans. The information provides valuable insight to selectively reduce sporulation of Bacillus species undesirable in the food industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Fingerprinting of Seeds of Some Salvia Species in Turkey by Using GC-MS and FTIR
Foods 2019, 8(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040118 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Six species of Salvia seeds cultivated and grown in Cumra/Konya (Turkey) were evaluated using headspace gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) combined chemometrics of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The major volatile [...] Read more.
Six species of Salvia seeds cultivated and grown in Cumra/Konya (Turkey) were evaluated using headspace gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) combined chemometrics of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The major volatile compounds in the Salvia species are determined as n-hexanal (present in seven samples), sabinene (present in three samples), α-pinene (present in 13 samples), α-thujone (present in four samples), borneol (present in 11 samples), linalyl acetate (present in 10 samples), β-pinene (present in 13 samples), camphene (present in 13 samples), α-thujene (present in four samples), 2,4(10)-thujadien (present in two samples), β-myrcene (present in seven samples), limonen (present in 12 samples), 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) (present in 13 samples) and camphor (present in nine samples). The most abundant (%) volatile compounds among all were detected as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and eucalyptol. For the first time, chemometrics of HCA and PCA is applied to FTIR and GC-MS data. The classification of all samples is performed on the basis of their chemical similarities and differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Food Aroma)
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Open AccessCommunication
Characteristics of Instrumental Methods to Describe and Assess the Recrystallization Process in Ice Cream Systems
Foods 2019, 8(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040117 - 04 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Methods of testing and describing the recrystallization process in ice cream systems were characterized. The scope of this study included a description of the recrystallization process and a description and comparison of the following methods: microscopy and image analysis, focused beam reflectance measurement [...] Read more.
Methods of testing and describing the recrystallization process in ice cream systems were characterized. The scope of this study included a description of the recrystallization process and a description and comparison of the following methods: microscopy and image analysis, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), oscillation thermo-rheometry (OTR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), splat-cooling assay, and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT). All the methods presented were suitable for characterization of the recrystallization process, although they provide different types of information, and they should be individually matched to the characteristics of the tested product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Emulsifier and Stabilizer Concentrations in a Model Peanut-Based Beverage System: A Mixture Design Approach
Foods 2019, 8(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040116 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Colloidal stability as well as physicochemical and rheological properties are among the critical determinants of the sensory quality of beverages. The present study investigated the effects of lecithin, xanthan gum, propylene glycol alginate, and their combinations on the colloidal stability and physicochemical/rheological properties [...] Read more.
Colloidal stability as well as physicochemical and rheological properties are among the critical determinants of the sensory quality of beverages. The present study investigated the effects of lecithin, xanthan gum, propylene glycol alginate, and their combinations on the colloidal stability and physicochemical/rheological properties of a model peanut-based beverage. A simplex centroid mixture design was applied, and the visual stability, centrifuge stability, physicochemical properties (soluble solids, pH, water activity, color), and rheological parameters (flow behavior and viscosity) of the samples were determined. All the evaluated parameters were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the type and quantity of emulsifier or stabilizer used. At the 0.5% total usage level, the optimum stabilizer and emulsifier combination was that of 66% xanthan gum and 34% lecithin. A further increase of lecithin in the mixture caused a decrease in the colloidal stability of the sample. Irrespective of emulsifier and stabilizer type and quantity, all samples exhibited shear-thinning flow behavior, with samples containing xanthan gum being more pseudoplastic than the others. The prediction model for the visual stability index found in this study may be used by the industry to formulate similar beverages for better colloidal stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Homogenization Time and Speed on Rheological and Volatile Composition in Olive-Based Pâtés
Foods 2019, 8(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040115 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
The influence of the homogenization time and speed on rheological and volatile composition in olive-based pâtés was studied. Five experimental trials were performed applying different combinations of time and speed homogenization: 1, 3, and 5 min at 12,000 rpm and 4000, 8000, and [...] Read more.
The influence of the homogenization time and speed on rheological and volatile composition in olive-based pâtés was studied. Five experimental trials were performed applying different combinations of time and speed homogenization: 1, 3, and 5 min at 12,000 rpm and 4000, 8000, and 12,000 rpm at 5 min. The obtained results showed that the processing parameters of the homogenization step significantly influenced the rheological and sensory properties of olive-based pâtés. Both time and speed influenced the rheological properties of the product. The increase of homogenization time and speed determined a significant reduction of hardness and syneresis. As regards color indices, significantly higher L* values were obtained when intermediate time and speed conditions were applied, whereas a* and b* indices showed a not univocal behavior. Both time and speed variables also influenced the volatile fraction of the pâtés (higher homogenization speed and time corresponded to higher terpenes and aldehydes). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Milk-Based Fruit Beverage Enriched with Plant Sterols and/or Galactooligosaccharides in a Murine Chronic Colitis Model
Foods 2019, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040114 - 04 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The potential anti-inflammatory effect of plant sterols (PS) enriched milk-based fruit beverages (PS, 1 g/100 mL) (MfB) with/without galactooligosaccharides (GOS, 2 g/100 mL) (MfB-G) in an experimental mice model of chronic ulcerative colitis was evaluated. Beverages were orally administered to mice every day [...] Read more.
The potential anti-inflammatory effect of plant sterols (PS) enriched milk-based fruit beverages (PS, 1 g/100 mL) (MfB) with/without galactooligosaccharides (GOS, 2 g/100 mL) (MfB-G) in an experimental mice model of chronic ulcerative colitis was evaluated. Beverages were orally administered to mice every day by gavage to achieve PS and GOS doses of 35 and 90 mg/kg, respectively, and experimental colitis was induced by giving mice drinking water ad libitum containing 2% (w/v) dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, alternating with periods without DSS up to the end of the study (56 days). MfB beverage showed significant reduction of symptoms associated to ulcerative colitis and improved the colon shortening and mucosal colonic damage, but it was not able to reduce the increase of myeloperoxidase levels produced by DSS. MfB-G showed higher incidence of bloody feces and loss of stool consistency than MfB, as well as high levels of immune cells infiltration in colon tissue and myeloperoxidase. Therefore, PS-enriched milk-based fruit beverage could be an interesting healthy food to extend the remission periods of the diseases and the need to evaluate, in a pre-clinical model, the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of bioactive compounds in the context of a whole food matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Evaluation Methods for Quality of Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fresh Fillet Preserved in an Active Edible Coating
Foods 2019, 8(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040113 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
In this study different methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a carrageenan coating and carrageenan coating incorporating lemon essential oil (ELO) in preserving the physicochemical and olfactory characteristics of trout fillets stored at 4 °C up to 12 days. The fillet [...] Read more.
In this study different methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a carrageenan coating and carrageenan coating incorporating lemon essential oil (ELO) in preserving the physicochemical and olfactory characteristics of trout fillets stored at 4 °C up to 12 days. The fillet morphological structure was analyzed by histological and immunological methods; lipid peroxidation was performed with the peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) tests. At the same time, two less time-consuming methods, such as Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the electronic nose, were used. Uncoated trout fillets (UTF) showed a less compact tissue structure than carrageenan-coated threads (CTF) and coated fillets of carrageenan (active) ELO (ACTF), probably due to the degradation of collagen, as indicated by optical microscopy and ATR-FTIR. UTF showed greater lipid oxidation compared to CTF and ACTF, as indicated by the peroxide and TBARS tests and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The carrageenan coating containing ELO preserved the olfactory characteristics of the trout fillets better than the carrageenan coating alone, as indicated by the electronic nose analysis. This study confirms that both carrageenan and ELO containing carrageenan coatings slow down the decay of the physicochemical and olfactory characteristics of fresh trout fillets stored at 4 °C, although the latter is more effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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