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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Poultry in Three Spanish Farms, A Slaughterhouse and A Further Processing Plant
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a selection of poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses as well as the possible impact of contamination during slaughter and processing. Samples of the same flock at different ages [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a selection of poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses as well as the possible impact of contamination during slaughter and processing. Samples of the same flock at different ages in three farms (A, B and C) were taken for the determination of Campylobacter spp. The same broiler flocks were examined at different stages of one slaughterhouse and at a further processing plant. The slaughterhouse environment and processing equipment were sampled. Campylobacter spp. was not detected in 7 and 14-day-old broilers in any of the three farms studied. However, Campylobacter spp. was detected in 35 and 42-day-old broilers at two farms (Farm A and B). This pathogen was detected in both dirty and clean transport crates, in scalding water, and on the defeathering machine and the working table at the end of the working day, but not at the beginning. After defeathering, Campylobacter spp. was detected in all of the sampled carcasses. Campylobacter spp. was detected in all of the carcasses and the poultry meat portion samples from Farm C, although it was not detected at the farm level. This suggests that Campylobacter spp. infected flocks may be a source of these bacteria in the corresponding carcasses, but a cross-contamination during the transportation and slaughter process is also very important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology Research in Meat and Meat Production)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Breadfruit Flour Pasta Product
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is grown throughout the tropics. Processing the perishable starchy fruit into flour provides a means to expand the use of the fruit. The flour can be used to develop new value-added products for local use and potential export. The [...] Read more.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is grown throughout the tropics. Processing the perishable starchy fruit into flour provides a means to expand the use of the fruit. The flour can be used to develop new value-added products for local use and potential export. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a pasta product using breadfruit flour, test the sensory qualities of the breadfruit pasta product by sensory evaluation, and evaluate the nutritional composition. ‘Ma’afala’, a popular and widely distributed Polynesian cultivar was used for the study. Nutritional labeling shows that the breadfruit pasta product is high in carbohydrates (73.3%/100 g) and low in fat (8.33/100 g). Sensory evaluation indicates that 80.3% of the panelists (n = 71) found the pasta acceptable while 18.3% disliked the pasta. The breadfruit pasta product can provide a nutritious, appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit in areas of the world where it can be easily grown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Biogenic Amines in Pa (Green Onion) Kimchi and Gat (Mustard Leaf) Kimchi
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, biogenic amine content in Pa (green onion) kimchi and Gat (mustard leaf) kimchi, Korean specialty kimchi types, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Many kimchi samples contained low levels of biogenic amines, but some samples had histamine and tyramine [...] Read more.
In this study, biogenic amine content in Pa (green onion) kimchi and Gat (mustard leaf) kimchi, Korean specialty kimchi types, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Many kimchi samples contained low levels of biogenic amines, but some samples had histamine and tyramine content over the safe levels. Based on the comparative analysis between the ingredient information on food labels and biogenic amine content of kimchi samples, Myeolchi-aekjeot appeared to be an important source of biogenic amines in both kimchi. Besides, through the 16s rRNA sequence analysis, Lactobacillus brevis appeared to be responsible for the formation of biogenic amines (tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) in both kimchi, in a strain-dependent manner. During fermentation, a higher accumulation of tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, and putrescine was observed in both or one (for putrescine) of kimchi types when L. brevis strains served as inocula. The addition of Myeolchi-aekjeot affected the initial concentrations of most biogenic amines (except for spermidine in Gat kimchi) in both kimchi. Therefore, this study suggests that using appropriately salted and fermented seafood products for kimchi preparation and using biogenic amine-negative and/or biogenic amine-degrading starter cultures would be effective in reducing biogenic amine content in Pa kimchi and Gat kimchi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Multilayer Bixin Microcapsules: The Impact of Native Carbohydrates on the Microencapsulation Efficiency and Dispersion Stability
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Bixin is a hydrophobic carotenoid present in the integument of the seeds of Bixa orellana. Microencapsulation was applied to obtain water dispersible formulations and protect the colorant against degradation. Microencapsulated systems were obtained by spray-drying a mild alkaline bixin dispersion with different [...] Read more.
Bixin is a hydrophobic carotenoid present in the integument of the seeds of Bixa orellana. Microencapsulation was applied to obtain water dispersible formulations and protect the colorant against degradation. Microencapsulated systems were obtained by spray-drying a mild alkaline bixin dispersion with different encapsulating materials. The encapsulation trials were performed with and without native carbohydrates of the integument in addition to the main encapsulant. It was possible to dry dispersions with up to 10% bixin counted on total solids. All the studied systems were characterized by colorimetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, light microscopy, turbidometric sedimentation analyses and laser light diffraction analyses. All the systems showed aqueous dispersibility but displayed differences in their transparency, UV-vis spectra and physical stability at pH 3. The results show that the native carbohydrates enhance the encapsulation efficiency of other encapsulating materials. The chemical composition of this native carbohydrate fraction shows the presence of polysaccharides containing arabinose, galactose and glucose as monomers. Starch was identified enzymatically. The native carbohydrates allowed the encapsulation of bixin in its native microcrystalline form, resulting in a multilayer structure after spray-drying. In addition, the colorant particles displayed dispersibility under acidic aqueous conditions suggesting that they are stabilized by the native carbohydrates after the microcapsules are dissolved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Uruset Apple Vinegar Production Using Response Surface Methodology for the Enhanced Extraction of Bioactive Substances
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the aim is to produce non-thermal vinegar by using red Uruset apples, which have high bioavailability among apple varieties. For this purpose, Uruset apple vinegar was produced and ultrasound at different times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) and [...] Read more.
In this study, the aim is to produce non-thermal vinegar by using red Uruset apples, which have high bioavailability among apple varieties. For this purpose, Uruset apple vinegar was produced and ultrasound at different times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) and different amplitudes (40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%); in addition, a 26 kHz frequency was applied to the samples. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC)), and color values were evaluated for the optimization of process conditions. At the same time, the differences between commercial apple vinegar (CV), pasteurized Uruset apple vinegar (PV), and a control (C) of untreated apple vinegar were investigated. Ultrasound treatment of Uruset apple vinegar was more successful for the enrichment of bioactive substances than the other samples. At the end of the study, the maximal optimization values for Uruset apple vinegar were 7.4 min and 62.2 amplitude. At the end of optimization, CUPRAC (0.69 mg TEAC/mL), DPPH (0.49 mg TEAC/mL), total flavonoid content (46.95 mg CE/L), and total phenolic content (124.25 mg GAE/L) were determined. As a result, ultrasound technology was successfully used for Uruset apple vinegar production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Oral Physiology Parameters on In-Mouth Aroma Compound Release Using Lipoprotein Matrices: An In Vitro Approach
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
Temporal aroma compound release during eating is a function of the physicochemical properties of the food matrix, aroma compounds, and oral physiology of individuals. However, the influence of each parameter on the release of each aroma component should be clarified. Two flavored lipoprotein [...] Read more.
Temporal aroma compound release during eating is a function of the physicochemical properties of the food matrix, aroma compounds, and oral physiology of individuals. However, the influence of each parameter on the release of each aroma component should be clarified. Two flavored lipoprotein matrices varying in composition were chewed in a chewing simulator that reproduced most of the physiological functions of the mouth. Aroma compound releases (butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, ethyl butyrate, 3-octanone, and 2-nonanone) were followed in real time by direct connection of the device to APCI-MS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry). Each oral parameter was controlled and decoupled using the in vitro device. The food matrix composition had only a low impact on aroma compound release, but the controlled oral parameters had significantly different influences on the release of aroma compounds according to their physicochemical characteristics. The release of certain compounds seemed more sensitive to bite force, while others seemed more sensitive to the shearing angle. The salivary flow rate primarily influenced the more hydrophobic compounds. Significant interactions were also observed between shear angle, salivary flow rate, and lipoprotein matrix composition, mainly for the release of the more hydrophobic volatile compounds; this needs further investigations to be clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Contribution of Food Oral Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Exploratory Monitoring of the Quality and Authenticity of Commercial Honey in Ecuador
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Honey is one of the oldest sweetening foods and has economic importance, making this product attractive to adulteration with cheap sugars. This can cause a critical problem in the honey industry and a possible health risk. The present work has the aim of [...] Read more.
Honey is one of the oldest sweetening foods and has economic importance, making this product attractive to adulteration with cheap sugars. This can cause a critical problem in the honey industry and a possible health risk. The present work has the aim of evaluating the authenticity of honey commercialized in two different provinces of Ecuador (Pichincha and Loja) by performing physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. For this study 25 samples were collected from different places and markets and characterized by water, sucrose, reducing sugars and electric conductivity measurement. Also, their Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra were recorded and analysed using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to verify the quality of the honeys. In addition, a screening of several pesticides was performed in order to verify possible chemical threats to human health and honey bees. It was found that 8 samples have a deviation from the Standard established parameters. Two of them have a high difference in the content of sucrose and reducing sugars, which are located deviated from all the other samples in the PCA of the applied vibrational spectroscopy (IR/Raman), shaping two clear clusters. The results show that Raman and IR spectroscopy is appropriate techniques for the quality control of honey and correlates well with the physicochemical analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Characteristics of Four Underutilized Edible Wild Fruits of Dietary Interest in Ghana
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Malnutrition has been a serious issue in Ghana and Africa as a whole. However, the potential of many indigenous fruits to combat it has not yet been tested. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional characteristics of four underutilized wild fruits ( [...] Read more.
Malnutrition has been a serious issue in Ghana and Africa as a whole. However, the potential of many indigenous fruits to combat it has not yet been tested. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional characteristics of four underutilized wild fruits (Gardenia erubescens, Sclerocarya birrea, Diospyros mespiliformis, and Balanites aegyptiaca) of dietary interest in Ghana. The nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of the fruits were analyzed according to standard methods (laid down by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and other well-known researchers) on a dry weight (dw) basis. The nutritional value of the fruits was high enough to contribute to the nutrient requirements of humans, with their iron (0.34–1.46 mg/100 g), zinc (0.81–2.97 mg/100 g), vitamin A (0.84–2.03 mg/100 g), and β-carotene (64.84–176.89 mg/100 g) contents worth special mention. The antinutrient content also ranged between 0.06–1.82 mg/g. Therefore, it is evident from the study that the fruits, although containing some levels of antinutrients, are nutrient-dense, suggesting their potency in fighting malnutrition in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Round Faces Are Associated with Sweet Foods: The Role of Crossmodal Correspondence in Social Perception
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
In retail settings, social perception of other peoples’ preferences is fundamental to successful interpersonal interactions (e.g., product recommendations, gift-giving). This type of perception must be made with little information, very often based solely on facial cues. Although people are capable of accurately predicting [...] Read more.
In retail settings, social perception of other peoples’ preferences is fundamental to successful interpersonal interactions (e.g., product recommendations, gift-giving). This type of perception must be made with little information, very often based solely on facial cues. Although people are capable of accurately predicting others’ preferences from facial cues, we do not yet know how such inferences are made by crossmodal correspondence (arbitrary sensory associations) between facial cues and inferred attributes. The crossmodal correspondence literature implies the existence of sensory associations between shapes and tastes, and people consistently match roundness and angularity to sweet and sour foods, respectively. Given that peoples’ faces have dimensions characterized by roundness and angularity, it may be plausible that people infer others’ preferences by relying on the correspondence between facial roundness and taste. Based on a crossmodal correspondence framework, this study aimed to reveal the role of shape–taste correspondences in social perception. We investigated whether Japanese participants infer others’ taste (sweet/sour) preferences based on facial shapes (roundness/angularity). The results showed that participants reliably inferred that round-faced (vs. angular-faced) individuals preferred sweet foods (Study 1). Round-faced individuals and sweet foods were well matched, and the matching mediated the inference of other person’s preferences (Study 2). An association between facial roundness and inference of sweet taste preferences was observed in more natural faces, and perceived obesity mediated this association (Study 3). These findings advance the applicability of crossmodal correspondences in social perception, and imply the pervasiveness of prejudicial bias in the marketplace. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Characterization of a Pilot-Scale Model Cocoa Fermentation System Suitable for Studying the Impact of Fermentation on Putative Bioactive Compounds and Bioactivity of Cocoa
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Cocoa is a concentrated source of dietary flavanols—putative bioactive compounds associated with health benefits. It is known that fermentation and roasting reduce levels of native flavonoids in cocoa, and it is generally thought that this loss translates to reduced bioactivity. However, the mechanisms [...] Read more.
Cocoa is a concentrated source of dietary flavanols—putative bioactive compounds associated with health benefits. It is known that fermentation and roasting reduce levels of native flavonoids in cocoa, and it is generally thought that this loss translates to reduced bioactivity. However, the mechanisms of these losses are poorly understood, and little data exist to support this paradigm that flavonoid loss results in reduced health benefits. To further facilitate large-scale studies of the impact of fermentation on cocoa flavanols, a controlled laboratory fermentation model system was increased in scale to a large (pilot) scale system. Raw cocoa beans (15 kg) were fermented in 16 L of a simulated pulp media in duplicate for 168 h. The temperature of the fermentation was increased from 25–55 °C at a rate of 5 °C/24 h. As expected, total polyphenols and flavanol levels decreased as fermentation progressed (a loss of 18.3% total polyphenols and 14.4% loss of total flavanols during fermentation) but some increases were observed in the final timepoints (120–168 h). Fermentation substrates, metabolites and putative cocoa bioactive compounds were monitored and found to follow typical trends for on-farm cocoa heap fermentations. For example, sucrose levels in pulp declined from >40 mg/mL to undetectable at 96 h. This model system provides a controlled environment for further investigation into the potential for optimizing fermentation parameters to enhance the flavanol composition and the potential health benefits of the resultant cocoa beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Validation Including Uncertainty Estimation of a GC–MS/MS Method for Determination of Selected Halogenated Priority Substances in Fish Using Rapid and Efficient Lipid Removing Sample Preparation
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
A rapid method is proposed for the determination of selected H2SO4 stable organic compounds—eight organochlorines (OCs; hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane—HCH—isomers, heptachlor) and six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154)—in fish samples. In the method, a modified [...] Read more.
A rapid method is proposed for the determination of selected H2SO4 stable organic compounds—eight organochlorines (OCs; hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane—HCH—isomers, heptachlor) and six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154)—in fish samples. In the method, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) sample preparation using pH-tuned dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) and H2SO4 digestion fish extract clean-up is followed by gas chromatography–triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC–QqQ-MS/MS) analysis. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of the method, recovery, accuracy, analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1946), and estimation of combined uncertainty of the measurement (top-down approach). For validation, chub composite samples were used, and subsequently, the method was successfully applied to analysis of real samples of eight fish species. Finally, the method passed the analytical Eco-Scale evaluation as “an acceptable green analysis method”, and showed its advantages (simplicity, rapidity, low cost, high extract clean-up efficiency, good sensitivity) when compared to other reported QuEChERS based methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Methods for Assessing Food Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Salt Distribution in Raw Sheep Milk Cheese during Ripening and the Effect on Proteolysis and Lipolysis
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
The salt distribution process in artisanal sheep cheese with an innovative shape of eight lobes was investigated. The cheese was subjected to two brining conditions: 24 h with brine at 16°Baumé and 12 h at 22°Baumé. The chemical composition (pH, water activity, dry [...] Read more.
The salt distribution process in artisanal sheep cheese with an innovative shape of eight lobes was investigated. The cheese was subjected to two brining conditions: 24 h with brine at 16°Baumé and 12 h at 22°Baumé. The chemical composition (pH, water activity, dry matter, fat, and protein content), proteolysis (nitrogen fractions and free amino acids), and lipolysis (free fatty acids) were evaluated in two sampling zones (internal and external) at 1, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 days of ripening. The whole cheese reached a homogeneous salt distribution at 180 days of ripening. Brining conditions did not have an influence on the rate of salt penetration, but on the final sodium chloride (NaCl) content. Cheese with higher salt content (3.0%) showed increased proteolysis and lipolysis as compared to cheese with lower salt content (2.2%). Proteolysis index and total free fatty acids did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between internal and external zones of cheese. It is suggested that producers start marketing this artisanal cheese at 6 months of ripening, when it has uniform composition and salt distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Tryptophan, Tryptophan Ethylester, and Melatonin Derivatives in Red Wine by SPE-HPLC-FL and SPE-HPLC-MS Methods
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Melatonin (MEL) is an indoleamine produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. It plays a significant role in the regulation of circadian rhythms, mitigation of sleeping disorders, and jet lag. This compound is synthetized from tryptophan (TRP) and it has been found [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MEL) is an indoleamine produced mainly by the pineal gland in vertebrates. It plays a significant role in the regulation of circadian rhythms, mitigation of sleeping disorders, and jet lag. This compound is synthetized from tryptophan (TRP) and it has been found in seeds, fruits, and fermented beverages, including wine. Wine is also a source of other tryptophan derivatives, the tryptophan ethylester (TEE) and MEL isomers (MISs), for which the biological properties need to be elucidated. An analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of TRP, TEE, and MEL was developed by a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of a preconcentration of wine followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis either with fluorescence or mass spectrometer detectors. The analytical method showed a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 8%, except for TRP (RSD 10.5% in wine). The recovery was higher than 76%. The versatility of SPE preconcentrations allowed for the adequate preconcentration of wine sample as well as detection of low concentrations, an important aspect especially for MEL (detection limit 0.0023 µg/L). The proposed method proved to be suitable for assessing the investigated compounds in some red wine samples, where 74.4–256.2 µg/L and 0.038–0.063 µg/L of TEE and MEL were detected, respectively. Five MISs were also found in wine samples in concentrations up to 1.97 µg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle Selection and Evaluation of 21 Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) Breeding Clones for Cold Chip Processing
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Quality evaluations in potatoes are of necessity to meet the strict demands of the chip processing industry. Important parameters assessed include specific gravity, dry matter content, chip color, reducing sugars, and glycoalkaloids. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying specialized potato [...] Read more.
Quality evaluations in potatoes are of necessity to meet the strict demands of the chip processing industry. Important parameters assessed include specific gravity, dry matter content, chip color, reducing sugars, and glycoalkaloids. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying specialized potato clones with acceptable qualities for processing chips, in comparison with two selected control varieties, Dubaek and Superior. As a result, high dry matter and specific gravity were observed for three potato clones, and the quantified ά-solanine levels ranged from 0.15 to 15.54 mg·100 g−1 fresh weight (FW). Significant variations (p < 0.05) in reducing sugar levels were observed in clones stored at different temperature conditions. After reconditioning of the tubers at 22 °C for 21 days, a significant drop in reducing sugar levels was recorded. In addition, fried chips for each potato clone were evaluated, and the color measured on the basis of the Snack Food Association (SFA) chip color score standard. Reconditioned tubers exhibited much lighter and better chip color compared to their counterparts cold-stored at 4 °C. This study observed that for quality processing of potato chips, clones with combined traits of high dry matter, low levels of glycoalkaloids and reducing sugars, and acceptable chip color should be used as raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Chronology of Expression of Ten Extracellular Matrix Molecules during the Myogenesis in Cattle to Better Understand Sensory Properties of Meat
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
The sensory properties of beef are known to depend on muscle fiber and intramuscular connective tissue composition (IMCT). IMCT is composed of collagens, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. The differentiation of muscle fibers has been extensively studied but there is scarcity in the data concerning [...] Read more.
The sensory properties of beef are known to depend on muscle fiber and intramuscular connective tissue composition (IMCT). IMCT is composed of collagens, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. The differentiation of muscle fibers has been extensively studied but there is scarcity in the data concerning IMCT differentiation. In order to be able to control muscle differentiation to improve beef quality, it is essential to understand the ontogenesis of IMCT molecules. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chronology of appearance of 10 IMCT molecules in bovine Semitendinosus muscle using immunohistology technique at five key stages of myogenesis. Since 60 days post-conception (dpc), the whole molecules were present, but did not have their final location. It seems that they reach it at around 210 dpc. Then, the findings emphasized that since 210 dpc, the stage at which the differentiation of muscle fibers is almost complete, the differentiation of IMCT is almost completed. These data suggested that for the best controlling of the muscular differentiation to improve beef sensory quality, it would be necessary to intervene very early (before the IMCT constituents have acquired their definitive localization and the muscle fibers have finished differentiating), i.e., at the beginning of the first third of gestation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioactive Compounds, Nutritional Value, and Potential Health Benefits of Indigenous Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.): A Review
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the [...] Read more.
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the presence of fat, sugar, and volatile compounds such as esters and sulphur-containing compounds such as thioacetals, thioesters, and thiolanes, as well as alcohols. This review shows that durian is also rich in flavonoids (i.e., flavanols, anthocyanins), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. However, limited studies exist regarding the variation in bioactive and volatile components of different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Experimental animal models have shown that durian beneficially reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Durian extract possesses anti-proliferative and probiotics effects in in vitro models. These effects warrant further investigation in human interventional studies for the development of functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessReview Quality Aspects of Insects as Food—Nutritional, Sensory, and Related Concepts
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
In the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making [...] Read more.
In the search for another appealing source of future food to cover the increasing need for nutrients of a growing global population, this study reviewed the potential of insects as human food. Most previous reviews have dealt with insects as a group, making it difficult to evaluate each individual insect species as food because of the generalized data. This study assessed some common edible insects, but concentrated on mealworms. Insects, especially mealworms, have a similar or higher nutritional value than many conventional food sources. For example, the protein content of mealworm larvae is reported to be almost 50% of dry weight, while the fat content is about 30% of larval dry weight. Mealworms can be cooked by different methods, such as hot air drying, oven broiling, roasting, pan frying, deep frying, boiling, steaming, and microwaving. Oven broiling in particular gives a desirable aroma of steamed corn for consumers. Changes in the flavor, taste, and texture of mealworm products during storage have not been studied, but must be determined before mealworms can be used as a commercial food source. Factors controlling the shelf-life of mealworms, such as their packaging and storage, should be identified and considered with respect to the feasibility of using mealworms on a commercial scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of In Vitro Digestion on Antioxidant, ACE-Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Potentials of Traditional Serbian White-Brined Cheeses
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
This study deals with the effect of in vitro digestion on the functional potential of traditional Serbian white-brined cheeses. The total antioxidant capacity, reducing power and iron (II) chelating properties as well as angiotensin-converting enyzme-inhibitory (ACE-inhibitory) and antimicrobial activities of traditional Serbian white-brined [...] Read more.
This study deals with the effect of in vitro digestion on the functional potential of traditional Serbian white-brined cheeses. The total antioxidant capacity, reducing power and iron (II) chelating properties as well as angiotensin-converting enyzme-inhibitory (ACE-inhibitory) and antimicrobial activities of traditional Serbian white-brined cheeses before and after in vitro digestion were assayed. The traditional cheeses had different antioxidant properties as well as different ACE-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestion improved the total antioxidant capacity (8.42–58.56 times) and the reducing power (by 17.90–99.30%) of investigated cheeses, whereas their chelating ability was slightly improved or unaffected after digestion. In vitro digestion reduced the ACE-inhibitory potential of water-soluble protein fractions, and digested water-insoluble fractions were the major source of ACE-inhibitory peptides. The digestates did not exhibit any antibacterial potential, whereas they showed moderate antifungal potential toward selected micromycetes. The best antifungal potential had Svrljig ovine cheese and Homolje cow cheese. The results of this study clearly point to a significant functionality of traditional white-brined cheeses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 on 4-Nitroquineline-1-Oxide Induced Tongue Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 (LF-CQPC08) is a newly discovered strain of bacteria isolated and identified from traditional pickled vegetables in Sichuan, China. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish an experimental tongue cancer mouse model to evaluate the preventive effect of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 (LF-CQPC08) is a newly discovered strain of bacteria isolated and identified from traditional pickled vegetables in Sichuan, China. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish an experimental tongue cancer mouse model to evaluate the preventive effect of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer in vivo. Lactobacillus delbruechii subsp. bulgaricus, is a common commercial strain and is used as a positive control to compare the effect with LF-CQPC08. The preventive strength and mechanism of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer were determined by measuring the biochemical indicators in mouse serum and tissues. Our results showed LF-CQPC08 inhibits the decline of splenic index, thymus index, percentage of phagocytic macrophages, and phagocytic index effectively. LF-CQPC08 also increased levels of mouse serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM levels of serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels, thereby inhibiting the decline in immunity caused by tongue cancer. It also increased the activity levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the tissues of the tongue cancer mouse model, thereby suppressing the oxidative stress damage in the tissue caused by tongue cancer. Through quantitative PCR, LF-CQPC08 upregulated the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione-S-transferases-π (GST-π), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and downregulated the mRNA expression of p53, p63, p73, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in the tongue tissues of the tongue cancer mouse. These results indicated that LF-CQPC08 reduced the influence of tongue cancer on the immune system and oxidative balance and improved the immunity and enhanced antioxidant capacity of the mouse model, thereby preventing tongue cancer. LF-CQPC08 could be used as a microbial resource with a preventive effect on tongue cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that [...] Read more.
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs. Fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides are the two important groups of prebiotics with beneficial effects on human health. Since low quantities of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides naturally exist in foods, scientists are attempting to produce prebiotics on an industrial scale. Considering the health benefits of prebiotics and their safety, as well as their production and storage advantages compared to probiotics, they seem to be fascinating candidates for promoting human health condition as a replacement or in association with probiotics. This review discusses different aspects of prebiotics, including their crucial role in human well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Casein Hydrolysates on Intestinal Cell Migration and Their Peptide Profiles by LC-ESI/MS/MS
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
Potential beneficial effects of bioactive peptides derived from casein on epithelial cellular wound healing in the gastrointestinal tract were studied. Bovine casein was digested by a combination of pepsin and pancreatic proteases at different time intervals to represent ranges of duration of gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Potential beneficial effects of bioactive peptides derived from casein on epithelial cellular wound healing in the gastrointestinal tract were studied. Bovine casein was digested by a combination of pepsin and pancreatic proteases at different time intervals to represent ranges of duration of gastrointestinal digestion. Intestinal epithelial cells were used as an in vitro model of the small intestine. The effect of casein hydrolysates on cell migration was studied by scratch assay as a model of wound healing. Casein digested by pepsin and pancreatin for 10 to 30 min were found to have a significant stimulatory effect of >40% on cell migration relative to the control. A potential effect of casein gastrointestinal digests on gastro-intestinal wound healing has not previously been reported. The peptide profiles of active as well as inactive casein hydrolysates were characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. By comparison of identified peptides in active and inactive casein hydrolysates, a pool of 11 peptides derived from casein were identified as potential candidates for effects on cell migration. Searching the milk bioactive peptide database (MBPDB) showed that 15 of the identified peptides had known biological functions such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Origanum syriacum Essential Oil Chemical Polymorphism According to Soil Type
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: Origanum syriacum L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in Lebanon. This species is highly used in Lebanese traditional medicine and is a staple food in Lebanese gastronomy. Due to the over-harvesting, this species has become a cultivated crop rather than being [...] Read more.
Background: Origanum syriacum L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in Lebanon. This species is highly used in Lebanese traditional medicine and is a staple food in Lebanese gastronomy. Due to the over-harvesting, this species has become a cultivated crop rather than being collected from the wild. This study aims to evaluate the chemical polymorphism according to soil type. Methods: Plant samples were cultivated in different soil types including manure, potting mix, professional agriculture mixture, vegetable compost, nursery soils, and natural agricultural soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After 16 weeks of culture, fresh shoot biomass was measured. Root colonization rate was evaluated and foliar biomasses were used for essential oil (EO) extraction. EO yield was calculated and the identification of the main chemical compounds of EO samples was performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results: Our findings revealed that the soil type affects the O. syriacum chemotype. Indeed, the EO samples could be divided into two groups: thymol chemotype group including manure and vegetable compost soils and non-sterilized non-inoculated EO samples, and the thymol/carvacrol chemotype including potting mix, professional agriculture mixture, nursery mixture, sterilized non-inoculated, non-sterilized inoculated, and sterilized inoculated EO samples. These results showed that manure and vegetable compost soils promoted thymol synthesis, whereas potting mix, professional agriculture mixture, and nursery mixture soils were thymol/carvacrol chemotype. Moreover, mycorrhizal inoculation increased carvacrol and reduced thymol productions in comparison to non-inoculated conditions. Additionally, mycorrhizal inoculation showed significant enhancements in mycorrhizal rates and shoot biomass production with respect to the non-sterilized soil. Conclusions: These variations confirm the influence of the edaphic conditions on the chemical components biosynthesis pathways of oregano plants. The results of this investigation could be used for determining optimal soil type, leading to a good quality herb production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Native Colombian Fruits and Their by-Products: Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Activity and Hypoglycaemic Potential
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
The phenols and fatty acids profile and in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity of seed, peel, pulp or pulp plus seeds of Colombian fruits from Solanaceae and Passifloraceae families were investigated. Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) revealed the presence [...] Read more.
The phenols and fatty acids profile and in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity of seed, peel, pulp or pulp plus seeds of Colombian fruits from Solanaceae and Passifloraceae families were investigated. Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid as dominant phenolic compound in Solanaceae samples. Based on the Relative Antioxidant Score (RACI) and Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) values, Solanum quitoense peel showed the highest antioxidant potential among Solanaceae samples while Passiflora tripartita fruits exhibited the highest antioxidant effects among Passifloraceae samples. P. ligularis seeds were the most active as hypoglycaemic agent with IC50 values of 22.6 and 24.8 μg/mL against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Considering that some of the most promising results were obtained by the processing waste portion, its use as functional ingredients should be considered for the development of nutraceutical products intended for patients with disturbance of glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Liquid Chromatography in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Xanthan Gum Capped ZnO Microstars as a Promising Dietary Zinc Supplementation
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements, and plays an important role in human health. Severe zinc deficiency can negatively affect organs such as the epidermal, immune, central nervous, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and reproductive systems. In this study, we offered a novel biocompatible [...] Read more.
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements, and plays an important role in human health. Severe zinc deficiency can negatively affect organs such as the epidermal, immune, central nervous, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and reproductive systems. In this study, we offered a novel biocompatible xanthan gum capped zinc oxide (ZnO) microstar as a potential dietary zinc supplementation for food fortification. Xanthan gum (XG) is a commercially important extracellular polysaccharide that is widely used in diverse fields such as the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, due to its nontoxic and biocompatible properties. In this work, for the first time, we reported a green procedure for the synthesis of ZnO microstars using XG, as the stabilizing agent, without using any synthetic or toxic reagent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the structure, morphology, and size of the synthesized ZnO structures. The results showed that the synthesized structures were both hexagonal phase and starlike, with an average particle size of 358 nm. The effect of different dosages of XG-capped ZnO nanoparticles (1–9 mM) against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus sphaericus) bacteria were also investigated. Based on the results, the fabricated XG-capped ZnO microstars showed a high level of biocompatibility with no antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms. The data suggested the potential of newly produced ZnO microstructures for a range of applications in dietary supplementation and food fortification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanotechnology in Developing Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Aroma Patterns Characterization of Braised Pork Obtained from a Novel Ingredient by Sensory-Guided Analysis and Gas-Chromatography-Olfactometry
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Two types of braised pork were prepared from self-made braised sauce added to Maillard reaction intermediate (MRI) and white granulated sugar, respectively. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were conducted to investigate their differences in sensory and aroma compounds. The results [...] Read more.
Two types of braised pork were prepared from self-made braised sauce added to Maillard reaction intermediate (MRI) and white granulated sugar, respectively. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were conducted to investigate their differences in sensory and aroma compounds. The results showed that the effect of self-made braised sauce in braised pork was comparable to white granulated sugar. One-hundred-and-nine volatile flavor compounds were identified by GC-MS using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE). Thirty-six odor active compounds with retention indexes ranging from 935–2465 were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Additionally, their odor activity values (OAV) were calculated. It was found that 17 aroma compounds showed an OAV greater than 1. Among them, pentanal (almond, pungent), nonanal (fat, green), (E, E)-2,4-decadienal (fat, roast), phenylacetaldehyde (hawthorn, honey, sweet), dodecanal (lily, fat, citrus) and linalool (floral, lavender) reached the highest OAV values (>200), indicating a significant contribution to the aroma of two types of braised pork. These results indicated that the self-made braised sauce added with MRI could be used for cooking braised pork with good sensory characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing of Meat Products and Health Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effects of Different Fermentation Times of Shuidouchi on Diphenoxylate-Induced Constipation in Mice
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
This study compares the prevention effects of Shuidouchi with different fermentation times on constipation in mice. Shuidouchi is a short-time fermented soybean product. By improving its processing technology, it can incur better biological activity and become a health food. The Shuidouchi-treated mice were [...] Read more.
This study compares the prevention effects of Shuidouchi with different fermentation times on constipation in mice. Shuidouchi is a short-time fermented soybean product. By improving its processing technology, it can incur better biological activity and become a health food. The Shuidouchi-treated mice were evaluated using constipation-related kits, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and Western blot assays. After the mice were fed 72-h-fermented Shuidouchi (72-SDC) for 9 d, the defecation time to excrete the first black stool was lower than that of the control and 24-SDC and 48-SDC groups, but was much higher than that of the normal group. The gastrointestinal (GI) transit of the small intestine of the 72-SDC group was higher than that of the control and the 24-SDC and 48-SDC groups, but lower that of the normal group. Meanwhile, 72-SDC could significantly increase the levels of ghrelin, endothelin-1 (ET-1), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) in the serum of constipated mice compared to the levels in mice in the control group. Moreover, 72-SDC could raise c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GNDF), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels, and reduce transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels in small-intestinal tissue compared to the levels in the control group. Meanwhile, 72-SDC also raised ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric tissue and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) mRNA expression in colon tissue compared to the control group mice; these effects were stronger than those of 24-SDC and 48-SDC. Shuidouchi has good preventative effects on constipation and performs best when fermented for at least 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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