Special Issue "Probiotics and Functional Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Xanel Vecino
Website
Guest Editor
1. Chemical Engineering Department, School of Industrial Engineering (EEI), University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2. Chemical Engineering Department, Escuela de Ingeniería de Barcelona Este (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)-BarcelonaTECH, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: bioactive ingredients; surface-active compounds; natural products; cosmetic formulations; green technology; waste valorization; fermentation; Lactobacillus species; probiotic and prebiotic properties
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interest of consumers in the relationship between diet and health has increased over the years. In this sense, functional foods are nourishments that contain bioactive ingredients that can improve health and/or help to prevent certain diseases when they have been taken as part of a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. There are different types of functional foods, such as: (i) food with specific fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins, or minerals, (ii) food with biologically active components, like antioxidants, or (iii) probiotics substances. Among them, probiotics are an emerging category of functional foods, as they can provide health benefits above the traditional nutrition function when they are incorporated into food and pharmaceutical or cosmetic products.

However, probiotic food must be formulated with living microorganisms (e.g., lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria) and, consequently, these products have a short shelf life in comparison to other types of food.

The objective of this Special Issue is to focus on: (i) food bioactive ingredients; (ii) the characterization of functional foods based on their composition, efficacy, safety, and nutritional/healthy aspects, (iii) the development of food products with functional substances, and (iv) the regulatory perspectives for functional foods. For that, original research articles, reviews, industrial cases, and short communications are welcomed and encouraged.

Dr. Xanel Vecino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food ingredients
  • Bioactive components
  • Healthy food
  • Food technology
  • Probiotics
  • Functional foods
  • Antioxidants
  • Food supplement
  • Regulation aspects

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Sprouts as the Potential Food Source for Bioactive Properties: A Comprehensive Study on In Vitro Disease Models
Foods 2019, 8(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110532 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Broccoli sprouts are an excellent source of health-promoting phytochemicals such as vitamins, glucosinolates, and phenolics. The study aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antibacterial activities of broccoli sprouts. Five-day-old sprouts extracted by 70% ethanol showed significant antioxidant activities, analyzed to [...] Read more.
Broccoli sprouts are an excellent source of health-promoting phytochemicals such as vitamins, glucosinolates, and phenolics. The study aimed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antibacterial activities of broccoli sprouts. Five-day-old sprouts extracted by 70% ethanol showed significant antioxidant activities, analyzed to be 68.8 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry weight by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic (ABTS) assay, 91% scavenging by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 1.81 absorbance by reducing power assay, and high phenolic contents by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thereafter, sprout extract indicated considerable antiproliferative activities towards A549 (lung carcinoma cells), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma cells), and Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, with IC50 values of 0.117, 0.168 and 0.189 mg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry confirmed that Caco-2 cells underwent apoptosis by an increase of cell percentage in subG1 phase to 31.3%, and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential to 19.3% after 48 h of treatment. Afterward, the extract exhibited notable antibacterial capacities against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, appropriately, along with abilities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with an MIC value of 1.56 mg/mL. Thus, broccoli sprouts were confirmed as a potential food source for consumers’ selection and functional food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Xanthohumol in Hops, Food Supplements and Beers by HPLC
Foods 2019, 8(10), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100435 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Xanthohumol (XN) is the main prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus) with high biological activity, and it is of great importance for human health because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and chemopreventive properties. This polyphenol can be included in the [...] Read more.
Xanthohumol (XN) is the main prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus) with high biological activity, and it is of great importance for human health because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and chemopreventive properties. This polyphenol can be included in the diet through foods in which hops are used, such as beer or food supplements. Because of their health benefits and the increasing interest of using hops as a novel nutraceutical, the aim of this work was the identification and quantification of XN in different types of samples using a method based on high resolution liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), repeatability and recovery. Acceptable linearity (r2 0.9999), adequate recovery (>90% in the most of cases) and good sensitivity (LOD 16 µg/L) were obtained. Furthermore, the presence of XN in all samples was confirmed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in negative ESI (electrospray system ionization) mode. The concentrations of XN determined in hop flowers and food supplements were above the LOQ, in a range between 0.106 and 12.7 mg/g. Beer may also represent an important source of dietary prenylflavonoids, with between 0.028 and 0.062 mg/L of XN. The results showed that the methodology proposed was suitable for the determination of XN in the different types of samples studied, and the amounts of XN varied significantly according to the selected product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Oxidative Status of Salami Packaged with an Active Whey Protein Film
Foods 2019, 8(9), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090387 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Active packaging aims to prolong food’s shelf-life by directly interacting with the packaged food. This type of packaging is characterized by having the active agent incorporated into the package polymer, such as antioxidant additives, that will gradually migrate from the package polymer to [...] Read more.
Active packaging aims to prolong food’s shelf-life by directly interacting with the packaged food. This type of packaging is characterized by having the active agent incorporated into the package polymer, such as antioxidant additives, that will gradually migrate from the package polymer to the packed food and, consequently, delay food’s natural lipid oxidation. In this study, the efficiency of an active whey protein film incorporated with a rosemary extract on retarding the lipid oxidation of salami slices was evaluated. The lipid oxidation of the salami was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and hexanal monitorization. Also, a sensory analysis on the salami packaged for 60 and 90 days was performed. The active film was able to delay the salami’s lipid oxidation for, at least, 30 days. The samples packaged with the active film revealed a bitter taste related to the rosemary extract and a bit sweet from the WP and the glycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Probiotic Beverage Using Breadfruit Flour as a Substrate
Foods 2019, 8(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060214 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
A fermented beverage was developed using breadfruit flour as a substrate by optimising sucrose, inoculum concentrations, and fermentation temperature in the formulation by utilising the D-optimal mixture design. The optimisation was carried out based on CFU counts, pH, titratable acidity, lactic acid, and [...] Read more.
A fermented beverage was developed using breadfruit flour as a substrate by optimising sucrose, inoculum concentrations, and fermentation temperature in the formulation by utilising the D-optimal mixture design. The optimisation was carried out based on CFU counts, pH, titratable acidity, lactic acid, and sugar concentration of the different fermented breadfruit substrate formulations. Results showed that the optimised values based on the contour plots generated were: 7% breadfruit flour, 1% inoculum, and 15% sugar after fermentation at 30 °C for 48 h. Sensory projective mapping results showed that the fermented breadfruit substrate beverage was characterised by a pale-yellow appearance, fruity flavour, and sweet and sour taste. The hedonic test was not significantly different (p > 0.05) for almost all formulations except for formulation 4 (5% sugar, 3% inoculum, 7% breadfruit flour at 30 °C), which was described as bitter and had the lowest acceptance rating. This study successfully demonstrated the development of a novel fermented breadfruit-based beverage with acceptable sensory characteristics and cell viability using a mixture strain of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum DPC 206. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Milk Type on the Proteolysis and Antioxidant Capacity of White-Brined Cheese Manufactured from High-Heat-Treated Milk Pretreated with Chymosin
Foods 2019, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040128 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
We investigated the effect of milk type on the proteolysis and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of white-brined cheeses prepared from high-heat-treated (90 °C, 10 min) cow’s and goat’s milk, pretreated with chymosin at a low temperature (4 °C). The cheeses produced showed improved [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of milk type on the proteolysis and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of white-brined cheeses prepared from high-heat-treated (90 °C, 10 min) cow’s and goat’s milk, pretreated with chymosin at a low temperature (4 °C). The cheeses produced showed improved antioxidant characteristics and a high content of denatured whey proteins. However, these characteristics depend on the type of milk and the ripening time. Ripened cow’s milk cheese had higher values of WSN/TN (water-soluble nitrogen per total nitrogen content) and TCA-SN/TN (nitrogen soluble in 12% trichloroacetic acid per total nitrogen), but similar PTA-SN/TN (nitrogen soluble in 5% phosphotungstic acid per total nitrogen) values were observed in ripened cheeses. The antioxidant potential of a WSF (water-soluble fraction) was higher in goat’s milk cheese, but higher TEAC (total antioxidant capacity) values of WINF (water-insoluble fraction) were observed in matured cow’s milk cheese. In vitro digestion slightly improved the radical scavenging capacity of WSF, whereas digested WINF had more than twice the capacity of their undigested counterparts. The cheeses prepared in this study could be a good source of antioxidant peptides. Further investigations of their in vitro and in vivo functionality need to be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 on 4-Nitroquineline-1-Oxide Induced Tongue Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice
Foods 2019, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030093 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 (LF-CQPC08) is a newly discovered strain of bacteria isolated and identified from traditional pickled vegetables in Sichuan, China. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish an experimental tongue cancer mouse model to evaluate the preventive effect of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC08 (LF-CQPC08) is a newly discovered strain of bacteria isolated and identified from traditional pickled vegetables in Sichuan, China. We used 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish an experimental tongue cancer mouse model to evaluate the preventive effect of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer in vivo. Lactobacillus delbruechii subsp. bulgaricus, is a common commercial strain and is used as a positive control to compare the effect with LF-CQPC08. The preventive strength and mechanism of LF-CQPC08 on tongue cancer were determined by measuring the biochemical indicators in mouse serum and tissues. Our results showed LF-CQPC08 inhibits the decline of splenic index, thymus index, percentage of phagocytic macrophages, and phagocytic index effectively. LF-CQPC08 also increased levels of mouse serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM levels of serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels, thereby inhibiting the decline in immunity caused by tongue cancer. It also increased the activity levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the tissues of the tongue cancer mouse model, thereby suppressing the oxidative stress damage in the tissue caused by tongue cancer. Through quantitative PCR, LF-CQPC08 upregulated the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione-S-transferases-π (GST-π), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and downregulated the mRNA expression of p53, p63, p73, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in the tongue tissues of the tongue cancer mouse. These results indicated that LF-CQPC08 reduced the influence of tongue cancer on the immune system and oxidative balance and improved the immunity and enhanced antioxidant capacity of the mouse model, thereby preventing tongue cancer. LF-CQPC08 could be used as a microbial resource with a preventive effect on tongue cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications
Foods 2019, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 84
Abstract
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that [...] Read more.
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs. Fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides are the two important groups of prebiotics with beneficial effects on human health. Since low quantities of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides naturally exist in foods, scientists are attempting to produce prebiotics on an industrial scale. Considering the health benefits of prebiotics and their safety, as well as their production and storage advantages compared to probiotics, they seem to be fascinating candidates for promoting human health condition as a replacement or in association with probiotics. This review discusses different aspects of prebiotics, including their crucial role in human well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
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