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Physicochemical Properties and Pollen Profile of Oak Honeydew and Evergreen Oak Honeydew Honeys from Spain: A Comparative Study

Department of Vegetal Biology and Soil Sciences, University of Vigo, Faculty of Sciences, 32004 Ourense, Spain
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Foods 2019, 8(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8040126
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey: Chemical Composition, Stability and Authenticity)
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Abstract

This work investigates the similarities and differences of oak honeydew (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and evergreen honeydew (Quercus ilex L.) honey produced in Spain. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of 17 samples from oak honeydew and 11 samples from evergreen honeydew collected in different geographical regions were analyzed. All the samples accomplished European Union requirements for honey consumption. Both honey types had amber dark color; however, the evergreen oak honey was clearer than oak honey, having higher mean values in a* and b* coordinates of CIELab scale. In general, both honey types exhibited high electrical conductivity, a moderate value of pH, medium to low water content, and high diastase activity. The reducing sugar content was significantly lower and maltose content was significantly higher in evergreen honeydew. In addition, total phenols and total flavonoid contents, the antioxidant activity and the melissopalynological analysis was performed. The oak honeydew honey had a higher abundance of Castanea, Rubus and Erica pollen grains, while the evergreen oak honeydew honey had a higher abundance of Lavandula, Olea europaea or Anthyllis cytisoides. A multivariate analysis using the most representative pollen types and physicochemical components facilitated the differentiation of the honey samples, thus this information can be useful for the honey characterization. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey; Quercus pyrenaica; Quercus ilex; botanical characteristics; physicochemical properties; geographical origin; cluster analysis honey; Quercus pyrenaica; Quercus ilex; botanical characteristics; physicochemical properties; geographical origin; cluster analysis
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Seijo, M.C.; Escuredo, O.; Rodríguez-Flores, M.S. Physicochemical Properties and Pollen Profile of Oak Honeydew and Evergreen Oak Honeydew Honeys from Spain: A Comparative Study. Foods 2019, 8, 126.

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