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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This study investigated the properties of starch in Agria potatoes treated with pulsed electric [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Distrust about E-numbers: A Qualitative Study among Food Experts
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Food additives (E-numbers) are allowed in foods, but many consumers have a negative perception of them. The objective was to study the opinion of food experts about the causes and ways to reduce consumer distrust about E-numbers. Thirteen food experts from universities, research [...] Read more.
Food additives (E-numbers) are allowed in foods, but many consumers have a negative perception of them. The objective was to study the opinion of food experts about the causes and ways to reduce consumer distrust about E-numbers. Thirteen food experts from universities, research institutes, the government, food industry organisations, media, a nutrition information organisation, a consumer association and two other non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were interviewed with a semi-structured topic list, based on a model of risk perception. Interviews were transcribed, coded by an open-coding approach and analysed. Results indicated that, according to food experts, consumer distrust of E-numbers arose from negative communication by traditional media, social media and books. Food experts suggested that the information sources and the reliability of E-number information are important for consumers. Food experts also suggested reducing consumer distrust by avoiding negative label claims and making collective agreements with all parties about honest and transparent communication. According to interviewed food experts, food companies need to explain clearly and honestly why they use E-numbers in food. A nutrition information organisation and the government were often mentioned as appropriate parties to undertake action. The interviews suggested that consumers had no confidence in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Retention of Pro-Vitamin A Content in Products from New Biofortified Cassava Varieties
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Plant breeding efforts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have produced biofortified cassava with high carotenoid content to address vitamin A deficiencies (VAD). Since carotenoids in foods are easily depleted during processing, the retention of β-carotene in some newly released cassava varieties is under query. [...] Read more.
Plant breeding efforts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have produced biofortified cassava with high carotenoid content to address vitamin A deficiencies (VAD). Since carotenoids in foods are easily depleted during processing, the retention of β-carotene in some newly released cassava varieties is under query. From four of these new varieties, two commonly consumed products (gari and its dough) were processed according to standard methods. Retention of β-carotene was then probed after applying fermentation periods of a day and three days. The possible contribution of the products to Vitamin A intake in children, adolescents, and women was also assessed. The concentration of β-carotene in fresh Cassava roots ranged from 5.32 to 7.81 µg/g. The percentage retention ranged from 14.4 to 29.3% and 10 to 21.7% in gari fermented for one and three days respectively. The impact of varietal difference and length of fermentation was significant on retention in the intermediate and final products (p < 0.001). When compared with dietary intake data, cooking biofortified gari into its dough reduced Vitamin A intake in most varieties. We conclude that processing Cassava into gari (especially its dough) could hinder the retention of β-carotene however some varieties have retention advantage over others irrespective of the initial concentration in their fresh roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Biological Effects of Food Coloring in In Vivo and In Vitro Model Systems
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: The suitability of certain food colorings is nowadays in discussion because of the effects of these compounds on human health. For this reason, in the present work, the biological effects of six worldwide used food colorings (Riboflavin, Tartrazine, Carminic Acid, Erythrosine, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The suitability of certain food colorings is nowadays in discussion because of the effects of these compounds on human health. For this reason, in the present work, the biological effects of six worldwide used food colorings (Riboflavin, Tartrazine, Carminic Acid, Erythrosine, Indigotine, and Brilliant Blue FCF) were analyzed using two model systems. (2) Methods: In vivo toxicity, antitoxicity, and longevity assays using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and in vitro cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation, and methylation status assays using HL-60 tumor human cell line were carried out. (3) Results: Our in vivo results showed safe effects in Drosophila for all the food coloring treatments, non-significant protective potential against an oxidative toxin, and different effects on the lifespan of flies. The in vitro results in HL-60 cells, showed that the tested food colorings increased tumor cell growth but did not induce any DNA damage or modifications in the DNA methylation status at their acceptable daily intake (ADI) concentrations. (4) Conclusions: From the in vivo and in vitro studies, these results would support the idea that a high chronic intake of food colorings throughout the entire life is not advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Viability of 4 Probiotic Bacteria Microencapsulated with Arrowroot Starch in the Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and Yoghurt
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Probiotic bacteria are usually encapsulated to increase their survival through passage of the simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Four Lactobacilli were freeze-dried and encapsulated with maltodextrin (maltodextrin 1.25 g, whey 0.25 g, bacteria 0.5 g, and water 2 mL) and arrowroot starch (arrowroot 1.25 [...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria are usually encapsulated to increase their survival through passage of the simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Four Lactobacilli were freeze-dried and encapsulated with maltodextrin (maltodextrin 1.25 g, whey 0.25 g, bacteria 0.5 g, and water 2 mL) and arrowroot starch (arrowroot 1.25 g, whey 0.25 g, bacteria 0.5 g, and water 2 mL). The effects of different coatings were evaluated for their viability in the GIT and yogurt. The findings indicated no significant differences at p > 0.05 in the survival of the encapsulated cells with increased concentrations of arrowroot and maltodextrin. The viability of the encapsulated bacteria was increased in the simulated GIT with high counts of 109 cfu/mL after 30 min stiffening in 1 µm size beads. However, the bead fermented yogurt exhibited insignificant difference on the survivability of the organisms in a simulated GIT after 15 days. Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissela paramesenteroides, Enterococcus faecalis, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum showed a significant increase of viable cells at p > 0.05 after freeze-drying in comparison with free cells at high bile salt concentrations and low acidity. This study confirmed that arrowroot starch and maltodextrin combinations in encapsulation might be an effective method that could allow viable probiotic bacteria to reach the large intestine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Addition of α-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin Affect Quality of Dough and Prebaked Bread During Frozen Storage
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
The effects of the addition of 0–3.0 wt% α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) on the quality of wheat flour as well as the texture and the aging of prebaked bread were evaluated. The addition of α-CD and γ-CD increased the ability of wheat [...] Read more.
The effects of the addition of 0–3.0 wt% α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) on the quality of wheat flour as well as the texture and the aging of prebaked bread were evaluated. The addition of α-CD and γ-CD increased the ability of wheat flour to absorb water and shortened the times of dough formation and stabilization. Amylase activity slightly increased after using 2.0 and 3.0 wt% of α-CD and γ-CD, respectively. Moreover, the addition of α-CD and γ-CD increased the fermentation height and gas retention ability of dough. Dough samples containing 2.0 wt% α-CD and 3.0 wt% γ-CD showed the highest fermentation heights and gas retention volumes, respectively. Dough gas production increased with the addition of γ-CD. Gas production by dough samples containing more than 2.0 wt% α-CD exceeded that by samples in the control group. The results of the texture crumb of bread and specific volume tests revealed that the addition of 2.0 wt% α-CD and 3.0 wt% γ-CD reduced bread hardness and increased bread elasticity, resilience, and specific volume. The optimal α-CD and γ-CD contents were identified as 2.0 wt% and 3.0 wt%, respectively. The addition of 2.0 wt% α-CD and 3.0 wt% γ-CD delayed the aging of prebaked bread and reduced the hardness of prebaked bread during different weeks of storage, which may be due to decreasing the melting enthalpy of starch crystals. This work elucidated the mechanisms underlying the effects of CD addition on prebaked bread quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Breed and Gender on Meat Quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum Muscle from Crossbred Beef Bulls and Steers
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether sire breed and/or castration had an effect on meat quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from crossbred bulls and steers and to investigate the relationship amongst the traits examined. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine whether sire breed and/or castration had an effect on meat quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from crossbred bulls and steers and to investigate the relationship amongst the traits examined. Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat (IMF)%, cook-loss%, drip-loss%, colour (L*, a*, b*) and ultimate pH (upH) were determined in the LTL muscle from eight beef sire breeds representative of the Irish herd (Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Parthenaise, Salers and Simmental). The results indicate that IMF%, cook-loss% and drip-loss% were associated with breed (p < 0.05); while WBSF, IMF% and cook-loss% differ between genders (p < 0.05). Steer LTL had a greater IMF% and exhibited reduced WBSF and cook-loss% in comparison to the bull LTL (p < 0.05). This study provides greater insight into how quality traits in beef are influenced by breed and gender and will support the industry to produce beef with consistent eating quality. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Components in a Vaccinium oldhamii Extract Showing Inhibitory Activity against Influenza Virus Adsorption
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
We previously reported that extracts from plants of the Ericaceae genus Vaccinium, commonly known as the kind of blueberry, inhibited the early steps of influenza virus (IFV) infection to host cells, and that the activity was correlated with the total polyphenol content. [...] Read more.
We previously reported that extracts from plants of the Ericaceae genus Vaccinium, commonly known as the kind of blueberry, inhibited the early steps of influenza virus (IFV) infection to host cells, and that the activity was correlated with the total polyphenol content. Particularly potent inhibitory activity was observed for Vaccinium oldhamii. In this study, we identified the active components in Vaccinium oldhamii involved in the inhibition of IFV infection. We sequentially fractionated the Vaccinium oldhamii extract using a synthetic adsorbent resin column. High inhibitory activity was observed for the fractions eluted with 30%, 40%, and 50% ethanol, and three peaks (peak A, B, and C) considered to represent polyphenols were identified in the fractions by HPLC analysis. Among these peaks, high inhibitory activity was detected for peak A and B, but not for peak C. These peaks were analyzed by LC/MS, which revealed that peak A contained procyanidin B2 and ferulic acid derivatives, whereas peak B contained two ferulic acid O-hexosides, and peak C contained quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-O-pentoside-O-rhamnoside. It is already known that these polyphenols have anti-IFV activity, but we speculate that ferulic acid derivatives are the major contributors to the inhibition of the early steps of IFV replication, such as either adsorption or entry, observed for Vaccinium oldhamii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Total, Neutral, and Polar Lipids of Brewing Ingredients, By-Products and Beer: Evaluation of Antithrombotic Activities
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted [...] Read more.
The in vitro antithrombotic properties of polar lipid constituents of malted grain (MG), pelleted hops (PH), brewer’s spent grain (BSG), spent hops (SH), wort, and bottled beer from the same production line were assessed in human platelets. The total lipids (TL) were extracted according to the Bligh and Dyer method and further separated into the total neutral lipids (TNL) and total polar lipids (TPL) extracts by counter-current distribution. The TL, TNL, and TPL extracts of all samples were assessed for their ability to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The raw materials, by-products, wort, and beer lipid extracts all exhibited antithrombotic properties against PAF and thrombin. However, the beer TPL exhibited the lowest IC50 values against PAF-induced (7.8 ± 3.9 µg) and thrombin-induced (4.3 ± 3.0 µg) platelet aggregation indicating that these polar lipids were the most antithrombotic. The lipid extracts tended to be more bioactive against the thrombin pathway. The fatty acid content of all the TPL extracts were assessed using GC-MS. The fatty acid composition of the most bioactive TPL extracts, the wort and the beer, shared similar fatty acid profiles. Indeed, it was noted that fermentation seems to play a role in increasing the antithrombotic properties of polar lipids against PAF and thrombin by moderately altering the polar lipid fatty acid composition. Furthermore, the use of brewing by-products as a source of functional cardioprotective lipids warrants further investigation and valorisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Obesity Effect of Extract from Nelumbo Nucifera L., Morus Alba L., and Raphanus Sativus Mixture in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and C57BL/6J Obese Mice
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
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Abstract
The antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities of a mixture of Nelumbo nucifera L., Morus alba L., and Raphanus sativus were investigated and their anti-obesity activities were established in vitro and in vivo. Among the 26 different mixtures of extraction solvent and mixture ratios, [...] Read more.
The antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities of a mixture of Nelumbo nucifera L., Morus alba L., and Raphanus sativus were investigated and their anti-obesity activities were established in vitro and in vivo. Among the 26 different mixtures of extraction solvent and mixture ratios, ethanol extract mixture no. 1 (EM01) showed the highest antioxidant (α,α-Diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl, total phenolic contents) and anti-adipogenic (Oil-Red O staining) activities. EM01 inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to quercetin-3-O-glucuronide. Furthermore, body, liver, and adipose tissue weights decreased in the high-fat diet (HFD)-EM01 group compared to in the high-fat diet control group (HFD-CTL). EM01 lowered blood glucose levels elevated by the HFD. Lipid profiles were improved following EM01 treatment. Serum adiponectin significantly increased, while leptin, insulin growth factor-1, non-esterified fatty acid, and glucose significantly decreased in the HFD-EM01 group. Adipogenesis and lipogenesis-related genes were suppressed, while fat oxidation-related genes increased following EM01 administration. Thus, EM01 may be a natural anti-obesity agent. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Impact of Different Gums on Textural and Microbial Properties of Goat Milk Yogurts during Refrigerated Storage
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the impact of seven different gums on textural and microbiological properties of goat milk yogurt during refrigerated storage was investigated. The results showed that yogurt containing xanthan and locust bean gums had enhanced firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity during four [...] Read more.
In this study, the impact of seven different gums on textural and microbiological properties of goat milk yogurt during refrigerated storage was investigated. The results showed that yogurt containing xanthan and locust bean gums had enhanced firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity during four weeks of storage compared to the control and yogurt fortified with other gums (p < 0.05). The addition of gums also helped to maintain the microbial viability of the yogurt culture and the probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. This study thus demonstrated that these gums could be used in the production of goat milk yogurt with enhanced textural properties. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Maternal Consumption of a Diet Rich in Maillard Reaction Products Accelerates Neurodevelopment in F1 and Sex-Dependently Affects Behavioral Phenotype in F2 Rat Offspring
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Thermal processing of foods at temperatures > 100 °C introduces considerable amounts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) into the diet. Maternal dietary exposure might affect the offspring early development and behavioral phenotype in later life. In a rat model, we examined the influence [...] Read more.
Thermal processing of foods at temperatures > 100 °C introduces considerable amounts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) into the diet. Maternal dietary exposure might affect the offspring early development and behavioral phenotype in later life. In a rat model, we examined the influence of maternal (F0) dietary challenge with AGEs-rich diet (AGE-RD) during puberty, pregnancy and lactation on early development, a manifestation of physiological reflexes, and behavioral phenotype of F1 and F2 offspring. Mean postnatal day of auditory conduit and eye opening, or incisor eruption was not affected by F0 diet significantly. F1 AGE-RD offspring outperformed their control counterparts in hind limb placing, in grasp tests and surface righting; grandsons of AGE-RD dams outperformed their control counterparts in hind limb placing and granddaughters in surface righting. In a Morris water maze, female AGE-RD F1 and F2 offspring presented better working memory compared with a control group of female offspring. Furthermore, male F2 AGE-RD offspring manifested anxiolysis-like behavior in a light dark test. Mean grooming time in response to sucrose splash did not differ between dietary groups. Our findings indicate that long-term maternal intake of AGE-RD intergenerationally and sex-specifically affects development and behavioral traits of offspring which have never come into direct contact with AGE-RD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Browning Reactions in Foods. Impact on Nutrition, Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Religion, Food Choices, and Demand Seasonality: Evidence from the Ethiopian Milk Market
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
The impact of religious behavior on food systems in developing economies has been understated in scholarly studies. With its different Christian, Islamic, and traditional faiths, Ethiopia emerges as a suitable country to investigate the impact of religious practices on demand. The inclusion of [...] Read more.
The impact of religious behavior on food systems in developing economies has been understated in scholarly studies. With its different Christian, Islamic, and traditional faiths, Ethiopia emerges as a suitable country to investigate the impact of religious practices on demand. The inclusion of livestock products in Ethiopian diets is extremely low, even by African standards, a phenomenon often explained by supply and marketing problems combined with low income levels. We deviate from this dominant narrative and single out the impact of religion. We show how fasting practices of Orthodox Christians, the largest religious group, affect milk intake decisions and channels through which consumed milk is sourced. Employing country-wide data collected by the Living Standards Measurement Studies, we find, as expected, that Orthodox fasting adversely affects milk consumption and decreases the share of milk sourced from own production in Orthodox households, an effect we quantify in this paper. Moreover, we observe spillover effects of Orthodox fasting on other religious groups in dominant Orthodox localities. Our findings improve understanding of the broader societal implication of religiously inspired consumption rituals and underscore the challenges resulting from religion-induced demand cycles to design policies that aim at developing the livestock sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
In this study the native carotenoids composition in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) (peel + pulp) from Brazil was determined for the first time by a HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry), methodology. Eleven carotenoids were successfully identified and quantified [...] Read more.
In this study the native carotenoids composition in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) (peel + pulp) from Brazil was determined for the first time by a HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry), methodology. Eleven carotenoids were successfully identified and quantified in kumquat: four carotenoids in the free form and seven carotenoids in the esterified form. β-citraurin-laurate was the carotenoid found in the highest content (607.33 µg/100 g fresh matter), followed by β-cryptoxanthin-laurate (552.59 µg/100 g). The different esterified forms of β-citraurin and β-cryptoxanthin represented 84.34% of the carotenoids found, which demonstrates the importance of esterification in natural fruits. β-carotene and free xanthophylls (β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) represented 5.50% and 14.96%, respectively, of total carotenoids in kumquat. The total carotenoid content of kumquat from Brazil was very high (2185.16 µg/100 g), suggesting that this fruit could contribute significantly to the intake of important bioactive compounds by the population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ripening of Hard Cheese Produced from Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for preconcentration of milk (RO-milk) on farms can decrease the overall transportation costs of milk, increase the capacity of cheese production, and may be highly attractive from the cheese manufacturer’s viewpoint. In this study, an attempt was [...] Read more.
The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for preconcentration of milk (RO-milk) on farms can decrease the overall transportation costs of milk, increase the capacity of cheese production, and may be highly attractive from the cheese manufacturer’s viewpoint. In this study, an attempt was made to produce a hard cheese from RO-milk with a concentration factor of 1.9 (RO-cheese). Proteolysis, volatile profiles, and sensory properties were evaluated throughout six months of RO-cheese ripening. Moderate primary proteolysis took place during RO-cheese ripening: about 70% of αs1-casein and 45% of β-casein were hydrolyzed by the end of cheese maturation. The total content of free amino acids (FAA) increased from 4.3 to 149.9 mmol kg−1, with Lys, Pro, Glu, Leu, and γ-aminobutyric acid dominating in ripened cheese. In total, 42 volatile compounds were identified at different stages of maturation of RO-cheese; these compounds have previously been found in traditional Gouda-type and hard-type cheeses of prolonged maturation. Fresh RO-cheese was characterized by a milky and buttery flavor, whereas sweetness, saltiness, and umami flavor increased during ripening. Current results prove the feasibility of RO-milk for the production of hard cheese with acceptable sensory characteristics and may encourage further research and implementation of RO technology in cheese manufacture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessPerspective
From Academia to Reality Check: A Theoretical Framework on the Use of Chemometric in Food Sciences
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 28 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
There is no doubt that the current knowledge in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, and mathematics have led to advances in our understanding about food and food systems. However, the so-called reductionist approach has dominated food research, hindering new developments and innovation in the field. [...] Read more.
There is no doubt that the current knowledge in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, and mathematics have led to advances in our understanding about food and food systems. However, the so-called reductionist approach has dominated food research, hindering new developments and innovation in the field. In the last three decades, food science has moved into the digital and technological era, inducing several challenges resulting from the use of modern instrumental techniques, computing and algorithms incorporated to the exploration, mining, and description of data derived from this complexity. In this environment, food scientists need to be mindful of the issues (advantages and disadvantages) involved in the routine applications of chemometrics. The objective of this opinion paper is to give an overview of the key issues associated with the implementation of chemometrics in food research and development. Please note that specifics about the different methodologies and techniques are beyond the scope of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods Quality Assessed by Chemometrics)
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Open AccessArticle
Alterations in the Fatty Acid Composition in Infant Formulas and ω3-PUFA Enriched UHT Milk during Storage
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to have several beneficial effects, such as preventing the occurrence of cardiovascular events in adults and improving the development of the central nervous system during fetal life and childhood. Dairy products enriched in PUFA are now available [...] Read more.
ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to have several beneficial effects, such as preventing the occurrence of cardiovascular events in adults and improving the development of the central nervous system during fetal life and childhood. Dairy products enriched in PUFA are now available on the market and can help consumers to meet the ω3-PUFA daily intake recommendations. Although PUFA are prone to oxidation, little information exists regarding the alterations they undergo when products containing PUFA are stored. In this study, five infant formulae (IF) and five ω3-PUFA enriched Ultra High Temperature (UHT)-milk products were examined during storage at room temperature in terms of fatty acid (FA) composition and trans fatty acid (tFA) content until the end of shelf life by chromatography techniques. The IF included two follow-on formulae, two first-age formulae and a special medical purpose formula with different fat contents (from 2.6% to 27.7%). In the ω3-PUFA enriched UHT-milk products the milk fat was replaced by eicosapentanoic fatty acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) rich oils. The fatty acid content of all samples remained stable whereas some variations were observed for the tFA isomer content (p < 0.05) in the UHT-milk samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research Advances in Milk Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle
Storage Time and Temperature on the Sensory Properties Broccoli
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
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Abstract
Typically, broccoli arrives at the store within 7–14 days of harvest and is kept refrigerated until purchased or considered waste. To date, information has been limited on how this time on the shelf or storage temperature affects the sensory attributes that contribute to [...] Read more.
Typically, broccoli arrives at the store within 7–14 days of harvest and is kept refrigerated until purchased or considered waste. To date, information has been limited on how this time on the shelf or storage temperature affects the sensory attributes that contribute to broccoli purchase or repurchase. In this study, 100 consumers performed acceptance tests and a check-all-that-apply (CATA) section to characterize sensory changes in two cultivars of broccoli (‘Diplomat’ and ‘Emerald Crown’) stored at two temperatures (0 °C and 4 °C) over five time points: 0, 14, 21, 28, and 42 days. Due to quality degradation during storage, the overall liking of broccoli decreased regardless of holding temperature and variety. This was in accordance with a decrease in sweetness and an increase in bitterness intensity. However, there were differences between varieties in which Diplomat had more sensory changes at higher temperatures and only Emerald showed negative changes to its appearance in color. Lastly, the CATA data revealed the attributes responsible for modulating the consumer acceptance of broccoli such as tastes, colors and flavors (e.g., grassy, musty, dirt-like). This information can be used to better inform shelf-life determinations of broccoli. Additionally, these changes in taste, odor, texture, and color can inform those interested in investigating the biochemical processes related to broccoli storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Red Pigment Production by Monascus Purpureus in Submerged Fermentation Systems Using a Food Industry Waste: Brewer’s Spent Grain
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper studies the production of natural red pigments by Monascus purpureus CMU001 in the submerged fermentation system using a brewery waste hydrolysate, brewer’s spent grain (BSG). The chemical, structural and elemental characterization of the BSG was performed with Van-Soest method, Fourier-transform infrared [...] Read more.
This paper studies the production of natural red pigments by Monascus purpureus CMU001 in the submerged fermentation system using a brewery waste hydrolysate, brewer’s spent grain (BSG). The chemical, structural and elemental characterization of the BSG was performed with Van-Soest method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The lignocellulosic structure of BSG was hydrolyzed with a dilute sulfuric acid solution (2% (w/v)) followed by detoxification with Ca(OH)2. Maximum red pigment production (22.25 UA500) was achieved with the following conditions: 350 rpm shake speed, 50 mL fermentation volume, initial pH of 6.5, inoculation ratio of 2% (v/v), and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as the most effective nitrogen source. Plackett–Burman design was used to assess the significance of the fermentation medium components, and MSG and ZnSO4·7H2O were found to be the significant medium variables. This study is the first study showing the compatibility of BSG hydrolysate to red pigment production by Monascus purpureus in a submerged fermentation system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Apoptotic Properties of Oat Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Stressed Hepatic Cells
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to find out how the method to extract proteins and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis affect the ability of hepatic cells to resist oxidative stress. Proteins were isolated from oat brans in the presence of Cellulase (CPI) or Viscozyme [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to find out how the method to extract proteins and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis affect the ability of hepatic cells to resist oxidative stress. Proteins were isolated from oat brans in the presence of Cellulase (CPI) or Viscozyme (VPI). Four protein hydrolysates were produced from CPI and four others from VPI when they treated with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, or Protamex. Apart from CPI-Papain that reduced the viability of cell by 20%, no other hydrolysate was cytotoxic in the hepatic HepG2 cells. In the cytoprotection test, VPI-Papain and VPI-Flavourzyme fully prevented the damage due to peroxyl radical while CPI-Papain and CPI-Alcalase enhanced the cellular damage. Cells treated with VPI-hydrolysates reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 20–40% and, also increased the intracellular concentration of glutathione, compared to CPI-hydrolysates. In antioxidant enzyme assays, although all hydrolysates enhanced the activity of both superoxide dismutase and catalase by up to 2- and 3.4-fold, respectively relative the control cells, the largest increase was due to VPI-Papain and VPI-Flavourzyme hydrolysates. In caspase-3 assays, hydrolysates with reduced ROS or enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities were able to reduce the activity of the pro-apoptotic enzyme, caspase-3 indicating that they prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in the Research of Antioxidant Food Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Properties of Starch in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Agria) after Being Treated with Pulsed Electric Field Processing
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of starch in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) after being treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF). Potatoes were treated at 50 and 150 kJ/kg specific energies with various electric field strengths of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of starch in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) after being treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF). Potatoes were treated at 50 and 150 kJ/kg specific energies with various electric field strengths of 0, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 kV/cm. Distilled water was used as the processing medium. Starches were isolated from potato tissue and from the PEF processing medium. To assess the starch properties, various methods were used, i.e., the birefringence capability using a polarised light microscopy, gelatinisation behaviour using hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal stability using thermogravimetry (TGA), enzyme susceptibility towards α-amylase and the extent of starch hydrolysis under in vitro simulated human digestion conditions. The findings showed that PEF did not change the properties of starch inside the potatoes, but it narrowed the temperature range of gelatinisation and reduced the digestibility of starch collected in the processing medium. Therefore, this study confirms that, when used as a processing aid for potato, PEF does not result in detrimental effects on the properties of potato starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Furosine and Hydroxymethylfurfural in Breakfast Cereals. Evolution of the Spanish Market from 2006 to 2018
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The demand for healthier products has led the breakfast cereal sector to develop new formulations to improve the nutritional profile of breakfast cereals; however, the increase in chemical risks should also be evaluated. Amadori compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are Maillard reaction products applied [...] Read more.
The demand for healthier products has led the breakfast cereal sector to develop new formulations to improve the nutritional profile of breakfast cereals; however, the increase in chemical risks should also be evaluated. Amadori compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are Maillard reaction products applied as heat damage indices in breakfast cereals. Furosine (a synthetic amino acid formed by acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds) is linked to the loss of protein quality, while HMF has exhibited toxicological effects in cells and animals. Furosine and HMF content was evaluated in Spanish breakfast cereals whereas the effect of protein, fibre, and sugar content, the type of grain, the presence of honey, and the manufacturing process were discussed, as well as compared with a previous prospective study. The average furosine and HMF contents were 182 mg/kg and 21.7 mg/kg, respectively. Protein and fibre content were directly related to the furosine content, whereas sugar level, honey addition, and the manufacturing process affected the content of HMF. Occurrence of furosine and HMF decreased nearly 40% in a decade (2006–2018). These findings are relevant in terms of nutritional score, since lysine availability is preserved, but also from a toxicological point of view, due to the decreased daily exposure to both compounds, which dropped 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Browning Reactions in Foods. Impact on Nutrition, Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Rearing Managements Applied during Heifers’ Whole Life on Quality Traits of Five Muscles of the Beef Rib
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the effects of four different rearing managements applied during the heifers’ whole life period (WLP) on muscles from ribs in the chuck sale section. The characteristics of meat studied were the sensory, rheological, and color [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the effects of four different rearing managements applied during the heifers’ whole life period (WLP) on muscles from ribs in the chuck sale section. The characteristics of meat studied were the sensory, rheological, and color of the longissimus muscle (LM) and the rheological traits of four other muscles: complexus, infraspinatus, rhomboideus, and serratus ventralis. The main results showed that WLP rearing managements did not significantly impact the tenderness (sensory or rheological analyses) of the rib muscles. The LM had high (p ≤ 0.05) typical flavor and was appreciated when heifers received a WLP rearing management characterized by a short pasture duration during the heifers’ whole life (WLP-E). The heifers’ management characterized by a long pasture duration during their life (WLP-A) or by a diet composed mainly of hay during the growth and fattening periods (WLP-F), had lower typical flavor and were less appreciated than those with WLP-E management. Moreover, the LM color was redder for heifers of WLP-E than those of the WLP-A and WLP-F groups. This study confirmed that it is possible to obtain similar meat qualities with different rearing managements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Quality Properties of Gluten-Free Bread by a Mixture Design of Xanthan, Guar, and Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Gums
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate, by means of a D-optimal mixture design, the combined effects of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan (XG), and guar (GG) gums on physicochemical, rheological, and textural properties of gluten-free batter and bread. For each of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate, by means of a D-optimal mixture design, the combined effects of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan (XG), and guar (GG) gums on physicochemical, rheological, and textural properties of gluten-free batter and bread. For each of the quality properties measured, a two-factor interaction model was fitted, and the significance of its terms was assessed by analysis of variance. Sticky batters were produced with a combination of high dose of GG (0.60%), high-intermediate dose of HPMC (3.36%), and low dose of XG (0.04%). Combinations of high XG dose (0.60%) and intermediate doses of HPMC (3.08%) and GG (0.32%) rendered GF breads of greater specific volume, while lower bread crust luminosity was obtained with combinations of high GG dose (0.60%), low XG dose (0.04%), and high-intermediate HPMC dose (3.36%). Combinations of high-intermediate HPMC dose (3.36%), high GG dose (0.60%), and low XG dose (0.04%) produced both softer crumbs and bread slices of more open visual texture. By using a desirability function that maximized specific volume while minimizing crust luminosity, crumb hardness, and mean cell density, the optimization of hydrocolloids mixture rendered a value of 0.54, for a combination of 0.24% XG, 0.60% GG, and 3.16% HPMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Starch–Protein Interactions as a Function of pH
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Protein–starch gels are becoming more common in food processing when looking for enriched foods. However, processing conditions scarcely are considered when producing those gels. The aim of this research was to study the effect of processing pH (4.5, 6.0, and 7.5) on the [...] Read more.
Protein–starch gels are becoming more common in food processing when looking for enriched foods. However, processing conditions scarcely are considered when producing those gels. The aim of this research was to study the effect of processing pH (4.5, 6.0, and 7.5) on the hydration and pasting properties, gel microstructure, and texture of corn starchy gels made with four different proteins (pea, rice, egg albumin, and whey) at a ratio of 1:1 starch/protein and a solid content of 12.28%. The water binding capacity of the starch–protein mixtures was positively influenced by low solubility of the protein used. Acidic pH decreased the apparent peak viscosity of both starch and starch–protein mixtures, with the exception of starch–albumin blends, which increased it. The gels’ microstructure showed that the uniformity of the protein-enriched gels was dependent on protein type and pH, leading to diverse hardness. In general, the starchy gels containing animal proteins (albumin and whey) were more affected by pH than those obtained with vegetal proteins (pea and rice). Therefore, processing pH might be an advisable method to modify the functionality of starch–protein gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical Properties of Polyphenol Oxidases from Ready-to-Eat Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Sprouts and Factors Affecting Their Activities: A Search for Potent Tools Limiting Enzymatic Browning
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Enzymatic browning of sprouts during storage is a serious problem negatively influencing their consumer quality. Identifying and understanding the mechanism of inhibition of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) in lentil sprouts may offer inexpensive alternatives to prevent browning. This study focused on the biochemical characteristics [...] Read more.
Enzymatic browning of sprouts during storage is a serious problem negatively influencing their consumer quality. Identifying and understanding the mechanism of inhibition of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) in lentil sprouts may offer inexpensive alternatives to prevent browning. This study focused on the biochemical characteristics of PPOs from stored lentil sprouts, providing data that may be directly implemented in improving the consumer quality of sprouts. The purification resulted in approximately 25-fold enrichment of two PPO isoenzymes (PPO I and PPO II). The optimum pH for total PPOs, as well as for PPO I and PPO II isoenzymes, was 4.5–5.5, 4.5–5.0, and 5.5, respectively. The optimal temperature for PPOs was 35 °C. Total PPOs and the PPO I and PPO II isoenzymes had the greatest affinity for catechol (Km = 1.32, 1.76, and 0.94 mM, respectively). Ascorbic acid was the most effective in the inhibition of dark color formation by total PPOs, and showed ca. 62%, 43%, and 24% inhibition at 20-, 2-, and 0.2-mM concentrations. Ascorbic acid, l-cysteine, and sodium metabisulfite (20 mM) significantly inhibited color development in the reactions catalyzed by both isoenzymes of PPO. Ba2+, Fe3+, and Mn2+ (10 mM) completely inhibited PPO activity. This study of the effect of antibrowning compounds and cations on PPO activity provides data that can be used to protect lentil sprouts against enzymatic browning during storage and processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Chitosan, Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Germinated Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of jasmonic acid (JA), chitosan, and salicylic acid (SA) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in germinated buckwheat. A total of six phenolics were detected in the buckwheat treated with different concentrations of SA (50, 100, and [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effects of jasmonic acid (JA), chitosan, and salicylic acid (SA) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in germinated buckwheat. A total of six phenolics were detected in the buckwheat treated with different concentrations of SA (50, 100, and 150 mg/L), JA (50, 100, and 150 μM), and chitosan (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5%) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The treatment with 0.1% chitosan resulted in an accumulation of the highest levels of phenolic compounds as compared with the control and the 0.01 and 0.5% chitosan treatments. The treatment with 150 μM JA enhanced the levels of phenolics in buckwheat sprouts as compared with those observed in the control and the 50 and 100 μM JA-treated sprouts. However, the SA treatment did not affect the production of phenolic compounds. After optimizing the treatment concentrations of elicitors (chitosan and JA), a time-course analysis of the phenolic compounds detected in the germinated buckwheat treated with 0.1% chitosan and 150 μM JA was performed. Buckwheat treated with 0.1% chitosan for 72 h showed higher levels of phenolic compounds than all control samples. Similarly, the germinated buckwheat treated with JA for 48 and 72 h produced higher amounts of phenolic compounds than all control samples. This study elucidates the influence of SA, JA, and chitosan on the production of phenolic compounds and suggests that the treatment with optimal concentrations of chitosan and JA for an optimal time period improved the production of phenolic compounds in germinated buckwheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrohydrodynamic Drying of Chinese Wolfberry in a Multiple Needle-to-Plate Electrode System
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
In order to systematically and comprehensively investigate electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying characteristics and mechanisms in a multiple needle-to-plate electrode system, drying experiments of Chinese wolfberry were conducted by blocking ionic wind and changing needle spacing in a multiple needle-to-plate electrode system. Drying characteristics, quality [...] Read more.
In order to systematically and comprehensively investigate electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying characteristics and mechanisms in a multiple needle-to-plate electrode system, drying experiments of Chinese wolfberry were conducted by blocking ionic wind and changing needle spacing in a multiple needle-to-plate electrode system. Drying characteristics, quality parameters, and the microstructure of Chinese wolfberry fruits were measured. Results show that ionic wind plays a very important role during the drying process. Drying rates of different needle spacing treatments are significantly higher than that of the control, and the drying rate decreases with the increase of needle spacing. Needle spacing has a great influence on the speed of ionic wind, rehydration rate, and polysaccharide contents. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient and the electrical conductivity disintegration index decreases with an increase in needle spacing. Ionic wind has a great influence on the effective moisture diffusion coefficient and the electrical conductivity disintegration index of Chinese wolfberry fruits. The microstructure of Chinese wolfberry fruits dried in an EHD system significantly changed. This study provides a theoretical basis and practical guidance for understanding characteristic parameters and mechanisms of EHD drying technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Processed Chickpea Flour Incorporation on Sensory Properties of Mankoushe Zaatar
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Chickpea flour is known to have good nutritional values. Nevertheless, it is commonly made from ground grains, and characterized by an “off-flavor”. Processing of chickpea grains before flour formation reduces the intensity of the off-flavor. Therefore, two experiments were conducted: first to examine [...] Read more.
Chickpea flour is known to have good nutritional values. Nevertheless, it is commonly made from ground grains, and characterized by an “off-flavor”. Processing of chickpea grains before flour formation reduces the intensity of the off-flavor. Therefore, two experiments were conducted: first to examine the effect of conventional processing (soaking, boiling, and drying) on the nutritional composition of the chickpea flour; and second, to investigate the impact of processed chickpea flour incorporation with different ratios on the sensory properties of mankoushe zaatar, a popular Lebanese pastry, usually made up of refined wheat flour. Chickpea flour was found to be nutritionally superior compared to refined wheat flour, and conventional processing of the flour was found not to affect its content of protein, fats, carbohydrates, and phosphorus, while total dietary and crude fibers were significantly increased. The fatty acid profile was minimally affected, while magnesium and potassium were reduced. The sensory test conducted among panelists (n = 60) showed that the incorporation of processed chickpea flour into the dough of mankoushe zaatar with ratios of 30% and 50% provided an end-product with better taste and overall acceptability compared to the regular mankoushe. Hence, conventionally processed chickpea flour can be used as a fortifier to improve the nutritional quality of bakery products without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Open AccessArticle
Ergot Alkaloids in Wheat and Rye Derived Products in Italy
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Genus Claviceps is a plant pathogen able to produce a group of toxins, ergot alkaloids (EAs), whose effects have been known since the Middle Ages (ergotism). Claviceps purpurea is the most important representative specie, known to infect more than 400 monocotyledonous plants including [...] Read more.
Genus Claviceps is a plant pathogen able to produce a group of toxins, ergot alkaloids (EAs), whose effects have been known since the Middle Ages (ergotism). Claviceps purpurea is the most important representative specie, known to infect more than 400 monocotyledonous plants including economically important cereal grains (e.g., rye, wheat, triticale). EAs are not regulated as such. Maximum limits are in the pipeline of the EU Commission while at present ergot sclerotia content is set by the Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 in unprocessed cereals (0.05% as a maximum). This study aimed to investigate the presence of the six principal EAs (ergometrine, ergosine, ergocornine, α-ergocryptine, ergotamine and ergocristine) and their relative epimers (-inine forms) in rye- and wheat-based products. Of the samples, 85% resulted positive for at least one of the EAs. Wheat bread was the product with the highest number of positivity (56%), followed by wheat flour (26%). Rye and wheat bread samples showed the highest values when the sum of the EAs was considered, and durum wheat bread was the more contaminated sample (1142.6 μg/kg). These results suggest that ongoing monitoring of EAs in food products is critical until maximum limits are set. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity, Detection and Prevention of Food Contaminants)
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Open AccessCommunication
Emerging Marine Biotoxins in Seafood from European Coasts: Incidence and Analytical Challenges
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The presence of emerging contaminants in food and the sources of the contamination are relevant issues in food safety. The impact of climate change on these contaminations is a topic widely debated; however, the consequences of climate change for the food system is [...] Read more.
The presence of emerging contaminants in food and the sources of the contamination are relevant issues in food safety. The impact of climate change on these contaminations is a topic widely debated; however, the consequences of climate change for the food system is not as deeply studied as other human and animal health and welfare issues. Projections of climate change in Europe have been evaluated through the EU Commission, and the impact on the marine environment is considered a priority issue. Marine biotoxins are produced by toxic microalgae and are natural contaminants of the marine environment. They are considered to be an important contaminant that needs to be evaluated. Their source is affected by oceanographic and environmental conditions; water temperature, sunlight, salinity, competing microorganisms, nutrients, and wind and current directions affect the growth and proliferation of microalgae. Although climate change should not be the only reason for this increase and other factors such as eutrophication, tourism, fishery activities, etc. could be considered, the influence of climate change has been observed through increased growth of dinoflagellates in areas where they have not been previously detected. An example of this is the recent emergence of ciguatera fish poisoning toxins, typically found in tropical or subtropical areas from the Pacific and Caribbean and in certain areas of the Atlantic Sea such as the Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal). In addition, the recent findings of the presence of tetrodotoxins, typically found in certain areas of the Pacific, are emerging in the EU and contaminating not only the fish species where these toxins had been found before but also bivalve mollusks. The emergence of these marine biotoxins in the EU is a reason for concern in the EU, and for this reason, the risk evaluation and characterization of these toxins are considered a priority for the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA), which also emphasize the search for occurrence data using reliable and efficient analytical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity, Detection and Prevention of Food Contaminants)
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