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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 3 (February-1 2023) – 318 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The sustainability recommendations of the Italian Dietary Guidelines (IDGs), derived from the scientific evidence reported in the duly prepared background dossier, further translated into practical advice in the IDGs policy document. The Italian sustainability recommendations were related to the 16 guiding principles of a sustainable, healthy diet, and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. View this paper
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16 pages, 733 KiB  
Perspective
The Role of the Stress Response in Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease: A Psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-Based Perspective
by Ilaria Demori and Elena Grasselli
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030795 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
The novel term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), which has been proposed to describe the major cause of hepatic disease, pinpoints the coexistence of multiple metabolic disturbances and liver steatosis, giving rise to different phenotypic manifestations. Within the psychoneuroendocrineimmunological (PNEI) network that [...] Read more.
The novel term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), which has been proposed to describe the major cause of hepatic disease, pinpoints the coexistence of multiple metabolic disturbances and liver steatosis, giving rise to different phenotypic manifestations. Within the psychoneuroendocrineimmunological (PNEI) network that regulates body–mind interactions, the stress response plays a pervasive role by affecting metabolic, hormonal, immune, and behavioral balance. In this perspective, we focus on chronic psychosocial stress and high levels of cortisol to highlight their role in MAFLD pathogenesis and worsening. From a PNEI perspective, considering the stress response as a therapeutic target in MAFLD allows for simultaneously influencing multiple pathways in the development of MAFLD, including dysmetabolism, inflammation, feeding behaviors, gut–liver axis, and dysbiosis, with the hope of better outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases in Human Health)
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18 pages, 569 KiB  
Article
Effect of Iso-Caloric Substitution of Animal Protein for Other Macro Nutrients on Risk of Overall, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality: Prospective Evaluation in EPIC-Heidelberg Cohort and Systematic Review
by Rashmita Bajracharya, Verena Katzke, Trasias Mukama and Rudolf Kaaks
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030794 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5879
Abstract
Ecological studies showed correlations between a shift toward animal-protein-rich diets and longer life-expectancy; however, only a few studies examined individual-level association of protein source and mortality risks using appropriate iso-caloric substitution models adjusted for total energy intake. We used EPIC-Heidelberg (European Prospective Investigation [...] Read more.
Ecological studies showed correlations between a shift toward animal-protein-rich diets and longer life-expectancy; however, only a few studies examined individual-level association of protein source and mortality risks using appropriate iso-caloric substitution models adjusted for total energy intake. We used EPIC-Heidelberg (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) to create iso-caloric substitution models and determined relative all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality hazards associated with dietary intake of animal protein and other macronutrients, employing Cox proportional hazard models. For comparison with other studies, we also synthesized evidence from a systematic review relating animal protein intake to mortality risk from seven prospective cohort studies in the USA, Europe and Japan. Substitution of 3% of total energy from animal protein for fat (saturated, mono-unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple, complex) was associated with all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratios [HR] from 1.05 to 1.11), mostly driven by cardiovascular mortality (HR from 1.13 to 1.15). Independently of animal protein, substituting poly-unsaturated fat for saturated fat increased cancer-related mortality risk by 12 percent. The systematic review largely corroborated our findings. Overall, higher proportions of dietary energy from animal protein, combined with low energy intake from either carbohydrate sub-types or dietary fats, increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks, but not cancer-related mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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22 pages, 955 KiB  
Review
A Review on Polyphenols in Salicornia ramosissima with Special Emphasis on Their Beneficial Effects on Brain Ischemia
by Ana M. Nájar, Marina Romero-Bernal, Carmen del Río and Joan Montaner
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030793 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
There has been an increasing interest in the consumption of halophytes as a healthy food in the last few years. Salicornia ramosissima is a seasonal Mediterranean halophyte with an interesting profile of bioactive compounds, including more than 60 identified polyphenols with a broad [...] Read more.
There has been an increasing interest in the consumption of halophytes as a healthy food in the last few years. Salicornia ramosissima is a seasonal Mediterranean halophyte with an interesting profile of bioactive compounds, including more than 60 identified polyphenols with a broad range of biological activities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke. Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide and it is estimated that a substantial proportion of stroke incidence and recurrence may be prevented by healthier dietary patterns. Here, we have grouped the phenolic acids and flavonoids identified in S. ramosissima and reviewed their potential protective effect on brain ischemia, which are mostly related to the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation, the inhibition of cell death pathways and their role in the preservation of the vascular function. Despite the fact that most of these compounds have been reported to be neuroprotective through multiple mechanisms, human studies are still scarce. Given the safe profile of polyphenols identified in S. ramosissima, this halophyte plant could be considered as a source of bioactive compounds for the nutraceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotection with Bioactive Compounds)
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12 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Lifestyle Intervention in NAFLD: Long-Term Diabetes Incidence in Subjects Treated by Web- and Group-Based Programs
by Maria Letizia Petroni, Lucia Brodosi, Angelo Armandi, Francesca Marchignoli, Elisabetta Bugianesi and Giulio Marchesini
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030792 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Background: Behavioral programs are needed for prevention and treatment of NAFLD and the effectiveness of a web-based intervention (WBI) is similar to a standard group-based intervention (GBI) on liver disease biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to test the long-term effectiveness of both programs on [...] Read more.
Background: Behavioral programs are needed for prevention and treatment of NAFLD and the effectiveness of a web-based intervention (WBI) is similar to a standard group-based intervention (GBI) on liver disease biomarkers. Objective: We aimed to test the long-term effectiveness of both programs on diabetes incidence, a common outcome in NAFLD progression. Methods: 546 NAFLD individuals (212 WBI, 334 GBI) were followed up to 60 months with regular 6- to 12-month hospital visits. The two cohorts differed in several socio-demographic and clinical data. In the course of the years, the average BMI similarly decreased in both cohorts, by 5% or more in 24.4% and by 10% or more in 16.5% of cases available at follow-up. After excluding 183 cases with diabetes at entry, diabetes was newly diagnosed in 48 cases during follow-up (31 (16.6% of cases without diabetes at entry) in the GBI cohort vs. 17 (9.7%) in WBI; p = 0.073). Time to diabetes was similar in the two cohorts (mean, 31 ± 18 months since enrollment). At multivariable regression analysis, incident diabetes was significantly associated with prediabetes (odds ratio (OR) 4.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.97–9.81; p < 0.001), percent weight change (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.79; p < 0.001) and higher education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.27–0.86; p = 0.014), with no effect of other baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical data, and of the type of intervention. The importance of weight change on incident diabetes were confirmed in a sensitivity analysis limited to individuals who completed the follow-up. Conclusion: In individuals with NAFLD, WBI is as effective as GBI on the pending long-term risk of diabetes, via similar results on weight change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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15 pages, 541 KiB  
Review
Acceptability and Feasibility of Community Gardening Interventions for the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases among Indigenous Populations: A Scoping Review
by Rosana Emmanuel, Ursula M. Read, Antonio Jose Grande and Seeromanie Harding
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030791 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Compared with non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous populations experience worse health across many outcomes, including non-communicable diseases, and they are three times more likely to live in extreme poverty. The objectives were to identify (1) the content, implementation, and duration of the intervention; (2) the [...] Read more.
Compared with non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous populations experience worse health across many outcomes, including non-communicable diseases, and they are three times more likely to live in extreme poverty. The objectives were to identify (1) the content, implementation, and duration of the intervention; (2) the evaluation designs used; (3) the outcomes reported; and (4) the enablers and the challenges. Using the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, a search of research databases and grey literature was conducted. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Papers reported on acceptability, nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable intake, self-efficacy, motivation, and preference concerning fruit and vegetable, diet, and gardening. No study measured all outcomes. All papers reported on acceptability, whether implicitly or explicitly. The evaluation used mostly pre- and post-intervention assessments. The effect of gardening on nutrition and gardening knowledge and fruit and vegetable intake was inconclusive, and was related to a general lack of robust evaluations. Applying the He Pikinga Waiora Framework, however, revealed strong evidence for community engagement, cultural centeredness, integrated knowledge translation and systems thinking in increasing the acceptability and feasibility of gardening in Indigenous communities. Despite environmental challenges, the evidence signaled that gardening was an acceptable intervention for the Indigenous communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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15 pages, 5200 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus gasseri NK109 and Its Supplement Alleviate Cognitive Impairment in Mice by Modulating NF-κB Activation, BDNF Expression, and Gut Microbiota Composition
by Soo-Won Yun, Hee-Seo Park, Yoon-Jung Shin, Xiaoyang Ma, Myung Joo Han and Dong-Hyun Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030790 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
Aging-related gut microbiota dysbiosis initiates gut inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis, which induce the occurrence of psychiatric disorders including dementia. The alleviation of gut microbiota dysbiosis by probiotics is suggested to be able to alleviate psychiatric disorders including cognitive impairment (CI). Therefore, to understand [...] Read more.
Aging-related gut microbiota dysbiosis initiates gut inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis, which induce the occurrence of psychiatric disorders including dementia. The alleviation of gut microbiota dysbiosis by probiotics is suggested to be able to alleviate psychiatric disorders including cognitive impairment (CI). Therefore, to understand how probiotics could alleviate CI, we examined the effects of anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus gasseri NK109 and its supplement (NS, mixture of NK109 and soybean embryo ethanol extract) on cognitive function in aged (Ag), 5XFAD transgenic (Tg), or mildly cognition-impaired adult fecal microbiota (MCF)-transplanted mice. Oral administration of NK109 or NS decreased CI-like behaviors in Ag mice. Their treatments suppressed TNF-α and p16 expression and NF-κB-activated cell populations in the hippocampus and colon, while BDNF expression was induced. Moreover, they partially shifted the β-diversity of gut microbiota in Ag mice to those of young mice: they decreased Bifidobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Helicobacteriaceae populations and increased Rikenellaceae and Prevotellaceae populations. Oral administration of NK109 or NS also reduced CI-like behaviors in Tg mice. Their treatments induced BDNF expression in the hippocampus, decreased hippocampal TNF-α and Aβ expression and hippocampal and colonic NF-κB-activated cell populations. NK109 and NS partially shifted the β-diversity of gut microbiota in Tg mice: they decreased Muribaculaceae and Rhodospiraceae populations and increased Helicobacteriaceae population. Oral administration of NK109 or NS decreased MCF transplantation-induced CI-like behaviors in mice. NK109 and NS increased hippocampal BDNF expression, while hippocampal and colonic TNF-α expression and NF-κB-activated cell populations decreased. These findings suggest that dementia can fluctuate the gut microbiota composition and NK109 and its supplement NS can alleviate CI with systemic inflammation by inducing BDNF expression and suppressing NF-κB activation and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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15 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Psychosocial Experiences Related to Dietary Behavior of Japanese Lactating Women: A Qualitative Study
by Kaori Matsuda, Mie Shiraishi, Natsuki Hori, Hanna Horiguchi and Masayo Matsuzaki
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030789 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Adequate dietary intake during the lactation period is important for breast milk components, postpartum recovery, and physical and mental health. This study aimed to clarify the psychosocial experiences related to dietary behavior around one month postpartum among Japanese lactating women. Semi-structured interviews were [...] Read more.
Adequate dietary intake during the lactation period is important for breast milk components, postpartum recovery, and physical and mental health. This study aimed to clarify the psychosocial experiences related to dietary behavior around one month postpartum among Japanese lactating women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 women between February and June 2022 in Osaka, Japan. The data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive approaches. Four core categories were identified. All participants had a [desire to have healthy meals for themselves or their families] to improve their postpartum health, regain their pre-pregnancy body shape, produce sufficient and good-quality breast milk, and keep their families healthy. Some participants, who had [subjective difficulties in getting information on diet and preparing meals] due to insufficient or complicated information and viewing meal preparation as a burden, used [services and support regarding their postpartum diet] to alleviate these difficulties. They had [postpartum-specific appetite and dietary views], including an increased appetite triggered by breastfeeding and postpartum stress and the effects of the dietary changes during pregnancy. Some of these psychosocial experiences were influenced by Japanese traditional customs in the postpartum period and familiar food preferences in the Japanese. Healthcare professionals should consider these experiences when providing tailored dietary guidance. Full article
15 pages, 4126 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Methyl Cedryl Ether Ameliorates Adiposity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
by Mengjie Li, Seong-Gook Kang, Kunlun Huang and Tao Tong
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030788 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Methyl cedryl ether (MCE) is a derivative of cedrol and is widely used as a fragrance compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventative effects of MCE on obesity and related metabolic syndromes and to delineate the mechanisms from the [...] Read more.
Methyl cedryl ether (MCE) is a derivative of cedrol and is widely used as a fragrance compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventative effects of MCE on obesity and related metabolic syndromes and to delineate the mechanisms from the perspective of gut microbiota and white adipose tissues (WAT) transcriptomic profiles. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into 3 groups and fed with chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) MCE for 13 weeks. We found that MCE significantly reduced body weight, inhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis under HFD conditions. MCE dietary supplementation downregulated the expression of adipogenesis genes (FAS and C/EBPα) and upregulated the mRNA levels of thermogenesis genes (PGC-1α, PRDM16, UCP1, Cidea, Cytc, and COX4) in epididymal WAT. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that MCE improved gut microbiota dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice, as manifested by the alteration of strains associated with obesity. Further transcriptome analysis of WAT indicated that MCE dramatically changed the gene expression profiles. Our results demonstrate the anti-obesity effect of MCE under HFD conditions, highlighting the nutraceutical potential of MCE for preventing obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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25 pages, 595 KiB  
Review
Yarning about Diet: The Applicability of Dietary Assessment Methods in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians—A Scoping Review
by Alyse Davies, Julieann Coombes, Jessica Wallace, Kimberly Glover, Bobby Porykali, Margaret Allman-Farinelli, Trinda Kunzli-Rix and Anna Rangan
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030787 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2757
Abstract
Conventional dietary assessment methods are based predominately on Western models which lack Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges, methodologies, and social and cultural contextualisation. This review considered dietary assessment methods used with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations and assessed their applicability. Four [...] Read more.
Conventional dietary assessment methods are based predominately on Western models which lack Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges, methodologies, and social and cultural contextualisation. This review considered dietary assessment methods used with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations and assessed their applicability. Four electronic databases and grey literature were searched with no time limit applied to the results. Screening, data extraction and quality appraisal were undertaken independently by two reviewers. Out of 22 studies, 20 were conducted in rural/remote settings, one in an urban setting, and one at the national population level. The most frequently used and applicable dietary assessment method involved store data. Weighed food records and food frequency questionnaires had low applicability. Modifications of conventional methods were commonly used to adapt to Indigenous practices, but few studies incorporated Indigenous research methodologies such as yarning. This highlights an opportunity for further investigation to validate the accuracy of methods that incorporate qualitative yarning-based approaches, or other Indigenous research methodologies, into quantitative data collection. The importance of developing validated dietary assessment methods that are appropriate for this population cannot be understated considering the high susceptibility to nutrition-related health conditions such as malnutrition, overweight or obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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13 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Higher Adherence to Plant-Based Diet Lowers Type 2 Diabetes Risk among High and Non-High Cardiovascular Risk Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanxi, China
by Ying Zhang, Yaqing Meng and Junbo Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030786 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between the plant-based diet index (PDI) score and T2D risk among residents of Shanxi Province, China, and explore whether the association was influenced by different levels of cardiovascular risk. A total of 50,694 participants aged 35–75 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between the plant-based diet index (PDI) score and T2D risk among residents of Shanxi Province, China, and explore whether the association was influenced by different levels of cardiovascular risk. A total of 50,694 participants aged 35–75 years were recruited between 2017 and 2019, and they were further divided into the high cardiovascular risk population (HCRP; n = 17,255) and the non-high cardiovascular risk population (non-HCRP; n = 33,439). The PDI was calculated based on food frequency from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident T2D was defined based on elevated plasma glucose (≥7 mmol/L) or hypoglycemic medicine use. We investigated the association of the PDI andT2D risk using a two-level generalized estimating equation and restricted cubic splines model. The results showed that quartile 4 of the PDI indicated significantly reduced T2D risk in the total population (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75–0.92), HCRP (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71–0.91), and non-HCRP (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.74–0.87) compared with corresponding quartile 1 (OR = 1). In stratified analysis, the negative associations between PDI and T2D risk were stronger in the total population with the elderly (age > 60 years), BMI < 24, and men, and in the non-HCRP with men and BMI 24–28, and in the HCRP with the elderly and BMI < 24 than those with corresponding subgroups (pinteraction < 0.05). Linear curves were observed for the total population and non-HCRP, but an L-shaped association was observed for the HCRP. Therefore, our results suggest that higher PDI scores may effectively attenuate the T2D risk in the Chinese population and non-HCRP, and a beneficial association of PDI with T2D risk was observed in the HCRP at a certain threshold level. Longitudinal studies and intervention trials are required to validate our study findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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10 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Chloride, Sodium and Calcium Intake Are Associated with Mortality and Follow-Up Kidney Function in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis—A Retrospective Study
by Tapio Hellman, Panu Uusalo and Mikko J. Järvisalo
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030785 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Background: Studies on the association between solute, nutrition and fluid intakes and mortality and later kidney function in critically ill acute kidney injury (AKI) patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) are scarce. Methods: Altogether, 471 consecutive critically ill AKI patients receiving CVVHD in [...] Read more.
Background: Studies on the association between solute, nutrition and fluid intakes and mortality and later kidney function in critically ill acute kidney injury (AKI) patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) are scarce. Methods: Altogether, 471 consecutive critically ill AKI patients receiving CVVHD in the research intensive care unit (ICU) were recruited in this single-center, retrospective study. Results: The median age was 66 (58–74) years, and 138 (29.3%) were female. The 90-day and one-year mortalities were 221 (46.9%) and 251 (53.3%), respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) score, coronary artery disease, immunosuppression, ICU care duration, mechanical ventilation requirement, vasopressor requirement and study time period, the cumulative daily intake of potassium, chloride, sodium, phosphate, calcium, glucose, lipids and water was associated with one-year mortality in separate multivariable cox proportional hazards models. In a sensitivity analysis excluding patients who died within the first three days of ICU care, the daily intake of chloride (hazard ratio (HR) 1.001, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.000–1.003, p = 0.032), sodium (HR 1.001, CI 95% 1.000–1.002, p = 0.031) and calcium (HR 1.129, CI 95% 1.025–1.243, p = 0.014) remained independently associated with mortality within one-year in the respective, similarly adjusted multivariable cox analyses. The cumulative daily intake of chloride, sodium, calcium and water was independently associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 90 days follow-up in separate substantially adjusted multivariable cox proportional hazards models. Conclusion: The cumulative daily intake of chloride, sodium and calcium is associated with mortality and daily chloride, sodium, calcium and water intake is associated with follow-up eGFR in critically ill patients with CVVHD-treated AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolism and Health)
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14 pages, 990 KiB  
Article
Oral Temperature and pH Influence Dietary Nitrate Metabolism in Healthy Adults
by Stuart P. Cocksedge, Adam J. Causer, Paul G. Winyard, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030784 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
This study tested the hypothesis that the increases in salivary and plasma [NO2] after dietary NO3 supplementation would be greater when oral temperature and pH were independently elevated, and increased further when oral temperature and pH were elevated [...] Read more.
This study tested the hypothesis that the increases in salivary and plasma [NO2] after dietary NO3 supplementation would be greater when oral temperature and pH were independently elevated, and increased further when oral temperature and pH were elevated concurrently. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 23 ± 4 years) ingested 70 mL of beetroot juice concentrate (BR, which provided ~6.2 mmol NO3) during six separate laboratory visits. In a randomised crossover experimental design, salivary and plasma [NO3] and [NO2] were assessed at a neutral oral pH with a low (TLo-pHNorm), intermediate (TMid-pHNorm), and high (THi-pHNorm) oral temperature, and when the oral pH was increased at a low (TLo-pHHi), intermediate (TMid-pHHi), and high (THi-pHHi) oral temperature. Compared with the TMid-pHNorm condition (976 ± 388 µM), the mean salivary [NO2] 1–3 h post BR ingestion was higher in the TMid-pHHi (1855 ± 423 µM), THi-pHNorm (1371 ± 653 µM), THi-pHHi (1792 ± 741 µM), TLo-pHNorm (1495 ± 502 µM), and TLo-pHHi (2013 ± 662 µM) conditions, with salivary [NO2] also higher at a given oral temperature when the oral pH was increased (p < 0.05). Plasma [NO2] was higher 3 h post BR ingestion in the TMid-pHHi, THi-pHHi, and TLo-pHHi conditions, but not the TLo-pHNorm and THi-pHNorm conditions, compared with TMid-pHNorm (p < 0.05). Therefore, despite ingesting the same NO3 dose, the increases in salivary [NO2] varied depending on the temperature and pH of the oral cavity, while the plasma [NO2] increased independently of oral temperature, but to a greater extent at a higher oral pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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13 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Getting Ready for Large-Scale Proteomics in Crop Plants
by Sarah Brajkovic, Nils Rugen, Carlos Agius, Nicola Berner, Stephan Eckert, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Claus Schwechheimer and Bernhard Kuster
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030783 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4320
Abstract
Plants are an indispensable cornerstone of sustainable global food supply. While immense progress has been made in decoding the genomes of crops in recent decades, the composition of their proteomes, the entirety of all expressed proteins of a species, is virtually unknown. In [...] Read more.
Plants are an indispensable cornerstone of sustainable global food supply. While immense progress has been made in decoding the genomes of crops in recent decades, the composition of their proteomes, the entirety of all expressed proteins of a species, is virtually unknown. In contrast to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, proteomic analyses of crop plants have often been hindered by the presence of extreme concentrations of secondary metabolites such as pigments, phenolic compounds, lipids, carbohydrates or terpenes. As a consequence, crop proteomic experiments have, thus far, required individually optimized protein extraction protocols to obtain samples of acceptable quality for downstream analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this article, we present a universal protein extraction protocol originally developed for gel-based experiments and combined it with an automated single-pot solid-phase-enhanced sample preparation (SP3) protocol on a liquid handling robot to prepare high-quality samples for proteomic analysis of crop plants. We also report an automated offline peptide separation protocol and optimized micro-LC-MS/MS conditions that enables the identification and quantification of ~10,000 proteins from plant tissue within 6 h of instrument time. We illustrate the utility of the workflow by analyzing the proteomes of mature tomato fruits to an unprecedented depth. The data demonstrate the robustness of the approach which we propose for use in upcoming large-scale projects that aim to map crop tissue proteomes. Full article
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17 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Fructose Stimulated Colonic Arginine and Proline Metabolism Dysbiosis, Altered Microbiota and Aggravated Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in DSS-Induced Colitis Rats
by Ge Song, Qianyun Gan, Wentao Qi, Yong Wang, Meihong Xu and Yong Li
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030782 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites is linked to the occurrence and development of metabolic syndrome. Although fructose has been proven to be associated with worsened mucus in the colon, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the relatively [...] Read more.
The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites is linked to the occurrence and development of metabolic syndrome. Although fructose has been proven to be associated with worsened mucus in the colon, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the relatively low intake of sucrose and fructose in the experimental colitis of Sprague Dawley rats by investigating the microbiome and metabolome. Results showed that sucrose and fructose significantly reduced body weight, colon length and increased inflammation infiltration in colon. Sucrose and fructose worsen colon functions by inhibiting the expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and increasing the level of lipopolysaccharide neoandrographolide (LPS) in plasma, while fructose was more significant. Furthermore, sucrose and fructose significantly changed the composition of gut microbiota characterized by decreasing Adlercreutzia, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Oscillospira and increasing Allobaculum and Holdemania along with reducing histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine valine, alanine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline, citrulline, 4-hydroxyproline and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). Metabolome results showed that fructose may aggravate experimental colitis symptoms by inducing amino metabolism dysbiosis in the colon. These findings suggested that fructose worsened colitis by manipulating the crosstalk between gut microbiota and their metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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11 pages, 880 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Mediators of Overall Cardiovascular Health on All-Cause Mortality
by Toshiko Tanaka, Sameera A. Talegawkar, Yichen Jin, Julián Candia, Giovanna Fantoni, Stefania Bandinelli and Luigi Ferrucci
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030781 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Measures of cardiovascular health (CVH) assessed by a combination of behavioral and biological factors has shown protective associations with all-cause mortality. The mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we characterized the plasma proteomics profile of CVH and [...] Read more.
Measures of cardiovascular health (CVH) assessed by a combination of behavioral and biological factors has shown protective associations with all-cause mortality. The mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we characterized the plasma proteomics profile of CVH and tested whether specific proteins mediated the associations between CVH and all-cause mortality in participants of the InCHIANTI study. Of the 1301 proteins tested, 92 proteins were associated with CVH (22 positively, 70 negatively). Proteins most strongly associated with CVH included leptin (LEP), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), and growth-differential factor 15 (GDF15). Of the 92 CVH-associated proteins, 33 proteins significantly mediated the associations between CVH and all-cause mortality, with percent mediation ranging from 5 to 30%. The most significant mediating proteins were GDF15 and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGFBP2). Proteins associated with better CVH were enriched for proteins that reflect the suppression of the complement coagulation and GH/IGF pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging - Featured Perspectives on Health and Metabolism)
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2 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
The Role of Immunonutrition in Patients
by Marco Cintoni and Maria Cristina Mele
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030780 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Immunonutrition (IN) is defined as “the use of specific nutritional substrates, called «immunonutrients» having the ability of modulating specific mechanisms involved in several immune and inflammatory pathways” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
15 pages, 1006 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Dairy and Plant-Based Liquid Components on Lutein Liberation in Spinach Smoothies
by Jan Neelissen, Per Leanderson, Lena Jonasson and Rosanna W. S. Chung
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030779 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6822
Abstract
Lutein is a dietary lipophilic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously shown that dairy fat can improve the lutein content in spinach smoothies. It is, however, unclear whether fat concentrations and fermentation status in dairy products affect lutein liberation in smoothies. Moreover, [...] Read more.
Lutein is a dietary lipophilic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously shown that dairy fat can improve the lutein content in spinach smoothies. It is, however, unclear whether fat concentrations and fermentation status in dairy products affect lutein liberation in smoothies. Moreover, plant-based milks vary in fat, protein, and fiber content which may affect lutein dissolution. This study aimed to provide translatable information to consumers by comparing lutein liberation in spinach smoothies made with different dairy or plant-based liquids in domestic settings. The smoothies were digested in vitro, and liberated lutein was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). High-fat and medium-fat cow’s milk, as well as coconut milk with and without additives, were found to significantly improve lutein liberation by 36%, 30%, 25%, and 42%, respectively, compared to blending spinach with water alone. Adjustment models suggested that the effects of cow’s milk and coconut milk were derived from fat and protein, respectively. On the other hand, soymilk with and without additives showed significantly reduced lutein liberation by 40% and 61%, respectively. To summarize, only 4 out of 14 tested liquids increased lutein liberation in spinach smoothies. The results highlight the importance of testing food companions for lipophilic active ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Emotional Eating and Changes in High-Sugar Food and Drink Consumption Linked to Psychological Distress and Worries: A Cohort Study from Norway
by Elaheh Javadi Arjmand, Mitra Bemanian, Jørn Henrik Vold, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Gro Mjeldheim Sandal, Erik K. Arnesen, Silje Mæland and Lars Thore Fadnes
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030778 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Psychological distress is linked to unhealthy eating behaviors such as emotional eating and consumption of high-sugar food and drinks. Cross-sectional studies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic showed a high occurrence of worries and psychological distress, and this was associated with emotional eating. [...] Read more.
Psychological distress is linked to unhealthy eating behaviors such as emotional eating and consumption of high-sugar food and drinks. Cross-sectional studies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic showed a high occurrence of worries and psychological distress, and this was associated with emotional eating. Few larger studies have examined how this coping pattern develops over time. This cohort study with 24,968 participants assessed changes over time in emotional eating, consumption of sugary foods as an example of unhealthy food choices, and consumption of fruits and vegetables as an example of healthy food choices. Further, associations between these and psychological distress, worries, and socio-demographic factors were assessed. Data were collected at three time points (April 2020, initially in the COVID-19 pandemic, then one and two years later). Emotional eating and intake of sugary foods and drinks were high at the start of the pandemic, followed by a reduction over time. High psychological distress was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional eating and high-sugar food intake, and lower levels of healthy eating habits. The strength of this association reduced over time. Our findings indicate the high frequency in unhealthy food choices seen early in the COVID-19 pandemic improved over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
Acute Dose–Response Effectiveness of Combined Catechins and Chlorogenic Acids on Postprandial Glycemic Responses in Healthy Men: Results from Two Randomized Studies
by Aya Yanagimoto, Yuji Matsui, Tohru Yamaguchi, Shinichiro Saito, Ryuzo Hanada and Masanobu Hibi
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030777 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies show that the risk of diabetes can be reduced by ingesting green tea or coffee. Previous studies have shown that simultaneously taking green tea catechins (GTC) and coffee chlorogenic acid (CCA) alters postprandial gastrointestinal hormones secretion and improves insulin sensitivity. However, [...] Read more.
Epidemiologic studies show that the risk of diabetes can be reduced by ingesting green tea or coffee. Previous studies have shown that simultaneously taking green tea catechins (GTC) and coffee chlorogenic acid (CCA) alters postprandial gastrointestinal hormones secretion and improves insulin sensitivity. However, there is no evidence on the acute effects of GTC and CCA on incretin and blood glucose, and on the respective dose of polyphenols. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effective dose of GTC and CCA on postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate cookie meal containing 75 g of glucose in healthy men. Study 1 (n = 18) evaluated two doses of GTC (270 or 540 mg) containing a fixed dose of CCA (270 mg) with 113 mg of caffeine and a placebo (0 mg GTC and 0 mg CCA) with 112 mg of caffeine. Study 2 (n = 18) evaluated two doses of CCA (150 or 300 mg) containing a fixed dose of GTC (540 mg) and a placebo with 99 mg of caffeine. The single combined ingestion of GTC and CCA significantly altered the incretin response and suppressed glucose and insulin levels. These findings suggest that the effective minimum dose is 540 mg of GTC and 150 mg of CCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Chronic Diseases)
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14 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Mushroom-Based Supplements in Italy: Let’s Open Pandora’s Box
by Samuele Risoli, Cristina Nali, Sabrina Sarrocco, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Filippo Bosco, Giuseppe Venturella, Agata Gadaleta, Maria Letizia Gargano and Ilaria Marcotuli
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030776 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5362
Abstract
Mushrooms and derivates are well known to the scientific community for having different health benefits and exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antimicrobic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulating, neuroprotective and osteoprotective actions. In Europe, medical mushrooms are mainly marketed [...] Read more.
Mushrooms and derivates are well known to the scientific community for having different health benefits and exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antimicrobic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulating, neuroprotective and osteoprotective actions. In Europe, medical mushrooms are mainly marketed in the form of food supplements as single components or combined with other nutraceuticals. In this context, the first peculiarity that distinguishes it is the safety established through the “history of consumption” that characterizes that mushroom. However, the cultivation of medicinal mushrooms on a large scale is performed mainly in China, where most of the production facilities do not have internationally recognized good manufacturing practices, despite that many European companies that sell myotherapies are supplied by Chinese manufacturers. This is particularly evident in Italy, where an arsenal of mushroom products is marketed in the form of powders and extracts not always of ascertained origin and sometimes of doubtful taxonomic identification, and thus not meeting the quality criteria required. The growing interest in mycotherapy involves a strong commitment from the scientific community to propose supplements of safe origin and genetic purity as well as to promote clinical trials to evaluate its real effects on humans. The purpose of this research is to analyze different mushroom-based dietary supplements used in medicine as monotherapy on the Italian market and to evaluate their composition and quality. The molecular identification of the sequences with those deposited in GenBank allowed for identifying 6 out of 19 samples, matching with those deposited belonging to the species indicated in the label, i.e., Lentinula edodes (samples 1, 4, 12 and 18) and Ganoderma lucidum (samples 5 and 10). Samples containing Ganoderma, labeled in the commercial product as G. lucidum, showed sequences that showed homology of 100% and 99% with G. resinaceum and G. sichuanense. An additional investigation was carried out in order to determine the active fungal ingredients, such as ergosterol, aflatoxins, heavy metals, nicotine and total glucan. The results obtained and shown in the manuscript highlight how the data were not only in line with what is expected with respect to what is indicated in the labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
17 pages, 3469 KiB  
Review
Nutrition Recommendations for Table Tennis Players—A Narrative Review
by Liyan Huang, Jeremy W. C. Ng and Jason K. W. Lee
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030775 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5509
Abstract
Table tennis (TT) is the second most popular racket sport globally and was the sixth most widely played Olympic sport in 2005. It is an indoor racket sport requiring a mixture of power, agility, alertness and fast reactions. Players need to move quickly [...] Read more.
Table tennis (TT) is the second most popular racket sport globally and was the sixth most widely played Olympic sport in 2005. It is an indoor racket sport requiring a mixture of power, agility, alertness and fast reactions. Players need to move quickly around a table to receive the ball and produce powerful returns. New rules such as increased ball size and a change in ball material have changed the ball’s trajectory, increasing the overall duration and intensity of game play. Scientific research on TT is growing but there has been no systematic review of nutrition for the sport. This review provides nutritional recommendations for TT athletes based on the physiological demands of TT, including energy expenditure during training and competitions, and the main metabolic pathways of TT. Guidelines on the daily intakes of carbohydrate, protein and fat are discussed in addition to hydration strategies. Micronutrients of concern for TT athletes include iron, magnesium and vitamin D and their recommended intakes are also provided. The timing and dose of ergogenic aids that may improve TT performance such as caffeine, creatine, lutein and zeaxanthin and beta-alanine are reviewed. Specific nutritional strategies for intakes leading up to competitions, post training and competition recovery and nutritional strategies for travel are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Planning in Sports Nutrition)
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15 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
The Association of Serum and Dietary Magnesium with Depressive Symptoms
by Ming-Hui Chou, Yen Kuang Yang, Jung-Der Wang, Chung-Ying Lin and Sheng-Hsiang Lin
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030774 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
Depression is a leading cause of the global burden of disease and has a multifactorial etiology that includes nutrients. Magnesium status has been associated with depression with inconclusive results. The impact of chronic latent magnesium deficiency (CLMD, 0.75 ≤ serum magnesium < 0.85 [...] Read more.
Depression is a leading cause of the global burden of disease and has a multifactorial etiology that includes nutrients. Magnesium status has been associated with depression with inconclusive results. The impact of chronic latent magnesium deficiency (CLMD, 0.75 ≤ serum magnesium < 0.85 mmol/L) on depression has not yet been investigated. We assessed the association between serum magnesium levels/dietary magnesium intake and depressive symptoms by analyzing nationally representative data from Taiwan (Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, NAHSIT). We used the 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale to measure depressive symptoms. Subgroup analysis by sex was also performed. Serum magnesium levels had a low correlation with dietary magnesium intake. Higher serum magnesium levels were associated with lower depressive scores and a lower risk of depressive symptoms, but dietary magnesium intake showed no association. Sex differences were found. Compared with subjects with serum magnesium <0.75 mmol/L, those with ≥0.85 mmol/L had lower depressive scores. In conclusion, serum magnesium was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but dietary magnesium intake was not. Subjects with CLMD showed similar depressive scores and were at a similar risk of depressive symptoms to those with serum magnesium < 0.75 mmol/L. CLMD should be considered while assessing the association between magnesium status and depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium: From In Vitro to Clinical Research)
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17 pages, 917 KiB  
Review
Overview of Systematic Reviews of Health Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Children
by Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Alejandra González-Rocha, Lucía Méndez-Sánchez, Berenice Araiza-Nava, Nydia Balderas, Giovanna López, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Alejandra Jauregui, Lucia Hernández, Claudia Unikel, Anabelle Bonvecchio, Teresa Shamah, Simón Barquera and Juan A. Rivera
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030773 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4892
Abstract
(1) Background: The importance of studying the health interventions used to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in school-aged children is imperative. This overview aimed to summarize systematic reviews that assess the effects of school-based, family, and mixed health interventions for preventing and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The importance of studying the health interventions used to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in school-aged children is imperative. This overview aimed to summarize systematic reviews that assess the effects of school-based, family, and mixed health interventions for preventing and treating overweight and obesity in school-aged children. (2) Methods: The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and PRISMA statement were followed. A search was conducted using terms adapted to 12 databases. Systematic reviews reporting interventions in children from six to 12 years old with an outcome related to preventing or treating obesity and overweight were included. Studies with pharmacological or surgical interventions and adolescents were excluded. (3) Results: A total of 15,226 registers were identified from databases and citation searching. Of those, ten systematic reviews published between 2013 and 2022 were included. After the overlap, 331 interventions for children between 6 and 12 years old were identified, and 61.6% involved physical activity and nutrition/diet intervention. Multicomponent intervention, combining physical activity with nutrition and behavioral change, school-based plus community-based interventions may be more effective in reducing overweight and obesity in children. (4) Conclusions: Plenty of interventions for childhood overweight and obesity aimed at prevention and treatment were identified, but there is a gap in the methodological quality preventing the establishment of a certain recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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11 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Food Insecurity Is Associated with Dietary Consumption during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2019–2020
by Jeong-Hwa Choi
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030772 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic and has affected people’s dietary behaviors, including food insecurity. This study aimed to ascertain whether COVID-19 may alter the prevalence of food insecurity, and if such food security status may be associated with dietary intake [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic and has affected people’s dietary behaviors, including food insecurity. This study aimed to ascertain whether COVID-19 may alter the prevalence of food insecurity, and if such food security status may be associated with dietary intake among Koreans. The general characteristics, dietary intake and food security status data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VIII (2019~2020) were analyzed. The prevalence of food insecurity and food group and nutrient consumption by food security status were analyzed before (2019) and after the start of the pandemic (2020). Findings suggested 4.3% of Koreans experienced food insecurity during the first year of the pandemic, yet it did not differ from that in the year before the pandemic. Before COVID-19, there was no significant difference in food group or nutrition consumption by food security status. However, in 2020, the fruit and vitamin C intake of the food-insecure group was significantly lower than that of the food-secure group. Additionally, the food-insecure group’s ratio of subjects who did not meet the recommended level of fruits and the vitamin was higher compared to that of the secure group. In conclusion, COVID-19 did not affect food insecurity status, but did have a negative influence on dietary intake for food-insecure Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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11 pages, 421 KiB  
Review
Global Dietary and Herbal Supplement Use during COVID-19—A Scoping Review
by Ishaan Arora, Shecoya White and Rahel Mathews
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030771 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5195
Abstract
During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of cure and the intensity of the global spread raised a common awareness of health. The aim of this scoping review is to summarize dietary supplement use globally during first two years of [...] Read more.
During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of cure and the intensity of the global spread raised a common awareness of health. The aim of this scoping review is to summarize dietary supplement use globally during first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search was conducted in December 2021 following PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, ERIC, and Scopus databases were searched, and 956 results were screened for eligibility. Fourteen cross-sectional studies from 11 countries and 3 continents were examined. All studies were large population surveys investigating healthy eating and supplement use during COVID-19. Vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc and multivitamins were the most widely reported, as well as natural/herbal products such as ginger and honey. The most common reason cited for supplements use was to strengthen immune system and to prevent infection of COVID-19. These studies reported that populations are relying on healthcare providers, family, friends, and social media to learn about supplement use. Future studies on the treatment of COVID-19 should include more evidence for supplement use. Full article
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15 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Protein-Balanced Dietary Habits Benefit Cognitive Function in Japanese Older Adults
by Keisuke Sakurai, Erika Okada, Saya Anzai, Risako Tamura, Izumi Shiraishi, Noriko Inamura, Satoru Kobayashi, Mikako Sato, Takashi Matsumoto, Kazuyuki Kudo, Yukihiro Sugawara and Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030770 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3811
Abstract
Since daily dietary habits can affect cognitive function, dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay diet have been proposed as interventions to slow cognitive decline. However, because dietary habits vary widely among different food cultures, it is necessary to establish [...] Read more.
Since daily dietary habits can affect cognitive function, dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay diet have been proposed as interventions to slow cognitive decline. However, because dietary habits vary widely among different food cultures, it is necessary to establish dietary pattern intervention methods that are appropriate for each population. Therefore, in this study, the dietary patterns of elderly Japanese individuals were classified using cluster analysis, and their relationship with cognitive function was investigated. We then modeled the dietary patterns and applied them to another cohort of elderly Japanese individuals to determine whether differences in dietary patterns could predict cognitive decline. One hundred and fifty older adults ≥ 65 years of age in the community were recruited. Their daily food intake and cognitive function were measured using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, respectively. K-means cluster analysis identified a high-carbohydrate (HC) dietary pattern with high cereal intake and a protein-balanced (PB) dietary pattern with high intake of legumes, vegetables, seafood, meat, and eggs. Cognitive function was significantly higher in the PB group than in the HC group. Furthermore, to classify the new data into HC and PB patterns, a classification model was created by discriminant analysis using food groups with significantly different intakes among dietary patterns. Next, we recruited 267 new older adults ≥ 65 years of age and measured food intake and cognitive function assessed using the memory performance index score. Individuals with cognitive decline were identified and their detailed cognitive functions were assessed using the neurocognitive index score. Cognitive function was significantly impaired in the HC pattern in both the general elderly and cognitively impaired cohorts. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern of low carbohydrate and high protein intake is associated with good cognitive function in elderly Japanese individuals. Classification by these dietary patterns can predict cognitive reservation in community-dwelling older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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17 pages, 347 KiB  
Review
Effects of Vitamin D on Cardiovascular Risk and Oxidative Stress
by Guilherme Renke, Bernardo Starling-Soares, Thomaz Baesso, Rayssa Petronio, Danilo Aguiar and Raphaela Paes
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030769 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 7266
Abstract
Introduction: Vitamin D has been primarily studied as an important factor influencing bone and calcium metabolism. Metabolites of vitamin D are essential for whole-body calcium homeostasis, maintaining serum calcium levels within a narrow range by regulating this process in the bones and gut. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Vitamin D has been primarily studied as an important factor influencing bone and calcium metabolism. Metabolites of vitamin D are essential for whole-body calcium homeostasis, maintaining serum calcium levels within a narrow range by regulating this process in the bones and gut. Nevertheless, its deficiency is also related to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular disease (CVD)—with increased visceral adipose tissue and body mass index (BMI), as well as the frequently associated hypercholesterolemia. It has been reported that vitamin D levels are inversely related to cardiovascular (CV) risk in men and women. However, the effects of vitamin D on distinct outcomes in women and the dose of supplementation needed to improve clinical endpoints have not been established. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in CVD and favors the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines from the immune system. In addition, 25(OH)D can be primarily converted into calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D]) in the kidneys through the action of the 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme. Calcitriol, through the downregulation mechanism of renin expression, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, and its interaction with the vitamin D receptor, can bring CV benefits. The calcitriol form also lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels by indirectly causing a reduction in aldosterone and mineralocorticoid synthesis. Elevated plasma aldosterone is related to endothelial dysfunction and CVD in hypovitaminosis D status. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation may benefit certain risk groups, as it improves metabolic variables, reducing oxidative stress and CV outcomes. More studies are needed to define interventions with vitamin D in men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
12 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
Association between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Serum Levels of Ketone Bodies and Vitamin D, Thyroid Function, and Iron Metabolism
by Kiwamu Noshiro, Takeshi Umazume, Mayumi Inubashiri, Megumi Tamura, Masayoshi Hosaka and Hidemichi Watari
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030768 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Suicide due to postpartum depression is the most common perinatal-related death and is a social concern in Japan. Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may contribute to postpartum depression; therefore, we investigated the relationship between postpartum depression and nutritional status during pregnancy and postpartum. We [...] Read more.
Suicide due to postpartum depression is the most common perinatal-related death and is a social concern in Japan. Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may contribute to postpartum depression; therefore, we investigated the relationship between postpartum depression and nutritional status during pregnancy and postpartum. We focused specifically on ketone bodies because they are known to protect brain cells. The relationship between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores and the serum levels of ketone bodies and vitamin D, thyroid function, and iron metabolism was examined. Overall, 126 pregnant women were identified for the study, and 99 were eventually included in the analysis. We defined an EPDS score of ≥9 as being positive for postpartum depression, and serum ketone levels were found to be higher in the group with an EPDS score of ≥9 during the second trimester; however, there were no other significant findings. We may be able to predict postpartum depression from a pregnant woman’s serum ketone levels in the second trimester. There was a positive correlation between the EPDS scores at 3 days and 1 month postpartum (r = 0.534, p < 0.001). EPDS scores assessed in the early postpartum period may be useful for the timely detection of postpartum depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Infant Nutrition Strategy)
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13 pages, 341 KiB  
Review
Genomic or Non-Genomic? A Question about the Pleiotropic Roles of Vitamin D in Inflammatory-Based Diseases
by Michael F. Holick, Luciana Mazzei, Sebastián García Menéndez, Virna Margarita Martín Giménez, Fatme Al Anouti and Walter Manucha
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030767 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7466
Abstract
Vitamin D (vit D) is widely known for its role in calcium metabolism and its importance for the bone system. However, various studies have revealed a myriad of extra-skeletal functions, including cell differentiation and proliferation, antibacterial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties in various [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (vit D) is widely known for its role in calcium metabolism and its importance for the bone system. However, various studies have revealed a myriad of extra-skeletal functions, including cell differentiation and proliferation, antibacterial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties in various cells and tissues. Vit D mediates its function via regulation of gene expression by binding to its receptor (VDR) which is expressed in almost all cells within the body. This review summarizes the pleiotropic effects of vit D, emphasizing its anti-inflammatory effect on different organ systems. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic and epigenetic effects of vit D and VDR on the expression of genes pertaining to immunity and anti-inflammation. We speculate that in the context of inflammation, vit D and its receptor VDR might fulfill their roles as gene regulators through not only direct gene regulation but also through epigenetic mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory Role of Vitamin D and Its Derivatives in the Immune System)
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17 pages, 428 KiB  
Review
Factors That Influence Children’s Exits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: A Systematic Review
by Karina R. Lora, Leslie Hodges, Cayley Ryan, Michele Ver Ploeg and Joanne Guthrie
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030766 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides supplemental foods and nutritional education to low-income women and children up to the age of five. Despite evidence that WIC improves diet and nutrition and the nationwide availability of this program, [...] Read more.
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides supplemental foods and nutritional education to low-income women and children up to the age of five. Despite evidence that WIC improves diet and nutrition and the nationwide availability of this program, many participants exit WIC before they are no longer eligible for benefits. To date no study has systematically reviewed factors that influence participants’ exits from WIC. The study systematically reviewed the relevant literature to identify factors related to discontinuing participation in WIC before children reach the age of five and 1503 citations were reviewed, 19 articles were read for full text review and eight studies met inclusion criteria. Participants’ higher socioeconomic status, attitudes and behaviors around breastfeeding, having shorter prenatal participation in WIC, administrative barriers, confusion regarding program eligibility, feelings of stigma and embarrassment at the store checkout lines, personal and family challenges, dissatisfaction with insufficient fruit and vegetables benefits and living in suburban areas or in the Southern US were salient factors that influenced WIC exits. These findings will be of interest to policymakers and stakeholders as they consider ways to increase participation and retention through program modernization and innovations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Policy for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program)
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