ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Topical Collection "Feature Papers in Molecular Microbiology"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Georg A. Sprenger
Website
Collection Editor
University of Stuttgart, Institute of Microbiology, Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: Carbon-carbon (C-C) bonding enzymes; amino acid biosynthesis; metabolic engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection “Feature Papers in Molecular Microbiology” aims to collect high-quality research articles, short communications, and review articles in the molecular biology of microbes with a focus on prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotic microorganisms. Since the aim of this Topical Collection is to illustrate, through selected works, frontier research in materials science, we encourage Editorial Board Members of the Materials Science Section of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences to contribute papers reflecting the latest progress in their research field or to invite relevant experts and colleagues to do so.

Prof. Dr. Georg A. Sprenger
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
The N-Terminal Region of Yeast Protein Phosphatase Ppz1 Is a Determinant for Its Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207733 - 19 Oct 2020
Abstract
The Ppz enzymes are Ser/Thr protein phosphatases present only in fungi that are characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic region, related to PP1c phosphatases, and a more divergent N-terminal extension. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ppz phosphatases are encoded by two paralog genes, PPZ1 [...] Read more.
The Ppz enzymes are Ser/Thr protein phosphatases present only in fungi that are characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic region, related to PP1c phosphatases, and a more divergent N-terminal extension. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ppz phosphatases are encoded by two paralog genes, PPZ1 and PPZ2. Ppz1 is the most toxic protein when overexpressed in budding yeast, halting cell proliferation, and this effect requires its phosphatase activity. We show here that, in spite of their conserved catalytic domain, Ppz2 was not toxic when tested under the same conditions as Ppz1, albeit Ppz2 levels were somewhat lower. Remarkably, a hybrid protein composed of the N-terminal extension of Ppz1 and the catalytic domain of Ppz2 was as toxic as Ppz1, even if its expression level was comparable to that of Ppz2. Similar amounts of yeast PP1c (Glc7) produced an intermediate effect on growth. Mutation of the Ppz1 myristoylable Gly2 to Ala avoided the localization of the phosphatase at the cell periphery but only slightly attenuated its toxicity. Therefore, the N-terminal extension of Ppz1 plays a key role in defining Ppz1 toxicity. This region is predicted to be intrinsically disordered and contains several putative folding-upon-binding regions which are absent in Ppz2 and might be relevant for toxicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Aggregation and Prion-Inducing Properties of the G-Protein Gamma Subunit Ste18 are Regulated by Membrane Association
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145038 - 16 Jul 2020
Abstract
Yeast prions and mnemons are respectively transmissible and non-transmissible self-perpetuating protein assemblies, frequently based on cross-β ordered detergent-resistant aggregates (amyloids). Prions cause devastating diseases in mammals and control heritable traits in yeast. It was shown that the de novo formation of the prion [...] Read more.
Yeast prions and mnemons are respectively transmissible and non-transmissible self-perpetuating protein assemblies, frequently based on cross-β ordered detergent-resistant aggregates (amyloids). Prions cause devastating diseases in mammals and control heritable traits in yeast. It was shown that the de novo formation of the prion form [PSI+] of yeast release factor Sup35 is facilitated by aggregates of other proteins. Here we explore the mechanism of the promotion of [PSI+] formation by Ste18, an evolutionarily conserved gamma subunit of a G-protein coupled receptor, a key player in responses to extracellular stimuli. Ste18 forms detergent-resistant aggregates, some of which are colocalized with de novo generated Sup35 aggregates. Membrane association of Ste18 is required for both Ste18 aggregation and [PSI+] induction, while functional interactions involved in signal transduction are not essential for these processes. This emphasizes the significance of a specific location for the nucleation of protein aggregation. In contrast to typical prions, Ste18 aggregates do not show a pattern of heritability. Our finding that Ste18 levels are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in conjunction with the previously reported increase in Ste18 levels upon the exposure to mating pheromone, suggests that the concentration-dependent Ste18 aggregation may mediate a mnemon-like response to physiological stimuli. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The In Vitro Non-Tetramerizing ZapAI83E Mutant Is Unable to Recruit ZapB to the Division Plane In Vivo in Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093130 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Bacterial cell division is guided by filamenting temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) treadmilling at midcell. FtsZ itself is regulated by FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) that couple it to different cellular processes. Z-associated protein A (ZapA) is known to enhance FtsZ bundling but also forms a synchronizing [...] Read more.
Bacterial cell division is guided by filamenting temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) treadmilling at midcell. FtsZ itself is regulated by FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) that couple it to different cellular processes. Z-associated protein A (ZapA) is known to enhance FtsZ bundling but also forms a synchronizing link with chromosome segregation through Z-associated protein B (ZapB) and matS-bound MatP. ZapA likely exists as dimers and tetramers in the cell. Using a ZapA mutant that is only able to form dimers in vitro (ZapAI83E), this paper investigates the effects of ZapA multimerization state on its interaction partners and cell division. By employing fluorescence microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer in vivo it was shown that ZapAI83E is unable to complement a zapA deletion strain and localizes diffusely through the cell but still interacts with FtsZ that is not part of the cell division machinery. The diffusely-localized ZapAI83E is unable to recruit ZapB, which in its presence localizes unipolarly. Interestingly, the localization profiles of the chromosome and unipolar ZapB anticorrelate. The work presented here confirms previously reported in vitro effects of ZapA multimerization in vivo and places it in a broader context by revealing the strong implications for ZapB and chromosome localization and ter linkage. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Disparate Phenotypes Resulting from Mutations of a Single Histidine in Switch II of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Translation Initiation Factor IF2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030735 - 22 Jan 2020
Abstract
The conserved Histidine 301 in switch II of Geobacillus stearothermophilus IF2 G2 domain was substituted with Ser, Gln, Arg, Leu and Tyr to generate mutants displaying different phenotypes. Overexpression of IF2H301S, IF2H301L and IF2H301Y in cells expressing wtIF2, unlike IF2H301Q and IF2H301R, caused [...] Read more.
The conserved Histidine 301 in switch II of Geobacillus stearothermophilus IF2 G2 domain was substituted with Ser, Gln, Arg, Leu and Tyr to generate mutants displaying different phenotypes. Overexpression of IF2H301S, IF2H301L and IF2H301Y in cells expressing wtIF2, unlike IF2H301Q and IF2H301R, caused a dominant lethal phenotype, inhibiting in vivo translation and drastically reducing cell viability. All mutants bound GTP but, except for IF2H301Q, were inactive in ribosome-dependent GTPase for different reasons. All mutants promoted 30S initiation complex (30S IC) formation with wild type (wt) efficiency but upon 30S IC association with the 50S subunit, the fMet-tRNA reacted with puromycin to different extents depending upon the IF2 mutant present in the complex (wtIF2 ≥ to IF2H301Q > IF2H301R >>> IF2H301S, IF2H301L and IF2H301Y) whereas only fMet-tRNA 30S-bound with IF2H301Q retained some ability to form initiation dipeptide fMet-Phe. Unlike wtIF2, all mutants, regardless of their ability to hydrolyze GTP, displayed higher affinity for the ribosome and failed to dissociate from the ribosomes upon 50S docking to 30S IC. We conclude that different amino acids substitutions of His301 cause different structural alterations of the factor, resulting in disparate phenotypes with no direct correlation existing between GTPase inactivation and IF2 failure to dissociate from ribosomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2019

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessReview
Unique Features of Entamoeba Sulfur Metabolism; Compartmentalization, Physiological Roles of Terminal Products, Evolution and Pharmaceutical Exploitation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194679 - 21 Sep 2019
Abstract
Sulfur metabolism is essential for all living organisms. Recently, unique features of the Entamoeba metabolic pathway for sulfated biomolecules have been described. Entamoeba is a genus in the phylum Amoebozoa and includes the causative agent for amoebiasis, a global public health problem. This [...] Read more.
Sulfur metabolism is essential for all living organisms. Recently, unique features of the Entamoeba metabolic pathway for sulfated biomolecules have been described. Entamoeba is a genus in the phylum Amoebozoa and includes the causative agent for amoebiasis, a global public health problem. This review gives an overview of the general features of the synthesis and degradation of sulfated biomolecules, and then highlights the characteristics that are unique to Entamoeba. Future biological and pharmaceutical perspectives are also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Protein Phosphatase Ppz1 Is Not Regulated by a Hal3-Like Protein in Plant Pathogen Ustilago maydis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153817 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ppz enzymes are type-1 related Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that are restricted to fungi. In S. cerevisiae and other fungi, Ppz1 is involved in cation homeostasis and is regulated by two structurally-related inhibitory subunits, Hal3 and Vhs3, with Hal3 being the most physiologically relevant. [...] Read more.
Ppz enzymes are type-1 related Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that are restricted to fungi. In S. cerevisiae and other fungi, Ppz1 is involved in cation homeostasis and is regulated by two structurally-related inhibitory subunits, Hal3 and Vhs3, with Hal3 being the most physiologically relevant. Remarkably, Hal3 and Vhs3 have moonlighting properties, as they participate in an atypical heterotrimeric phosphopantothenoyl cysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC), a key enzyme for Coenzyme A biosynthesis. Here we identify and functionally characterize Ppz1 phosphatase (UmPpz1) and its presumed regulatory subunit (UmHal3) in the plant pathogen fungus Ustilago maydis. UmPpz1 is not an essential protein in U. maydis and, although possibly related to the cell wall integrity pathway, is not involved in monovalent cation homeostasis. The expression of UmPpz1 in S. cerevisiae Ppz1-deficient cells partially mimics the functions of the endogenous enzyme. In contrast to what was found in C. albicans and A. fumigatus, UmPpz1 is not a virulence determinant. UmHal3, an unusually large protein, is the only functional PPCDC in U. maydis and, therefore, an essential protein. However, when overexpressed in U. maydis or S. cerevisiae, UmHal3 does not reproduce Ppz1-inhibitory phenotypes. Indeed, UmHal3 does not inhibit UmPpz1 in vitro (although ScHal3 does). Therefore, UmHal3 might not be a moonlighting protein. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop