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Special Issue "Host-Pathogen Interaction 4.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 2566

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Andreas Burkovski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Biologie, Alexander Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany
Interests: corynebacteria; host–pathogen interaction; nitrogen control; regulatory networks; secretome analyses; toxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our previous Special Issue "Host-Pathogen Interaction 3.0".

Microorganisms can interact with larger organisms in many different ways, e.g., beneficially as symbionts, indifferently as commensals, or harmfully as pathogens. Today, a wide variety of molecular and cell biology tools, including advanced microscopy and -omics techniques, allow us to study these interactions at a molecular level. This Special Issue will deal with all aspects of pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa) and their host organisms. Reviews and research articles focusing on either pathogens or hosts are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Burkovski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Computational Analysis of Short Linear Motifs in the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Variants Provides Possible Clues into the Immune Hijack and Evasion Mechanisms of Omicron Variant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158822 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Short linear motifs (SLiMs) are short linear sequences that can mediate protein–protein interaction. Mimicking eukaryotic SLiMs to compete with extra- or intracellular binding partners, or to sequester host proteins is the crucial strategy of viruses to pervert the host system. Evolved proteins in [...] Read more.
Short linear motifs (SLiMs) are short linear sequences that can mediate protein–protein interaction. Mimicking eukaryotic SLiMs to compete with extra- or intracellular binding partners, or to sequester host proteins is the crucial strategy of viruses to pervert the host system. Evolved proteins in viruses facilitate minimal protein–protein interactions that significantly affect intracellular signaling networks. Unfortunately, very little information about SARS-CoV-2 SLiMs is known, especially across SARS-CoV-2 variants. Through the ELM database-based sequence analysis of spike proteins from all the major SARS-CoV-2 variants, we identified four overriding SLiMs in the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, namely, LIG_TRFH_1, LIG_REV1ctd_RIR_1, LIG_CaM_NSCaTE_8, and MOD_LATS_1. These SLiMs are highly likely to interfere with various immune functions, interact with host intracellular proteins, regulate cellular pathways, and lubricate viral infection and transmission. These cellular interactions possibly serve as potential therapeutic targets for these variants, and this approach can be further exploited to combat emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction 4.0)
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Article
In Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Helicobacter pylori Induces the Secretion of Soluble and Exosomal Cytokines Related to Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158801 - 08 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Helicobacter pylori promotes the secretion of cytokines that regulate inflammation and carcinogenesis. Immune cells secrete cytokines into the extracellular medium or packaged in exosomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the profile of soluble and exosomal cytokines that were secreted by [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori promotes the secretion of cytokines that regulate inflammation and carcinogenesis. Immune cells secrete cytokines into the extracellular medium or packaged in exosomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the profile of soluble and exosomal cytokines that were secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were infected with H. pylori and to build a network of interaction between cytokines and cellular proteins. PBMCs were obtained by density gradient centrifugation and infected with H. pylori for 24 h. The infection was verified by immunofluorescence and Western blot for CagA. The exosomes were obtained from culture supernatant by ultracentrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and Western blot for CD9 and CD81. Cytokines were quantified using a multiplex immunoassay in the culture supernatant, intact exosomes, and lysed exosomes. H. pylori adheres to lymphocytes and translocates CagA. In PBMCs, H. pylori induces an increase in the soluble and exosomal IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-22. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network shows that soluble and exosomal cytokines interact with proteins that participate in signaling pathways such as NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Jak-STAT, FoxO, and mTOR, that are related to carcinogenesis; moreover, TNF-α had the highest number of interactions. Cytokine-loaded exosomes represent another means of intercellular communication that is activated by H. pylori to stimulate inflammation, carcinogenesis, or cancer progression. Cytokine-loaded exosomes are likely to be associated with extragastrointestinal diseases of inflammatory origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction 4.0)
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Article
Naegleria fowleri Cathepsin B Induces a Pro-Inflammatory Immune Response in BV-2 Microglial Cells via NF-κB and AP-1 Dependent-MAPK Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158388 - 29 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous protozoa parasite that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a fatal brain infection in humans. Cathepsin Bs of N. fowleri (NfCBs) are multifamily enzymes. Although their pathogenic mechanism in PAM is not clearly understood yet, NfCBs have been [...] Read more.
Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous protozoa parasite that can cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a fatal brain infection in humans. Cathepsin Bs of N. fowleri (NfCBs) are multifamily enzymes. Although their pathogenic mechanism in PAM is not clearly understood yet, NfCBs have been proposed as pathogenic factors involved in the pathogenicity of amoeba. In this study, the immune response of BV-2 microglial cells induced by NfCB was analyzed. Recombinant NfCB (rNfCB) evoked enhanced expressions of TLR-2, TLR-4, and MyD88 in BV-2 microglial cells. This enzyme also induced an elevated production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and iNOS in cells. The inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including JNK, p38, and ERK, effectively reduced the production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. The rNfCB-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV-2 microglial cells was suppressed by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1. Phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 in cells were also enhanced by rNfCB. These results suggest that NfCB can induce a pro-inflammatory immune response in BV-2 microglial cells via the NF-κB- and AP-1-dependent MAPK signaling pathways. Such a NfCB-induced pro-inflammatory immune response in BV-2 microglial cells might contribute to the pathogenesis of PAM caused by amoeba, by exacerbating deleterious immune responses and tissue damages in N. fowleri-infected foci of the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction 4.0)
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Review

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Review
The NEL Family of Bacterial E3 Ubiquitin Ligases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147725 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Some pathogenic or symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria can manipulate the ubiquitination system of the eukaryotic host cell using a variety of strategies. Members of the genera Salmonella, Shigella, Sinorhizobium, and Ralstonia, among others, express E3 ubiquitin ligases that belong to [...] Read more.
Some pathogenic or symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria can manipulate the ubiquitination system of the eukaryotic host cell using a variety of strategies. Members of the genera Salmonella, Shigella, Sinorhizobium, and Ralstonia, among others, express E3 ubiquitin ligases that belong to the NEL family. These bacteria use type III secretion systems to translocate these proteins into host cells, where they will find their targets. In this review, we first introduce type III secretion systems and the ubiquitination process and consider the various ways bacteria use to alter the ubiquitin ligation machinery. We then focus on the members of the NEL family, their expression, translocation, and subcellular localization in the host cell, and we review what is known about the structure of these proteins, their function in virulence or symbiosis, and their specific targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction 4.0)
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