Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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22 pages, 8605 KiB  
Article
Assessing Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in Southern Spain Using Rainfall Estimates and GRACE Data
by Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Jean-Philippe Montillet, José Sánchez-Morales, Peter A. Dowd, Juan Antonio Luque-Espinar, Neda Darbeheshti and Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar
Hydrology 2023, 10(9), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10090187 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
This paper investigates the relationship between rainfall, groundwater and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to generate regional-scale estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in the Andalucía region of southern Spain. These estimates can provide information on groundwater depletion (caused by periods [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the relationship between rainfall, groundwater and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to generate regional-scale estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in the Andalucía region of southern Spain. These estimates can provide information on groundwater depletion (caused by periods of low rainfall or droughts) and groundwater recovery. The spatial distribution of groundwater bodies in southern Spain is complex and current in situ groundwater monitoring methods are deficient, particularly in terms of obtaining representative samples and in implementing and maintaining groundwater monitoring networks. The alternative approach proposed here is to investigate the relationship between precipitation time series and changes in the terrestrial water storage estimated from GRACE observations. The results were validated against the estimated fluctuation in regional groundwater. The maximum correlation between the mean groundwater level and the GRACE observations is 0.69 and this occurs at a lag of one month because the variation in gravity is immediate, but rainfall water requires around one month to travel across the vadose zone before it reaches the groundwater table. Using graphical methods of accumulated deviations from the mean, we show that, in general, groundwater storage follows the smooth, multi-year trends of terrestrial water storage but with less short-term trends; the same is true of rainfall, for which the local trends are more pronounced. There is hysteresis-like behaviour in the variations in terrestrial water storage and in the variations of groundwater. In practical terms, this study shows that, despite the abnormal dryness of the Iberian Peninsula during the 2004–2010 drought, the depleted groundwater storage in Andalucía recovered almost to its pre-drought level by 2016. In addition, groundwater storage and terrestrial water storage show very similar trends but with a delay in the groundwater trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology–Climate Interactions)
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19 pages, 9333 KiB  
Article
Urban Flood Modelling under Extreme Rainfall Conditions for Building-Level Flood Exposure Analysis
by Christos Iliadis, Panagiota Galiatsatou, Vassilis Glenis, Panagiotis Prinos and Chris Kilsby
Hydrology 2023, 10(8), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10080172 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
The expansion of urban areas and the increasing frequency and magnitude of intense rainfall events are anticipated to contribute to the widespread escalation of urban flood risk across the globe. To effectively mitigate future flood risks, it is crucial to combine a comprehensive [...] Read more.
The expansion of urban areas and the increasing frequency and magnitude of intense rainfall events are anticipated to contribute to the widespread escalation of urban flood risk across the globe. To effectively mitigate future flood risks, it is crucial to combine a comprehensive examination of intense rainfall events in urban areas with the utilization of detailed hydrodynamic models. This study combines extreme value analysis techniques applied to rainfall data ranging from sub-hourly to daily durations with a high-resolution flood modelling analysis at the building level in the centre of Thessaloniki, Greece. A scaling procedure is employed to rainfall return levels assessed by applying the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution to annual maximum fine-temporal-scale data, and these scaling laws are then applied to more reliable daily rainfall return levels estimated by means of the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), in order to develop storm profiles with durations of 1 h and 2 h. The advanced flood model, CityCAT, is then used for the simulation of pluvial flooding, providing reliable assessments of building-level exposure to flooding hazards. The results of the analysis conducted provide insights into flood depths and water flowpaths in the city centre of Thessaloniki, identifying major flowpaths along certain main streets resulting in localised flooding, and identifying around 165 and 186 buildings highly exposed to inundation risk in the study area for 50-year storm events with durations of 1 h and 2 h, respectively. For the first time in this study area, a detailed analysis of extreme rainfall events is combined with a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM), used as an input into the advanced and fully featured CityCAT hydrodynamic model, to assess critical flowpaths and buildings at high flood risk. The results of this study can aid in the planning and design of resilient solutions to combat urban flash floods, as well as contribute to targeted flood damage mitigation and flood risk reduction. Full article
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22 pages, 9908 KiB  
Article
Decoupling of Ecological and Hydrological Drought Conditions in the Limpopo River Basin Inferred from Groundwater Storage and NDVI Anomalies
by Kyung Y. Kim, Todd Scanlon, Sophia Bakar and Venkataraman Lakshmi
Hydrology 2023, 10(8), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10080170 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Droughts are projected to increase in intensity and frequency with the rise of global mean temperatures. However, not all drought indices equally capture the variety of influences that each hydrologic component has on the duration and magnitude of a period of water deficit. [...] Read more.
Droughts are projected to increase in intensity and frequency with the rise of global mean temperatures. However, not all drought indices equally capture the variety of influences that each hydrologic component has on the duration and magnitude of a period of water deficit. While such indices often agree with one another due to precipitation being the major input, heterogeneous responses caused by groundwater recharge, soil moisture memory, and vegetation dynamics may lead to a decoupling of identifiable drought conditions. As a semi-arid basin, the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) is a severely water-stressed region associated with unique climate patterns that regularly affect hydrological extremes. In this study, we find that vegetation indices show no significant long-term trends (S-statistic 9; p-value 0.779), opposing that of the modeled groundwater anomalies (S-statistic -57; p-value 0.05) in the growing season for a period of 18 years (2004–2022). Although the Mann-Kendall time series statistics for NDVI and drought indices are non-significant when basin-averaged, spatial heterogeneity further reveals that such a decoupling trend between vegetation and groundwater anomalies is indeed significant (p-value < 0.05) in colluvial, low-land aquifers to the southeast, while they remain more coupled in the central-west LRB, where more bedrock aquifers dominate. The conclusions of this study highlight the importance of ecological conditions with respect to water availability and suggest that water management must be informed by local vegetation species, especially in the face of depleting groundwater resources. Full article
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26 pages, 7730 KiB  
Article
Improvements and Evaluation of the Agro-Hydrologic VegET Model for Large-Area Water Budget Analysis and Drought Monitoring
by Gabriel B. Senay, Stefanie Kagone, Gabriel E. L. Parrish, Kul Khand, Olena Boiko and Naga M. Velpuri
Hydrology 2023, 10(8), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10080168 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2247
Abstract
We enhanced the agro-hydrologic VegET model to include snow accumulation and melt processes and the separation of runoff into surface runoff and deep drainage. Driven by global weather datasets and parameterized by land surface phenology (LSP), the enhanced VegET model was implemented in [...] Read more.
We enhanced the agro-hydrologic VegET model to include snow accumulation and melt processes and the separation of runoff into surface runoff and deep drainage. Driven by global weather datasets and parameterized by land surface phenology (LSP), the enhanced VegET model was implemented in the cloud to simulate daily soil moisture (SM), actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and runoff (R) for the conterminous United States (CONUS) and the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). Evaluation of the VegET model with independent data showed satisfactory performance, capturing the temporal variability of SM (Pearson correlation r: 0.22–0.97), snowpack (r: 0.86–0.88), ETa (r: 0.41–0.97), and spatial variability of R (r: 0.81–0.90). Absolute magnitudes showed some biases, indicating the need of calibrating the model for water budget analysis. The seasonal Landscape Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (L-WRSI) for CONUS and GHA showed realistic depictions of drought hazard extent and severity, indicating the usefulness of the L-WRSI for the convergence of an evidence toolkit used by the Famine Early Warning System Network to monitor potential food insecurity conditions in different parts of the world. Using projected weather datasets and landcover-based LSP, the VegET model can be used not only for global monitoring of drought conditions, but also for evaluating scenarios on the effect of a changing climate and land cover on agriculture and water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources in Agriculture and Ecology)
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24 pages, 10756 KiB  
Article
Flood Inundation and Depth Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Combined with High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery
by Kevin J. Wienhold, Dongfeng Li, Wenzhao Li and Zheng N. Fang
Hydrology 2023, 10(8), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10080158 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The identification of flood hazards during emerging public safety crises such as hurricanes or flash floods is an invaluable tool for first responders and managers yet remains out of reach in any comprehensive sense when using traditional remote-sensing methods, due to cloud cover [...] Read more.
The identification of flood hazards during emerging public safety crises such as hurricanes or flash floods is an invaluable tool for first responders and managers yet remains out of reach in any comprehensive sense when using traditional remote-sensing methods, due to cloud cover and other data-sourcing restrictions. While many remote-sensing techniques exist for floodwater identification and extraction, few studies demonstrate an up-to-day understanding with better techniques in isolating the spectral properties of floodwaters from collected data, which vary for each event. This study introduces a novel method for delineating near-real-time inundation flood extent and depth mapping for storm events, using an inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based multispectral remote-sensing platform, which was designed to be applicable for urban environments, under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The methodology is demonstrated using an actual flooding-event—Hurricane Zeta during the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season. Referred to as the UAV and Floodwater Inundation and Depth Mapper (FIDM), the methodology consists of three major components, including aerial data collection, processing, and flood inundation (water surface extent) and depth mapping. The model results for inundation and depth were compared to a validation dataset and ground-truthing data, respectively. The results suggest that UAV-FIDM is able to predict inundation with a total error (sum of omission and commission errors) of 15.8% and produce flooding depth estimates that are accurate enough to be actionable to determine road closures for a real event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Inundation Mapping in Hydrological Systems)
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19 pages, 3306 KiB  
Article
ANN-Based Predictors of ASR Well Recovery Effectiveness in Unconfined Aquifers
by Saeid Masoudiashtiani and Richard C. Peralta
Hydrology 2023, 10(7), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10070151 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
In this study, we present artificial neural networks (ANNs) to aid in a reconnaissance evaluation of an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) well. Recovery effectiveness (REN) is the proportion of ASR-injected water recovered during subsequent extraction from the same well. ANN-based predictors allow [...] Read more.
In this study, we present artificial neural networks (ANNs) to aid in a reconnaissance evaluation of an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) well. Recovery effectiveness (REN) is the proportion of ASR-injected water recovered during subsequent extraction from the same well. ANN-based predictors allow rapid REN prediction without requiring preparation for and execution of solute transport simulations. REN helps estimate blended water quality resulting from a conservative solute in an aquifer, extraction for environmental protection, and other uses, respectively. Assume that into an isotropic homogenous portion of an unconfined, one-layer aquifer, extra surface water is injected at a steady rate during two wet months (61 days) through a fully penetrating ASR well. And then, water is extracted from the well at the same steady rate during three dry months (91-day period of high demand). The presented dimensionless input parameters were designed to be calibrated within the ANNs to match REN values. The values result from groundwater flow and solute transport simulations for ranges of impact factors of unconfined aquifers. The ANNs calibrated the weighting coefficients associated with the input parameters to predict the achievable REN of an ASR well. The ASR steadily injects extra surface water during periods of water availability and, subsequently, steadily extracts groundwater for use. The total extraction volume equaled the total injection volume at the end of extraction day 61. Subsequently, continuing extraction presumes a pre-existing groundwater right. Full article
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23 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Smart Data Blending Framework to Enhance Precipitation Estimation through Interconnected Atmospheric, Satellite, and Surface Variables
by Niloufar Beikahmadi, Antonio Francipane and Leonardo Valerio Noto
Hydrology 2023, 10(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10060128 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
Accurate precipitation estimation remains a challenge, though it is fundamental for most hydrological analyses. In this regard, this study aims to achieve two objectives. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of two precipitation products from the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM-IMERG) [...] Read more.
Accurate precipitation estimation remains a challenge, though it is fundamental for most hydrological analyses. In this regard, this study aims to achieve two objectives. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of two precipitation products from the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM-IMERG) for Sicily, Italy, from 2016 to 2020 by a set of categorical indicators and statistical indices. Analyses indicate the favorable performance of daily estimates, while half-hourly estimates exhibited poorer performance, revealing larger discrepancies between satellite and ground-based measurements at sub-hourly timescales. Secondly, we propose four multi-source merged models within Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multivariant Linear Regression (MLR) blending frameworks to seek potential improvement by exploiting different combinations of Soil Moisture (SM) measurements from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and atmospheric factor of Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) estimations, from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2). Spatial distribution maps of some diagnostic indices used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of models reveal the best performance of ANNs over the entire domain. Assessing variable sensitivity reveals the importance of IMERG satellite precipitation and PWV in non-linear models such as ANNs, which outperform the MLR modeling framework and individual IMERG products. Full article
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32 pages, 8254 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Max-Stable Process Areal Exceedance Calculations to Study Area Sampling Density, Surface Network Precipitation Gage Extent and Density, and Model Fitting Method
by Brian Skahill, Cole Haden Smith, Brook T. Russell and John F. England
Hydrology 2023, 10(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10060121 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Max-stable process (MSP) models can be fit to data collected over a spatial domain to estimate areal-based exceedances while accounting for spatial dependence in extremes. They have theoretical grounding within the framework of extreme value theory (EVT). In this work, we fit MSP [...] Read more.
Max-stable process (MSP) models can be fit to data collected over a spatial domain to estimate areal-based exceedances while accounting for spatial dependence in extremes. They have theoretical grounding within the framework of extreme value theory (EVT). In this work, we fit MSP models to three-day duration cool season precipitation maxima in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of Oregon and to 48 h mid-latitude cyclone precipitation annual maxima in the Upper Trinity River Basin (TRB) of Texas. In total, 14 MSP models were fit (seven based on the WRB data and seven based on the TRB data). These MSP model fits were developed and applied to explore how user choices of study area sampling density, gage extent, and model fitting method impact areal precipitation-frequency calculations. The impacts of gage density were also evaluated. The development of each MSP involved the application of a recently introduced trend surface modeling methodology. Significant reductions in computing times were achieved, with little loss in accuracy, applying random sample subsets rather than the entire grid when calculating areal exceedances for the Cougar dam study area in the WRB. Explorations of gage extent revealed poor consistency among the TRB MSPs with modeling the generalized extreme value (GEV) marginal distribution scale parameter. The gauge density study revealed the robustness of the trend surface modeling methodology. Regardless of the fitting method, the final GEV shape parameter estimates for all fourteen MSPs were greater than their prescribed initial values which were obtained from spatial GEV fits that assumed independence among the extremes. When two MSP models only differed by their selected fitting method, notable differences were observed with their dependence and trend surface parameter estimates and resulting areal exceedances calculations. Full article
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25 pages, 5667 KiB  
Article
Examination of Measured to Predicted Hydraulic Properties for Low Impact Development Substrates
by Satbir Guram and Rashid Bashir
Hydrology 2023, 10(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10050105 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
To counter the impacts of climate change and urbanization, engineers have developed ingenious solutions to reduce flooding and capture stormwater contaminants through the use of Low Impact Developments (LIDs). The soil is generally considered to be completely saturated when designing for the LIDs. [...] Read more.
To counter the impacts of climate change and urbanization, engineers have developed ingenious solutions to reduce flooding and capture stormwater contaminants through the use of Low Impact Developments (LIDs). The soil is generally considered to be completely saturated when designing for the LIDs. However, this may not always be an accurate or realistic approach, as the soil could be variably unsaturated leading to inaccurate designs. To analyse the flow under variably unsaturated conditions, Richards’ equation can be used. To solve the Richards’ equation, two nonlinear hydraulic properties, namely soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are required. Laboratory and field measurements of unsaturated hydraulic properties are cumbersome, expensive and time- consuming. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) estimate soil hydraulic properties using routinely measured soil properties. This paper presents a comparison between the direct measurement obtained through experimental procedures and the use of PTFs to estimate soil hydraulic properties for two green roof and three bioretention soil medias. Comparison between the measured and estimated soil hydraulic properties was accomplished using two different approaches. Statistical analyses and visual comparisons were used to compare the measured and estimated soil hydraulic properties. Additionally, numerical modelling to predict the water balance at the ground surface was conducted using the measured and estimated soil hydraulic properties. In some instances, the use of predicted hydraulic properties resulted in overestimation of the cumulative net infiltration of as much as 60 % for the green roof substrate, but was considered negligible for the bioretention substrate. Design performance criteria for green roof and bioretention facilities were examined using the measured and estimated soil hydraulic properties under extreme precipitation analysis. Results indicate that there is a high level of uncertainty when using PTFs for LID materials. A percent difference between the measured and predicted properties for the green roof peak time delay under a 2-year storm can be as much as 300%. For the bioretention design criteria of a 25-year storm, the surface runoff was overestimated by 14.7 cm and by 100% for the ponding time percent difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure and Advances in Urban Hydrology)
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17 pages, 3656 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Analytical Solution of Horizontal Diffusion Equation into the Vadose Zone
by Christos Tzimopoulos, Nikiforos Samarinas, Basil Papadopoulos and Christos Evangelides
Hydrology 2023, 10(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10050107 - 8 May 2023
Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The process of how soil moisture profiles evolve into the soil and reach the root zone could be estimated by solving the appropriate strong nonlinear Richards’ equation. The nonlinearity of the equation occurs because diffusivity D is generally an exponential function of water [...] Read more.
The process of how soil moisture profiles evolve into the soil and reach the root zone could be estimated by solving the appropriate strong nonlinear Richards’ equation. The nonlinearity of the equation occurs because diffusivity D is generally an exponential function of water content. In this work, the boundary conditions of the physical problem are considered fuzzy for various reasons (e.g., machine impression, human errors, etc.), and the overall problem is encountered with a new approximate fuzzy analytical solution, leading to a system of crisp boundary value problems. According to the results, the proposed fuzzy analytical solution is in close agreement with Philip’s semi-analytical method, which is used as a reference solution, after testing 12 different types of soils. Additionally, possibility theory is applied, enabling the decision-makers to take meaningful actions and gain knowledge of various soil and hydraulic properties (e.g., sorptivity, infiltration, etc.) for rational and productive engineering studies (e.g., irrigation systems). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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19 pages, 7546 KiB  
Article
Application of Running Water-Type Retarding Basin to Old Kinu River Floodplain, Japan
by Tadaharu Ishikawa and Ryosuke Akoh
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040094 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
In the upper and middle reaches of rivers in Japan, river channels used to meander in a comparatively narrow floodplain and heavy rain runoff used to naturally expand over the entire floodplain, retarding floods toward the downstream. Recent continuous levee building to prevent [...] Read more.
In the upper and middle reaches of rivers in Japan, river channels used to meander in a comparatively narrow floodplain and heavy rain runoff used to naturally expand over the entire floodplain, retarding floods toward the downstream. Recent continuous levee building to prevent river overflow has had two kinds of negative effects, namely an increase in flood damage in areas of a floodplain closed by levees and river terraces at the time of runoff over the river channel capacity, and an increase in the flood peak toward the downstream. This study introduces the concept of a running water-type retarding basin that mitigates flood damage by allowing excess runoff to pass through the floodplain, restoring a natural hydrological process. After a description of the concept of the facility design, a design example is presented for a closed floodplain of the Kinu River Floodplain, where excess runoff caused severe flood damage in 2015, to quantify the performance and effects of the running water-type retarding basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Inundation Mapping in Hydrological Systems)
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27 pages, 16811 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Various Resolution DEMs in Flood Risk Assessment and Practical Rules for Flood Mapping in Data-Scarce Geospatial Areas: A Case Study in Thessaly, Greece
by Nikolaos Xafoulis, Yiannis Kontos, Evangelia Farsirotou, Spyridon Kotsopoulos, Konstantinos Perifanos, Nikolaos Alamanis, Dimitrios Dedousis and Konstantinos Katsifarakis
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040091 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
Floods are lethal and destructive natural hazards. The Mediterranean, including Greece, has recently experienced many flood events (e.g., Medicanes Zorbas and Ianos), while climate change results in more frequent and intense flood events. Accurate flood mapping in river areas is crucial for flood [...] Read more.
Floods are lethal and destructive natural hazards. The Mediterranean, including Greece, has recently experienced many flood events (e.g., Medicanes Zorbas and Ianos), while climate change results in more frequent and intense flood events. Accurate flood mapping in river areas is crucial for flood risk assessment, planning mitigation measures, protecting existing infrastructure, and sustainable planning. The accuracy of results is affected by all simplifying assumptions concerning the conceptual and numerical model implemented and the quality of geospatial data used (Digital Terrain Models—DTMs). The current research investigates flood modelling sensitivity against geospatial data accuracy using the following DTM resolutions in a mountainous river sub-basin of Thessaly’s Water District (Greece): (a) open 5 m and (b) 2 m data from Hellenic Cadastre (HC) and (c) 0.05 m data from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) topographical mission. RAS-Mapper and HEC-RAS are used for 1D (steady state) hydraulic simulation regarding a 1000-year return period. Results include flood maps and cross section-specific flow characteristics. They are analysed in a graphical flood map-based empirical fashion, whereas a statistical analysis based on the correlation matrix and a more sophisticated Machine Learning analysis based on the interpretation of nonlinear relationships between input–output variables support and particularise the conclusions in a quantifiable manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Developments in Flood Modelling)
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18 pages, 6697 KiB  
Article
Development of Multi-Inflow Prediction Ensemble Model Based on Auto-Sklearn Using Combined Approach: Case Study of Soyang River Dam
by Seoro Lee, Jonggun Kim, Joo Hyun Bae, Gwanjae Lee, Dongseok Yang, Jiyeong Hong and Kyoung Jae Lim
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040090 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Accurate prediction of dam inflows is essential for effective water resource management and dam operation. In this study, we developed a multi-inflow prediction ensemble (MPE) model for dam inflow prediction using auto-sklearn (AS). The MPE model is designed to combine ensemble models for [...] Read more.
Accurate prediction of dam inflows is essential for effective water resource management and dam operation. In this study, we developed a multi-inflow prediction ensemble (MPE) model for dam inflow prediction using auto-sklearn (AS). The MPE model is designed to combine ensemble models for high and low inflow prediction and improve dam inflow prediction accuracy. We investigated the impact of datasets assigned to flow regimes on the ensemble composition and compared the performance of the MPE model to an AS-based ensemble model developed using a conventional approach. Our findings showed that the MPE model outperformed the conventional model in predicting dam inflows during flood and nonflood periods, reducing the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) by 22.1% and 24.9% for low inflows, and increasing the coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) by 21.9% and 35.8%, respectively. These results suggest that the MPE model has the potential to improve water resource management and dam operation, benefiting both the environment and society. Overall, the methodology of this study is expected to contribute to the development of a robust ensemble model for dam inflow prediction in regions with high climate variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources and Risk Management)
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16 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Modeling a Metamorphic Aquifer through a Hydro-Geophysical Approach: The Gap between Field Data and System Complexity
by Francesco Chidichimo, Michele De Biase, Francesco Muto and Salvatore Straface
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040080 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The productivity of metamorphic aquifers is generally lower than that of the more common alluvial and carbonates ones. However, in some Mediterranean areas, such as the Calabria region (Italy), water scarcity combined with the presence of extensive metamorphic water bodies requires the development [...] Read more.
The productivity of metamorphic aquifers is generally lower than that of the more common alluvial and carbonates ones. However, in some Mediterranean areas, such as the Calabria region (Italy), water scarcity combined with the presence of extensive metamorphic water bodies requires the development of further studies to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of these groundwater systems in order to achieve their sustainable exploitation. The interest in this goal becomes even greater if climate change effects are considered. The purpose of this study was to provide the geological-structural and hydrogeological numerical modeling of a metamorphic aquifer, using direct and indirect data measurement, in a large area of the Sila Piccola in Calabria. The hydrodynamic characterization of the crystalline-metamorphic aquifer, constituted by granite and metamorphic rocks, is extremely complex. The MODFLOW-2005 groundwater model was used to simulate flow phenomena in the aquifer, obtaining hydraulic conductivity values of 2.7 × 10−6 m/s, which turned out to be two orders of magnitude higher than those obtained from the interpretation of the slug-tests performed in the study area. The mathematical model was also able to estimate the presence of a lateral recharge from a neighboring deep aquifer providing a significant water supply to the system under investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Groundwater Pollution Control and Groundwater Management)
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23 pages, 4720 KiB  
Article
IWRM Incorporating Water Use and Productivity Indicators of Economic Clusters Using a Hydro-Economic SDSS
by Gerald Norbert Souza da Silva, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado de Moraes, Laíse Alves Candido, Carlos Alberto G. de Amorim Filho, Nilena B. M. Dias, Marcelo Pereira da Cunha and Lourdinha Florêncio
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030072 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1805
Abstract
IWRM should include the integration of management instruments towards intersectoral efficient water allocation. A platform linking economywide and network-based models, available from a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), was used to analyze allocation decisions in 4-interlinked basins in Northeastern Brazil during a period [...] Read more.
IWRM should include the integration of management instruments towards intersectoral efficient water allocation. A platform linking economywide and network-based models, available from a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), was used to analyze allocation decisions in 4-interlinked basins in Northeastern Brazil during a period of water scarcity. The SDSS can integrate water allocation issues considering hydrologic and socioeconomic aspects. In this study, we applied a normalized concentration index and exploratory spatial data analysis to socioeconomic data to identify job hotspots in economic sectors. Hydro-economic indicators were determined and used as economic weights of those hotspots and individual users for water allocation. This innovative method of allocation simulates the use of economic instruments. Removing the weights, the use of non-economic instruments is also simulated. The economic allocation transfers water from agriculture and industry to the services sector compared to the non-economic. This is justified given the low indicators of the main sectors of agriculture and industry in the region: sugarcane cultivation and the sugar–alcohol industry. Moreover, regional transfer results show that without using economic criteria and maintaining the current distribution network, there is a transfer of water stored in drier to humid regions. These results can support the decision-making process by defining effective management instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coupling of Human and Hydrological Systems)
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16 pages, 4082 KiB  
Article
Compound Climate Risk: Diagnosing Clustered Regional Flooding at Inter-Annual and Longer Time Scales
by Yash Amonkar, James Doss-Gollin and Upmanu Lall
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030067 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1875
Abstract
The potential for extreme climate events to cluster in space and time has driven increased interest in understanding and predicting compound climate risks. Through a case study on floods in the Ohio River Basin, we demonstrated that low-frequency climate variability could drive spatial [...] Read more.
The potential for extreme climate events to cluster in space and time has driven increased interest in understanding and predicting compound climate risks. Through a case study on floods in the Ohio River Basin, we demonstrated that low-frequency climate variability could drive spatial and temporal clustering of the risk of regional climate extremes. Long records of annual maximum streamflow from 24 USGS gauges were used to explore the regional spatiotemporal patterns of flooding and their associated large-scale climate modes. We found that the dominant time scales of flood risk in this basin were in the interannual (6–7 years), decadal (11–13 years), and secular bands and that different sub-regions within the Ohio River Basin responded differently to large-scale forcing. We showed that the leading modes of streamflow variability were associated with ENSO and secular trends. The low-frequency climate modes translated into epochs of increased and decreased flood risk with multiple extreme floods or the absence of extreme floods, thus informing the nature of compound climate-induced flood risk. A notable finding is that the secular trend was associated with an east-to-west shift in the flood incidence and the associated storm track. This is consistent with some expectations of climate change projections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Management under Uncertainty and Climate Change)
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13 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
On the Sensitivity of Standardized-Precipitation-Evapotranspiration and Aridity Indexes Using Alternative Potential Evapotranspiration Models
by Aristoteles Tegos, Stefanos Stefanidis, John Cody and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030064 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2808
Abstract
This paper examines the impacts of three different potential evapotranspiration (PET) models on drought severity and frequencies indicated by the standardized precipitation index (SPEI). The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index is a recent approach to operational monitoring and analysis of drought severity. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration [...] Read more.
This paper examines the impacts of three different potential evapotranspiration (PET) models on drought severity and frequencies indicated by the standardized precipitation index (SPEI). The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index is a recent approach to operational monitoring and analysis of drought severity. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index combines precipitation and temperature data, quantifying the severity of a drought as the difference in a timestep as the difference between precipitation and PET. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index thus represents the hydrological processes that drive drought events more realistically than the standardized precipitation index at the expense of additional computational complexity and increased data demands. The additional computational complexity is principally due to the need to estimate PET within each time step. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index was originally defined using the Thornthwaite PET model. However, numerous researchers have demonstrated the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index is sensitive to the PET model adopted. PET models requiring sparse meteorological inputs, such as the Thornthwaite model, have particular utility for drought monitoring in data scarce environments. The aridity index (AI) investigates the spatiotemporal changes in the hydroclimatic system. It is defined as the ratio between potential evapotranspiration and precipitation. It is used to characterize wet (humid) and dry (arid) regions. In this study, a sensitivity analysis for the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration and aridity indexes was carried out using three different PET models; namely, the Penman–Monteith model, a temperature-based parametric model and the Thornthwaite model. The analysis was undertaken in six gauge stations in California region where long-term drought events have occurred. Having used the Penman–Monteith model as the PET model for estimating the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, our findings highlight the presence of uncertainty in defining the severity of drought, especially for large timescales (12 months to 48 months), and that the PET parametric model is a preferable model to the Thornthwaite model for both the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index and the aridity indexes. The latter outcome is worth further consideration for when climatic studies are under development in data scarce areas where full required meteorological variables for Penman–Monteith assessment are not available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evaporation and Evaporative Demand: Part II)
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14 pages, 1670 KiB  
Article
Probabilistic Approach to Tank Design in Rainwater Harvesting Systems
by Maria Gloria Di Chiano, Mariana Marchioni, Anita Raimondi, Umberto Sanfilippo and Gianfranco Becciu
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030059 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5166
Abstract
Storage tanks from rainwater harvesting systems (RWHs) are designed to provide flow equalization between rainfall and water demand. The minimum storage capacity required to take into account the maximum variations of stored water volumes, i.e., the active storage, depends basically on the magnitude [...] Read more.
Storage tanks from rainwater harvesting systems (RWHs) are designed to provide flow equalization between rainfall and water demand. The minimum storage capacity required to take into account the maximum variations of stored water volumes, i.e., the active storage, depends basically on the magnitude and the variability of rainfall profiles and the size of the demand. Given the random nature of the variables involved in the hydrological process, probability theory is a suitable technique for active storage estimation. This research proposes a probabilistic approach to determine an analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the active storage as a function of rainfall moments, water demand and the mean number of consecutive storm events in a deficit sub-period. The equation can be used by developers to decide on the storage capacity required at a desired non-exceedance probability and under a preset water demand. The model is validated through a continuous simulation of the tank behavior using rainfall time series from Milan (Northern Italy). Full article
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18 pages, 23403 KiB  
Article
A Novel Multipurpose Self-Irrigated Green Roof with Innovative Drainage Layer
by Behrouz Pirouz, Stefania Anna Palermo, Gianfranco Becciu, Umberto Sanfilippo, Hana Javadi Nejad, Patrizia Piro and Michele Turco
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030057 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Climate change is a significant problem that many countries are currently facing, and green roofs (GRs) are one of the suitable choices to confront it and decrease its impacts. The advantages of GRs are numerous, such as stormwater management, thermal need reduction, runoff [...] Read more.
Climate change is a significant problem that many countries are currently facing, and green roofs (GRs) are one of the suitable choices to confront it and decrease its impacts. The advantages of GRs are numerous, such as stormwater management, thermal need reduction, runoff quality, and life quality improvement. However, there are some limitations, including the weight, limits in water retention, irrigation in the drought period, suitability of harvested water for building usages, installation on sloped roofs, and high cost. Therefore, developing a novel system and design for GRs with higher efficiency and fewer negative points seems necessary and is the main scope of this research. In this regard, a novel multipurpose self-irrigated green roof with an innovative drainage layer combined with specific multilayer filters has been developed. The application of the proposed system in terms of water retention capacity, water storage volume, runoff treatment performance, irrigation system, drainage layer, application of the harvested water for domestic purposes, and some other aspects has been analyzed and compared with the conventional systems with a focus on extensive green roofs. The results demonstrate that this novel green roof would have many advantages including less weight due to the replacement of the gravel drainage layer with a pipeline network for water storage, higher water retention capacity due to the specific design, higher impacts on runoff treatment due to the existence of multilayer filters that can be changed periodically, easier installation on flat and sloped roofs, the possibility of using the collected rainfall for domestic use, and fewer irrigation water demands due to the sub-surface self-irrigation system. Full article
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18 pages, 4054 KiB  
Article
Spatial Evaluation of a Hydrological Model on Dominant Runoff Generation Processes Using Soil Hydrologic Maps
by Hadis Mohajerani, Mathias Jackel, Zoé Salm, Tobias Schütz and Markus C. Casper
Hydrology 2023, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10030055 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
The aim of this study was to simulate dominant runoff generation processes (DRPs) in a mesoscale catchment in southwestern Germany with the physically-based distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH and to compare the resulting DRP patterns with a data-mining-based digital soil map. The model was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to simulate dominant runoff generation processes (DRPs) in a mesoscale catchment in southwestern Germany with the physically-based distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH and to compare the resulting DRP patterns with a data-mining-based digital soil map. The model was parameterized by using 11 Pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) and driven by multiple synthetic rainfall events. For the pattern comparison, a multiple-component spatial performance metric (SPAEF) was applied. The simulated DRPs showed a large variability in terms of land use, applied rainfall rates, and the different PTFs, which highly influence the rapid runoff generation under wet conditions. Full article
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26 pages, 6225 KiB  
Article
Use of UAV Monitoring to Identify Factors Limiting the Sustainability of Stream Restoration Projects
by Jakub Langhammer, Theodora Lendzioch and Jakub Šolc
Hydrology 2023, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10020048 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
The detection and mapping of riverscapes with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, drones) provide detailed, reliable, and operable spatial information in hydrological sciences, enhancing conventional field survey techniques. In this study, we present the results of long-term, optical RGB (red, green, blue) UAV monitoring [...] Read more.
The detection and mapping of riverscapes with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, drones) provide detailed, reliable, and operable spatial information in hydrological sciences, enhancing conventional field survey techniques. In this study, we present the results of long-term, optical RGB (red, green, blue) UAV monitoring of stream restoration projects to identify the positive and negative features that affect their sustainability. We determined quantitative and qualitative aspects of restoration, such as the restoration effect, the dynamics of fluvial processes, hydrological connectivity, and riparian vegetation. The study was based on six years of UAV monitoring in three restored streams in Prague, Czech Republic. The multitemporal riverscape models from the photogrammetric reconstruction served as a basis for the visual assessment, compliant with the standard hydromorphological assessment. Such a combined approach extends the potential of UAV monitoring by allowing for the use of existing classification schemes and data and the objective detection of critical features. The study pointed to the significant discrepancies in channel geometry between the planned restorations and realized restorations in all assessed projects as a general phenomenon. Multitemporal, optical RGB UAV monitoring then detected issues in qualitative aspects that limit restoration quality, such as water overuse, extensive eutrophication, or inefficient riparian shading. Full article
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21 pages, 2973 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Unsteady-State Drainage Solution for Land Reclamation
by Christos Tzimopoulos, Nikiforos Samarinas, Kyriakos Papadopoulos and Christos Evangelides
Hydrology 2023, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10020034 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Very well-drained lands could have a positive impact in various soil health indicators such as soil erosion and soil texture. A drainage system is responsible for properly aerated soil. Until today, in order to design a drainage system, a big challenge remained to [...] Read more.
Very well-drained lands could have a positive impact in various soil health indicators such as soil erosion and soil texture. A drainage system is responsible for properly aerated soil. Until today, in order to design a drainage system, a big challenge remained to find the subsurface drain spacing because many of the soil and hydraulic parameters present significant uncertainties. This fact also creates uncertainties to the overall physical problem solution, which, if not included in the preliminary design studies and calculations, could have bad consequences for the cultivated lands and soils. Finding the drain spacing requires the knowledge of the unsteady groundwater movement, which is described by the linear Boussinesq equation (Glover-Dumm equation). In this paper, the Adomian solution to the second order unsteady linear fuzzy partial differential one-dimensional Boussinesq equation is presented. The physical problem concerns unsteady drain spacing in a semi-infinite unconfined aquifer. The boundary conditions, with an initially horizontal water table, are considered fuzzy and the overall problem is translated to a system of crisp boundary value problems. Consequently, the crisp problem is solved using an Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and useful practical results are presented. In addition, by application of the possibility theory, the fuzzy results are translated into a crisp space, enabling the decision maker to make correct decisions about both the drain spacing and the future soil health management practices, with a reliable degree of confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management)
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32 pages, 6796 KiB  
Article
Determination of Environmental Flows in Data-Poor Estuaries—Wami River Estuary in Saadani National Park, Tanzania
by Amartya K. Saha, Japhet Kashaigili, Fredrick Mashingia, Halima Kiwango, Mercy Asha Mohamed, Michael Kimaro, Mathias Msafiri Igulu, Patroba Matiku, Rosemary Masikini, Rashid Tamatamah, Ismail Omary, Tumaini Magesa, Pendo Hyera, Roman Evarist and Maria C. Donoso
Hydrology 2023, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10020033 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Land use changes and mounting water demands reduce freshwater inflows into estuaries, impairing estuarine ecosystems and accelerating coastal seawater intrusion. However, determining minimum river inflows for management guidelines is hampered by a lack of ecosystem-flow link data. This study describes the development of [...] Read more.
Land use changes and mounting water demands reduce freshwater inflows into estuaries, impairing estuarine ecosystems and accelerating coastal seawater intrusion. However, determining minimum river inflows for management guidelines is hampered by a lack of ecosystem-flow link data. This study describes the development of freshwater inflow guidelines for the Wami Estuary, combining scarce river flow data, hydrological modeling, inferring natural salinity regime from vegetation zonation and investigating freshwater requirements of people/wildlife. By adopting the Building Blocks Methodology, a detailed Environmental Flows Assessment was performed to know the minimum water depth/quality seasonal requirements for vegetation, terrestrial/aquatic wildlife and human communities. Water depth requirements were assessed for drought and normal rainfall years; corresponding discharges were obtained by a hydrological model (HEC-RAS) developed for the river channel upstream of estuary. Recommended flows were well within historically occurring flows. However, given the rapidly increasing water demand coupled with reduction in basin water storage due to deforestation/wetland loss, it is critical to ensure these minimum flows are present, without which essential ecosystem services (fisheries, water quality, mangrove forest resources and wildlife/tourism) will be jeopardized. The EFA process is described in painstaking detail to provide a reference for undertaking similar studies in data-poor regions worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Resources)
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19 pages, 2533 KiB  
Article
Iron and Manganese Oxidation States, Bonding Environments, and Mobility in the Mining-Impacted Sediments of Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho: Core Experiments
by Gaige Swanson, Jeff B. Langman, Andrew W. Child, Frank M. Wilhelm and James G. Moberly
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010023 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
The mobility of a metal in mining-impacted sediments is determined by the environmental conditions that influence the metal’s oxidation state and bonding environment. Coeur d’Alene Lake, USA, has been impacted by legacy mining practices that allowed the hydrologic transport of mining waste to [...] Read more.
The mobility of a metal in mining-impacted sediments is determined by the environmental conditions that influence the metal’s oxidation state and bonding environment. Coeur d’Alene Lake, USA, has been impacted by legacy mining practices that allowed the hydrologic transport of mining waste to the lakebed, resulting in substantial amounts of redox-sensitive Fe and Mn along with Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Future lake conditions may include algal blooms and additional algal detritus at the sediment–water interface, which may alter Fe and Mn forms that can influence their, and other metal(loid)s, mobility during seasonal anoxia. Cores of the lakebed sediments were exposed to anoxic and anoxic + algal detritus conditions for 8 weeks. Sediment samples were collected biweekly for analysis of Fe and Mn oxidation states and bonding environments by synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Over the 8-week period and at a location 12.5 cm deep in the sediments, anoxic and anoxic + algae conditions produced limited changes in Fe and Mn oxidation states and bonding environments. At a location 2.5 cm below the sediment–water interface, the anoxic condition promoted a relatively stable environment in which Fe and Mn oxidation states and bonding environments did not vary greatly during the experiment. At the 2.5 cm depth, the anoxic + algae condition substantially altered the Mn oxidation state distribution and bonding environment, but this condition did not strongly influence the Fe oxidation state distribution or bonding environment. The anoxic + algae condition increased the presence of Mn3+, produced Mn4+ at select times, altered the Mn bonding environment, and temporarily increased the release of Mn into porewater. The algae influence on sediment and porewater Mn likely occurred because of the increased formation of organo-Mn complexes produced during algae-enhanced enzymatic processes. The lack of influence of algal detritus on sediment and porewater Fe and the formation of soluble organo-Mn complexes may limit the potential increase in the mobility of other metal(loid)s with future lake conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecohydrology)
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15 pages, 16352 KiB  
Article
Assessment of a Smartphone App for Open Channel Flow Measurement in Data Scarce Irrigation Schemes
by Menwagaw T. Damtie, Marshet B. Jumber, Fasikaw A. Zimale and Seifu A. Tilahun
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010022 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Accurate water flow measurement ensures proper irrigation water management by allocating the desired amount of water to the irrigation fields. The present study evaluated whether the non-intrusive smartphone application “DischargeApp” could be applicable and precise to measure small canal flow rates in the [...] Read more.
Accurate water flow measurement ensures proper irrigation water management by allocating the desired amount of water to the irrigation fields. The present study evaluated whether the non-intrusive smartphone application “DischargeApp” could be applicable and precise to measure small canal flow rates in the Koga irrigation Scheme. The app was tested in unlined canals with flow rates ranging from 15 to 65 l/s using a 90° V-notch weir. The app is found to overestimate high flow rates. Another source of uncertainty is that the app employed a constant surface velocity conversion factor (C = 0.8) to compute discharge. The accuracy was enhanced by recalculating the measured discharge using a new surface velocity conversion factor that depends on depths. The new conversion factor decreased the errors of MAE and RMSE by 47% and 52%, respectively. Where channel and other optional measuring techniques are not available without interfering with the flow operation conditions in place, the DischargeApp devices can be used to measure flows. The DischargeApp could be used to collect data using local citizens in data-scarce areas. This study suggested reconfiguring the DischargeApp with a new surface velocity conversion coefficient based on flow depths in field conditions for better performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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14 pages, 2355 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty of Kozeny–Carman Permeability Model for Fractal Heterogeneous Porous Media
by Jianting Zhu
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010021 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
A method was developed to integrate the truncated power-law distribution of solid volumetric fraction into the widely used Kozeny–Carman (KC)-type equations to assess the potential uncertainty of permeability. The focus was on the heterogeneity of porosity (or solid volumetric fraction) in the KC [...] Read more.
A method was developed to integrate the truncated power-law distribution of solid volumetric fraction into the widely used Kozeny–Carman (KC)-type equations to assess the potential uncertainty of permeability. The focus was on the heterogeneity of porosity (or solid volumetric fraction) in the KC equation. The truncated power-law distribution simulates a heterogeneous scenario in which the solid volumetric fraction varies over different portions of porous media, which is treated as stationary, so its spatial mean can be replaced by the ensemble mean. The model was first compared with the experimental results of 44 samples from the literature and a recent model of KC equation modification that targets the coefficients in the equation. The effects of the fractal dimension of characteristic length of the solid volumetric fraction on the mean and standard deviation of permeability are calculated and discussed. The comparison demonstrates that the heterogeneous solid volumetric fraction can have similar effects as adjusting the empirical constant in the KC equation. A narrow range smaller than mean ± standard deviation from the model agreed with the experimental data well. Incorporating the truncated power-law distribution into the classical KC model predicts a high mean permeability and uncertainty. Both the mean and standard deviation of the permeability decrease with an increasing fractal dimension. Full article
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24 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Proposing a Wetland-Based Economic Approach for Wastewater Treatment in Arid Regions as an Alternative Irrigation Water Source
by Mohamed Elsayed Gabr, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ali Salem and Ahmed Awad
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010020 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Point and nonpoint wastewater sources have a detrimental, negative effect on agriculture, soil, surface, and groundwater supplies. In this research, a wastewater treatment system made up of a sedimentation tank, a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW), a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland [...] Read more.
Point and nonpoint wastewater sources have a detrimental, negative effect on agriculture, soil, surface, and groundwater supplies. In this research, a wastewater treatment system made up of a sedimentation tank, a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW), a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VF-CW), and a storage tank was proposed, designed, and cost estimated. Small populations in underdeveloped nations with dry and semi-arid climates can use the treatment system as an affordable construction, maintenance, and operational solution for wastewater treatment. The system will protect agricultural lands and groundwater from pollution. The system can service 6000 capita and has a wastewater discharge of 780 m3/d in the developing arid region in El-Moghra Oasis western desert of Egypt, where the 1.5 million acres used for the land reclamation project based on groundwater irrigation. The relaxed tanks in a series model based on the areal loading rates and background pollutants concentrations (P-K-C*) was utilized to size the HSSF and VF-CWs. The results indicated that the HSSF-CW design treatment surface area was 2375 m2, and the hydraulic surface loading (q) and hydraulic retention time (RT) were 0.33 m/d and 0.55 d, respectively, and utilizing Phragmites australis and Papyrus for the biological treatment. The expected overall cumulative removal efficiencies were 96.7, 70, and 100% for the biological oxygen demand (BOD), total phosphors (TP), and fecal coliforms (FC), respectively. The VF-CW indicates that there was a 2193 m2 design treatment surface area, q = 0.36 m/d, and RT of 0.63 d. The expected BOD, TP, and FC removal efficiencies were 75, 33.3, and 92.7%, respectively. In order to simplify the design stages and the cost estimation, design and investment cost curves were established for a population range from 500 to 9000. The total monthly water loss due to evapotranspiration for the HSSF and VF-CWs indicates a range from 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively. The total investment cost analysis for the proposed system corresponding to 780 m3/d wastewater discharge of indicates a total investment cost of EUR 146,804 and EUR 24.46/per-capita equivalent (P.E). This approach can be used by decision makers in the Mediterranean region and Middle Eastern countries to improve the water quality using social and economic criteria, leading to the effective implementation of ecological restoration projects as a low-cost treatment system and adding a nonconventional water source that can be used in irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stormwater/Drainage Systems and Wastewater Management)
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16 pages, 4699 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of Uncertainties in Flood Frequency Estimation Using Bootstrapping and Monte Carlo Simulation
by Zaved Khan, Ataur Rahman and Fazlul Karim
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010018 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Reducing uncertainty in design flood estimates is an essential part of flood risk planning and management. This study presents results from flood frequency estimates and associated uncertainties for five commonly used probability distribution functions, extreme value type 1 (EV1), generalized extreme value (GEV), [...] Read more.
Reducing uncertainty in design flood estimates is an essential part of flood risk planning and management. This study presents results from flood frequency estimates and associated uncertainties for five commonly used probability distribution functions, extreme value type 1 (EV1), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized pareto distribution (GPD), log normal (LN) and log Pearson type 3 (LP3). The study was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and bootstrapping (BS) methods for the 10 river catchments in eastern Australia. The parameters were estimated by applying the method of moments (for LP3, LN, and EV1) and L-moments (for GEV and GPD). Three-parameter distributions (e.g., LP3, GEV, and GPD) demonstrate a consistent estimation of confidence interval (CI), whereas two-parameter distributions show biased estimation. The results of this study also highlight the difficulty in flood frequency analysis, e.g., different probability distributions perform quite differently even in a smaller geographical area. Full article
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20 pages, 5856 KiB  
Technical Note
Establishing and Operating (Pilot Phase) a Telemetric Streamflow Monitoring Network in Greece
by Katerina Mazi, Antonis D. Koussis, Spyridon Lykoudis, Basil E. Psiloglou, Georgios Vitantzakis, Nikolaos Kappos, Dimitrios Katsanos, Evangelos Rozos, Ioannis Koletsis and Theodora Kopania
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010019 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
This paper describes HYDRONET, a telemetry-based prototype of a streamflow monitoring network in the Greek territory, where such data are sparse. HYDRONET provides free and near-real-time online access to data. Instead of commercially available stations, in-house-designed and -built telemetric stations were installed, [...] Read more.
This paper describes HYDRONET, a telemetry-based prototype of a streamflow monitoring network in the Greek territory, where such data are sparse. HYDRONET provides free and near-real-time online access to data. Instead of commercially available stations, in-house-designed and -built telemetric stations were installed, which reduced the equipment cost by approximately 50%. The labour of hydrometric campaigns was reduced by applying a new maximum-entropy method to estimate the discharge from surface velocity observations. Here, we describe these novelty elements succinctly. The potential of HYDRONET to provide civil protection services is exemplified by a flood warning demonstrator for Kalamata’s City Centre. The network’s operation, including the hydraulic criteria for monitoring site selection, the characteristics of the telemetric equipment, the operational monitoring and hydrometric procedures, and the specifics of data transmission, quality control, and storage are described in detail, along with experiences with problems encountered during this pilot phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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15 pages, 3025 KiB  
Article
Environmental Risk Assessment of Wetland Ecosystems Using Bayesian Belief Networks
by Bahram Malekmohammadi, Cintia Bertacchi Uvo, Negar Tayebzadeh Moghadam, Roohollah Noori and Soroush Abolfathi
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010016 - 7 Jan 2023
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4343
Abstract
Wetlands are valuable natural capital and sensitive ecosystems facing significant risks from anthropogenic and climatic stressors. An assessment of the environmental risk levels for wetlands’ dynamic ecosystems can provide a better understanding of their current ecosystem health and functions. Different levels of environmental [...] Read more.
Wetlands are valuable natural capital and sensitive ecosystems facing significant risks from anthropogenic and climatic stressors. An assessment of the environmental risk levels for wetlands’ dynamic ecosystems can provide a better understanding of their current ecosystem health and functions. Different levels of environmental risk are defined by considering the categories of risk and the probability and severity of each in the environment. Determining environmental risk levels provides a general overview of ecosystem function. This mechanism increases the visibility of risk levels and their values in three distinct states (i.e., low, moderate, and high) associated with ecosystem function. The Bayesian belief network (BBN) is a novel tool for determining environmental risk levels and monitoring the effectiveness of environmental planning and management measures in reducing the levels of risk. This study develops a robust methodological framework for determining the overall level of risks based on a combination of varied environmental risk factors using the BBN model. The proposed model is adopted for a case study of Shadegan International Wetlands (SIWs), which consist of a series of Ramsar wetlands in the southwest of Iran with international ecological significance. A comprehensive list of parameters and variables contributing to the environmental risk for the wetlands and their relationships were identified through a review of literature and expert judgment to develop an influence diagram. The BBN model is adopted for the case study location by determining the states of variables in the network and filling the probability distribution tables. The environmental risk levels for the SIWs are determined based on the results obtained at the output node of the BBN. A sensitivity analysis is performed for the BBN model. We proposed model-informed management strategies for wetland risk control. According to the BBN model results, the SIWs ecosystems are under threat from a high level of environmental risk. Prolonged drought has been identified as the primary contributor to the SIWs’ environmental risk levels. Full article
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19 pages, 4635 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of the Urban Landscape on Extreme Rainfall Characteristics Triggering Flood Hazards
by Yakob Umer, Victor Jetten, Janneke Ettema and Gert-Jan Steeneveld
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010015 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
This study configures the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the updated urban fraction for optimal rainfall simulation over Kampala, Uganda. The urban parameter values associated with urban fractions are adjusted based on literature reviews. An extreme rainfall event that triggered a [...] Read more.
This study configures the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the updated urban fraction for optimal rainfall simulation over Kampala, Uganda. The urban parameter values associated with urban fractions are adjusted based on literature reviews. An extreme rainfall event that triggered a flood hazard in Kampala on 25 June 2012 is used for the model simulation. Observed rainfall from two gauging stations and satellite rainfall from Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) are used for model validation. We compared the simulation using the default urban fraction with the updated urban fraction focusing on extreme rainfall amount and spatial-temporal rainfall distribution. Results indicate that the simulated rainfall is overestimated compared to CHIRPS and underestimated when comparing gridcell values with gauging station records. However, the simulation with updated urban fraction shows relatively better results with a lower absolute relative error score than when using default simulation. Our findings indicated that the WRF model configuration with default urban fraction produces rainfall amount and its spatial distribution outside the city boundary. In contrast, the updated urban fraction has peak rainfall events within the urban catchment boundary, indicating that a proper Numerical Weather Prediction rainfall simulation must consider the urban morphological impact. The satellite-derived urban fraction represents a more realistic urban extent and intensity than the default urban fraction and, thus, produces more realistic rainfall characteristics over the city. The use of explicit urban fractions will be crucial for assessing the effects of spatial differences in the urban morphology within an urban fraction, which is vital for understanding the role of urban green areas on the local climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Developments in Flood Modelling)
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16 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
Combined Well Multi-Parameter Logs and Low-Flow Purging Data for Soil Permeability Assessment and Related Effects on Groundwater Sampling
by Francesco Maria De Filippi and Giuseppe Sappa
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010012 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Cost-effective remediation is increasingly dependent on high-resolution site characterization (HRSC), which is supposed to be necessary prior to interventions. This paper aims to evaluate the use of low-flow purging and sampling water level data in estimating the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of soils. In [...] Read more.
Cost-effective remediation is increasingly dependent on high-resolution site characterization (HRSC), which is supposed to be necessary prior to interventions. This paper aims to evaluate the use of low-flow purging and sampling water level data in estimating the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of soils. In a new quali-quantitative view, this procedure can provide much more information and knowledge about the site, reducing time and costs. In case of high heterogeneity along the well screen, the whole procedure, as well as the estimation method, could be less effective and rigorous, with related issues in the purging time. The result showed significant permeability weighted sampling, which could provide different results as the pump position changes along the well screen. The proposed study confirms this phenomenon with field data, demonstrating that the use of multiparameter well logs might be helpful in detecting the behaviour of low-permeability layers and their effects on purging and sampling. A lower correlation between low-flow permeability estimations and LeFranc test results was associated with high heterogeneity along the screen, with a longer purging time. In wells P43, MW08 and MW36, due to the presence of clay layers, results obtained differ for almost one order of magnitude and the purging time increases (by more than 16 min). However, with some precautions prior to the field work, the low-flow purging and sampling procedure could become more representative in a shorter time and provide important hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity with many tests and high-resolution related results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches in Contaminant Hydrology and Groundwater Remediation)
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16 pages, 6450 KiB  
Article
Synthetic Drought Hydrograph
by Radu Drobot, Aurelian Florentin Draghia, Nicolai Sîrbu and Cristian Dinu
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010010 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Droughts are natural disasters with a significant impact on the economy and social life. Prolonged droughts can cause even more damage than floods. The novelty of this work lies in the definition of a synthetic drought hydrograph (SDH) which can be derived at [...] Read more.
Droughts are natural disasters with a significant impact on the economy and social life. Prolonged droughts can cause even more damage than floods. The novelty of this work lies in the definition of a synthetic drought hydrograph (SDH) which can be derived at each gaging station of a river network. Based on drought hydrographs (DHs) recorded for a selected gaging station, the SDH is statistically characterized and provides valuable information to water managers regarding available water resources during the drought period. The following parameters of the registered drought hydrograph (DH) are proposed: minimum drought discharge QDmin, drought duration DD  and deficit volume VD. All these parameters depend on the drought threshold QT, which is chosen based on either pure hydrological considerations or on socio-economic consequences. For the same statistical parameters of the drought, different shapes of the synthetic drought hydrograph (SDH) can be considered. In addition, the SDH varies according to the probabilities of exceedance of the minimum drought discharge and deficit volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic and Deterministic Modelling of Hydrologic Variables)
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14 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Suspended Sediments in Environmental Flows: Interpretation of Concentration Profiles Shapes
by Rafik Absi
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010005 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3829
Abstract
In environmental flows, field and laboratory measurements of suspended sediments show two kinds of concentration profiles. For coarse sediments, a near-bed upward convex profile is observed beneath the main upward concave profile. In this study, we consider two 1-DV models, namely, the classical [...] Read more.
In environmental flows, field and laboratory measurements of suspended sediments show two kinds of concentration profiles. For coarse sediments, a near-bed upward convex profile is observed beneath the main upward concave profile. In this study, we consider two 1-DV models, namely, the classical advection–diffusion equation (ADE) based on the gradient diffusion model, and the kinetic model. Both need sediment diffusivity, which is related to the eddy viscosity, and an y-dependent β-function (i.e., the inverse of the turbulent Schmidt number). Our study shows that the kinetic model reverts to the classical ADE with an “apparent” settling velocity or sediment diffusivity. For the numerical resolution of the ADE, simple and accurate tools are provided for both the sediment diffusivity and hindered settling. The results for the concentration profiles show good agreement with the experimental data. An interpretation of the concentration profiles is provided by two “criteria” for shapes. The main for steady open-channel flows shows that the shape of the concentration profiles in the Cartesian coordinate depends on the vertical distribution of the derivative of R (the ratio between the sediment diffusivity and the settling velocity of the sediments): dR/dy > −1 for the upward concave concentration profile while dR/dy < −1 for the near-bed upward convex profile. A generalization is proposed for oscillatory flows over sand ripples, where the time-averaged concentration profiles in the semi-log plots are interpreted by a relation between the second derivative of the logarithm of the concentration and the derivative of the product between the sediment diffusivity and an additional parameter related to the convective sediment entrainment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water and Water Resources Engineering)
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31 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Trivariate Joint Distribution Modelling of Compound Events Using the Nonparametric D-Vine Copula Developed Based on a Bernstein and Beta Kernel Copula Density Framework
by Shahid Latif and Slobodan P. Simonovic
Hydrology 2022, 9(12), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9120221 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Low-lying coastal communities are often threatened by compound flooding (CF), which can be determined through the joint occurrence of storm surges, rainfall and river discharge, either successively or in close succession. The trivariate distribution can demonstrate the risk of the compound phenomenon more [...] Read more.
Low-lying coastal communities are often threatened by compound flooding (CF), which can be determined through the joint occurrence of storm surges, rainfall and river discharge, either successively or in close succession. The trivariate distribution can demonstrate the risk of the compound phenomenon more realistically, rather than considering each contributing factor independently or in pairwise dependency relations. Recently, the vine copula has been recognized as a highly flexible approach to constructing a higher-dimensional joint density framework. In these, the parametric class copula with parametric univariate marginals is often involved. Its incorporation can lead to a lack of flexibility due to parametric functions that have prior distribution assumptions about their univariate marginal and/or copula joint density. This study introduces the vine copula approach in a nonparametric setting by introducing Bernstein and Beta kernel copula density in establishing trivariate flood dependence. The proposed model was applied to 46 years of flood characteristics collected on the west coast of Canada. The univariate flood marginal distribution was modelled using nonparametric kernel density estimation (KDE). The 2D Bernstein estimator and beta kernel copula estimator were tested independently in capturing pairwise dependencies to establish D-vine structure in a stage-wise nesting approach in three alternative ways, each by permutating the location of the conditioning variable. The best-fitted vine structure was selected using goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. The performance of the nonparametric vine approach was also compared with those of vines constructed with a parametric and semiparametric fitting procedure. Investigation revealed that the D-vine copula constructed using a Bernstein copula with normal KDE marginals performed well nonparametrically in capturing the dependence of the compound events. Finally, the derived nonparametric model was used in the estimation of trivariate joint return periods, and further employed in estimating failure probability statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Developments in Flood Modelling)
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16 pages, 1827 KiB  
Article
Hydropolitical System Archetypes: Feedback Structures, Physical Environments, Unintended Behaviors, and a Diagnostic Checklist
by Mohammadreza Shahbazbegian and Roohollah Noori
Hydrology 2022, 9(12), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9120207 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
Hydropolitics is defined as the systematic study of conflict and cooperation in transboundary water basins, affecting around 40% of the world’s population. There has been great advancement in studies endeavoring to explore linkages between hydropolitical drivers and hydropolitical situations in transboundary basins. To [...] Read more.
Hydropolitics is defined as the systematic study of conflict and cooperation in transboundary water basins, affecting around 40% of the world’s population. There has been great advancement in studies endeavoring to explore linkages between hydropolitical drivers and hydropolitical situations in transboundary basins. To add to this, we posit that hydropolitics would benefit from a system thinking approach that has remained less addressed in the literature. For this purpose, considering a transboundary basin as a system, this study is built on the main principle of system dynamics, which implies that a system’s structure determines its behavior. Incorporating system archetypes into hydropolitics can provide a framework for assessing hydropolitical behavior according to the potential structure of archetypes. In this paper, we discuss five hydropolitical system archetypes and their feedback loop structures, the required physical environments, and potential unintended behavior over time. Finally, an example of a diagnostic checklist is presented that will help riparian states recognize patterns of behavior they may face in the future. This paper lays the groundwork for gaining insight into using system archetypes in projecting plausible hydropolitical behaviors and understanding past behaviors in transboundary basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers of Hydrology)
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22 pages, 2644 KiB  
Review
Perspective Impact on Water Environment and Hydrological Regime Owing to Climate Change: A Review
by Mohsin Abbas, Linshuang Zhao and Yanning Wang
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110203 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5318
Abstract
This study summarizes reviews on climate change’s impact on the water environment and hydrological regime. The results indicate a strong relationship between the climatological parameters and hydrological patterns. This relationship can be determined in two steps: (1) define the variations in climatological factors, [...] Read more.
This study summarizes reviews on climate change’s impact on the water environment and hydrological regime. The results indicate a strong relationship between the climatological parameters and hydrological patterns. This relationship can be determined in two steps: (1) define the variations in climatological factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, and (2) measure the variations in runoff and inflows to streams and river systems using different statistical and global climate modeling approaches. It is evident that the increasing global temperatures have significant positive effects on runoff variations and evapotranspiration. Similarly, the increase in temperature has speeded up the melting of glaciers and ice on hilly terrains. This is causing frequent flash floods and a gradual rise in the sea level. These factors have altered the timing of stream flow into rivers. Furthermore, the accumulation of greenhouse gases, variations in precipitation and runoff, and sea-level rise have significantly affected freshwater quality. These effects are likely to continue if timely mitigation and adaptation measures are not adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Effects on Hydrology and Water Resources)
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27 pages, 5674 KiB  
Article
The Spatial Scale Dependence of The Hurst Coefficient in Global Annual Precipitation Data, and Its Role in Characterising Regional Precipitation Deficits within a Naturally Changing Climate
by Enda O’Connell, Greg O’Donnell and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110199 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4824
Abstract
Hurst’s seminal characterisation of long-term persistence (LTP) in geophysical records more than seven decades ago continues to inspire investigations into the Hurst phenomenon, not just in hydrology and climatology, but in many other scientific fields. Here, we present a new theoretical development based [...] Read more.
Hurst’s seminal characterisation of long-term persistence (LTP) in geophysical records more than seven decades ago continues to inspire investigations into the Hurst phenomenon, not just in hydrology and climatology, but in many other scientific fields. Here, we present a new theoretical development based on stochastic Hurst–Kolmogorov (HK) dynamics that explains the recent finding that the Hurst coefficient increases with the spatial scale of averaging for regional annual precipitation. We also present some further results on the scale dependence of H in regional precipitation, and reconcile an apparent inconsistency between sample results and theory. LTP in average basin scale precipitation is shown to be consistent with LTP in the annual flows of some large river basins. An analysis of the crossing properties of precipitation deficits in regions exhibiting LTP shows that the Hurst coefficient can be a parsimonious descriptor of the risk of severe precipitation deficits. No evidence is found for any systematic trend in precipitation deficits attributable to anthropogenic climate change across the regions analysed. Future precipitation deficit risk assessments should, in the first instance, be based on stochastic HK simulations that encompass the envelope of uncertainty synonymous with LTP, and not rely exclusively on GCM projections that may not properly capture long-term natural variability in the climate. Some views and opinions are expressed on the implications for policy making in sustainable water resources management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers of Hydrology)
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21 pages, 6637 KiB  
Article
Long Term Trend Analysis of River Flow and Climate in Northern Canada
by Mohamed Sherif Zaghloul, Ebrahim Ghaderpour, Hatef Dastour, Babak Farjad, Anil Gupta, Hyung Eum, Gopal Achari and Quazi K. Hassan
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110197 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3732
Abstract
Changes in water resources within basins can significantly impact ecosystems, agriculture, and biodiversity, among others. Basins in northern Canada have a cold climate, and the recent changes in climate can have a profound impact on water resources in these basins. Therefore, it is [...] Read more.
Changes in water resources within basins can significantly impact ecosystems, agriculture, and biodiversity, among others. Basins in northern Canada have a cold climate, and the recent changes in climate can have a profound impact on water resources in these basins. Therefore, it is crucial to study long term trends in water flow as well as their influential factors, such as temperature and precipitation. This study focused on analyzing long term trends in water flow across the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) and Peace River Basin (PRB). Long term trends in temperature and precipitation within these basins were also studied. Water flow data from 18 hydrometric stations provided by Water Survey of Canada were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope. In addition, hybrid climate data provided by Alberta Environment and Parks at approximately 10 km spatial resolution were analyzed for the ARB and its surrounding regions during 1950–2019. Trend analysis was performed on the water flow data on monthly, seasonal, and annual scales, and the results were cross-checked with trends in temperature and precipitation and land use and land cover data. The overall temperature across the basins has been increasing since 1950, while precipitation showed an insignificant decrease during this period. Winter water flow in the upper ARB has been slowly and steadily increasing since 1956 because of the rising temperatures and the subsequent slow melting of snowpacks/glaciers. The warm season flows in the middle and lower subregions declined up to 1981, then started to show an increasing trend. The middle and lower ARB exhibited a rapid increase in warm-season water flow since 2015. A similar trend change was also observed in the PRB. The gradual increase in water flow observed in the recent decades may continue by the mid-century, which is beneficial for agriculture, forestry, fishery, and industry. However, climate and land cover changes may alter the trend of water flow in the future; therefore, it is important to have a proper management plan for water usage in the next decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology–Climate Interactions)
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18 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
nZVI Mobility and Transport: Laboratory Test and Numerical Model
by Paolo Viotti, Giuseppe Sappa, Fabio Tatti and Francesca Andrei
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110196 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are becoming one of the most widely recommended nanomaterials for soil and groundwater remediation. However, when nZVI are injected in the groundwater flow, the behavior (mobility, dispersion, distribution) is practically unknown. This fact generally results in the use of [...] Read more.
Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are becoming one of the most widely recommended nanomaterials for soil and groundwater remediation. However, when nZVI are injected in the groundwater flow, the behavior (mobility, dispersion, distribution) is practically unknown. This fact generally results in the use of enormous quantities of them at the field scale. The uncertainties are on the effective volumes reached from the plume of nZVI because their tendency to aggregate and their weight can cause their settling and deposition. So, the mobility of nanoparticles is a real issue, which can often lead to inefficient or expensive soil remediation. Furthermore, there is another aspect that must be considered: the fate of these nZVI in the groundwater and their possible impact on the subsoil environment. All these considerations have led us to propose an application of nZVI simulating the permeation technique through a laboratory experience, finalized to have a better, or even simpler description of their real behavior when injected in a flow in the subsoil. A two-dimensional laboratory-scale tank was used to study the dispersion and transport of nZVI. A nZVI solution, with a concentration equal to 4.54 g/L, was injected into glass beads, utilized as porous medium. The laboratory experiment included a digital camera to acquire the images. The images were then used for calibrating a numerical model. The results of the mass balance confirm the validity of the proposed numerical model, obtaining values of velocity (5.41 × 10−3 m/s) and mass (1.9 g) of the nZVI of the same order of those from the experimental tests. Several information were inferred from both experimental and numerical tests. Both demonstrate that nZVI plume does not behave as a solute dissolved in water, but as a mass showing its own mobility ruled mainly from the buoyancy force. A simple simulation of a tracer input and a nZVI plume are compared to evidence the large differences between their evolution in time and space. This means that commercial numerical models, if not corrected, cannot furnish a real forecast of the volume of influence of the injected nZVI. Further deductions can be found from the images and confirmed by means the numerical model where the detachment effect is much smaller than the attachment one (ratio kd/ka = 0.001). From what is reported, it is worthwhile to pay attention on the localization of the contaminants source/plume to reach an effective treatment and it is important to go further in the improvement of solution for the limiting the nanoparticles aggregation phenomenon. Full article
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22 pages, 4991 KiB  
Article
Structuralization of Complicated Lotic Habitats Using Sentinel-2 Imagery and Weighted Focal Statistic Convolution
by Yang Liu and Mei-Po Kwan
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110195 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Deriving the proper structure of lotic habitats, namely the structuralization of lotic habitats, is crucial to monitoring and modeling water quality on a large scale. How to structuralize complicated lotic habitats for practical use remains challenging. This study novelly integrates remote sensing, geographic [...] Read more.
Deriving the proper structure of lotic habitats, namely the structuralization of lotic habitats, is crucial to monitoring and modeling water quality on a large scale. How to structuralize complicated lotic habitats for practical use remains challenging. This study novelly integrates remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), and computer vision techniques to structuralize complicated lotic habitats. A method based on Sentinel-2 imagery and weighted focal statistic convolution (WFSC) is developed to structuralize the complicated lotic habitats into discrete river links. First, aquatic habitat image objects are delineated from Sentinel-2 imagery using geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). These lotic habitat image objects are then separated from lentic habitat image objects using a hydrologically derived river network as a reference. Second, the binary image of the lotic habitat image objects is converted to a fuzzy magnitude surface using WFSC. The ridgelines on the magnitude surface are traced as the centerlines of river links. Finally, the centerlines of river links are used to split the complicated lotic habitats into discrete river links. Essential planar geometric attributes are then numerically derived from each river link. The proposed method was successfully applied to the braided river network in the Mobile River Basin in the U.S. The results indicate that the proposed method can properly structuralize lotic habitats with high spatial accuracy and correct topological consistency. The proposed method can also derive essential attributes that are difficult to obtain from conventional methods on a large scale. With sufficient measurements, a striking width–abundance pattern has been observed in our study area, indicating a promising logarithmic law in lotic habitat abundance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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20 pages, 4378 KiB  
Article
On the Benefits of Collaboration between Decision Makers and Scientists: The Case of Lake Como
by Luigi Bertoli, Donata Balzarolo and Ezio Todini
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110187 - 23 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2801
Abstract
Rational Water Resources Management requires effective collaboration between decision-makers involved in the operational management of water resources and scientists, who can allow them to operate in an informed manner through forecasting and decision-making tools. In this article, we show the potential benefits resulting [...] Read more.
Rational Water Resources Management requires effective collaboration between decision-makers involved in the operational management of water resources and scientists, who can allow them to operate in an informed manner through forecasting and decision-making tools. In this article, we show the potential benefits resulting from this collaboration through the description of the emblematic case of Lake Como. The article describes the real case of a collaborative experience between decision makers, who made an effort to highlight and clarify the real management problems to scientists, who in turn needed to understand all the facets of the decision-making process prior to formulating the problem in mathematical terms and incorporating the solution into a decision support system. The resulting tool, which makes extensive hidden use of probabilistic forecasts, stochastic optimization, and Bayesian decision techniques, resulted in a user-friendly environment. After six months of testing, the tool proved to be essential for decision-making and has been in use on a daily basis since 1997. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers of Hydrology)
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15 pages, 5682 KiB  
Article
Development of a Machine Learning Framework to Aid Climate Model Assessment and Improvement: Case Study of Surface Soil Moisture
by Francisco Andree Ramírez Casas, Laxmi Sushama and Bernardo Teufel
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100186 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The development of a computationally efficient machine learning-based framework to understand the underlying causes for biases in climate model simulated fields is presented in this study. The framework consists of a two-step approach, with the first step involving the development of a Random [...] Read more.
The development of a computationally efficient machine learning-based framework to understand the underlying causes for biases in climate model simulated fields is presented in this study. The framework consists of a two-step approach, with the first step involving the development of a Random Forest (RF) model, trained on observed data of the climate variable of interest and related predictors. The second step involves emulations of the climate variable of interest with the RF model developed in step one by replacing the observed predictors with those from the climate model one at a time. The assumption is that comparing these emulations with that of a reference emulation driven by all observed predictors can shed light on the contribution of respective predictor biases to the biases in the climate model simulation. The proposed framework is used to understand the biases in the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model simulated surface soil moisture (SSM) for the April–September period, over a domain covering part of north-east Canada. The grid cell-based RF model, trained on daily SSM and related climate predictors (water availability, 2 m temperature, relative humidity, snowmelt, maximum snow water equivalent) from the fifth generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA5), demonstrates great skill in emulating SSM, with root mean square error of 0.036. Comparison of the five RF emulations based on GEM predictors with that based on ERA5 predictors suggests that the biases in the mean April–September SSM can be attributed mainly to biases in three predictors: water availability, 2 m temperature and relative humidity. The regions where these predictors contribute to biases in SSM are mostly collocated with the regions where they are shown to be the among the top three influential predictors through the predictor importance analysis, i.e., 2 m temperature in the southern part of the domain, relative humidity in the northern part of the domain and water availability over rest of the domain. The framework, without having to undertake expensive simulations with the climate model, thus successfully identifies the main causes for SSM biases, albeit with slightly reduced skill for heavily perturbed simulations. Furthermore, identification of the causes for biases, by informing targeted climate model improvements, can lead to additional reductions in computational costs. Full article
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15 pages, 3344 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Temperature Modelling at the Water Table with a Simple Heat Conduction Model
by Pavla Pekárová, Andrej Tall, Ján Pekár, Justína Vitková and Pavol Miklánek
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100185 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
This study aimed at the analysis and modelling of the groundwater temperature at the water table in different regions of Slovakia. In the first part, the analysis of the long-term trends of air and soil/ground temperature to a depth of 10 m is [...] Read more.
This study aimed at the analysis and modelling of the groundwater temperature at the water table in different regions of Slovakia. In the first part, the analysis of the long-term trends of air and soil/ground temperature to a depth of 10 m is presented. The average annual soil/groundwater temperatures at different depths were the same but lower than the annual average air temperature by about 0.8 °C. The long-term trend analysis of the air temperature and soil temperature at a depth of up to 10 m in Slovakia showed that the air and soil/ground water temperature have risen by 0.6 and 0.5 °C, respectively, per decade over the past 30 years. The second part of the study aimed at modelling the daily groundwater temperatures at depths of 0.6–15 m below the surface. The simple groundwater temperature model was constructed based on a one-dimensional differential Fourier heat conduction equation. The given model can be used to estimate future groundwater temperature trends using regional air temperature projections calculated for different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management)
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10 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Projected Effects of Climate Change on the Energy Footprints of U.S. Drinking Water Utilities
by Robert B. Sowby and Riley C. Hales
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100182 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Drinking water systems’ energy footprints depend mostly on the source, quality, and volume of water supply, but also on local temperature and precipitation, both of which are changing with the global climate. From a previous survey, we develop an equation for modeling relative [...] Read more.
Drinking water systems’ energy footprints depend mostly on the source, quality, and volume of water supply, but also on local temperature and precipitation, both of which are changing with the global climate. From a previous survey, we develop an equation for modeling relative changes in U.S. water utilities’ annual energy use, in which their energy use increases with temperature and decreases with precipitation. To demonstrate, we insert gridded projections from three scenarios in the EPA’s Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) and compare 2035 and 2060 periods with a 1981–2010 baseline. Averaged over the continental United States, the 2060 central scenario projects 2.7 °C warmer temperatures and 2.9 cm more annual precipitation. For the same water demand, we estimate that these conditions will cause U.S. water systems’ energy use to change by −0.7% to 13.7% depending on the location (average 8.5% across all grid cells). Warming accounts for a general increase, and local changes in precipitation can add to or subtract from it. We present maps showing the spatial variability for each scenario. Water systems are essential infrastructure that support sustainable communities, and the analysis underscores their needs for energy management, renewable energy, water conservation, and climate change resilience. Full article
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18 pages, 7177 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Land-use Changes on Flood Characteristics: The Case Study of the Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka
by Jayanga T. Samarasinghe, Randika K. Makumbura, Charuni Wickramarachchi, Jeewanthi Sirisena, Miyuru B. Gunathilake, Nitin Muttil, Fang Yenn Teo and Upaka Rathnayake
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100177 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5651
Abstract
Understanding the changes in climate and land use/land cover (LULC) over time is important for developing policies for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of riverine floods. The present study evaluates the influence of hydro-climatic factors and anthropogenic practices related to LULC on floods in [...] Read more.
Understanding the changes in climate and land use/land cover (LULC) over time is important for developing policies for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of riverine floods. The present study evaluates the influence of hydro-climatic factors and anthropogenic practices related to LULC on floods in the Kelani River Basin (KRB) in Sri Lanka. The gauge-based daily precipitation, monthly mean temperature, daily discharges, and water levels at sub-basin/basin outlets, and both surveyed and remotely sensed inundation areas were used for this analysis. Flood characteristics in terms of mean, maximum, and number of peaks were estimated by applying the peak over threshold (POT) method. Nonparametric tests were also used to identify the climatic trends. In addition, LULC maps were generated over the years 1988–2017 using Landsat images. It is observed that the flood intensities and frequencies in the KRB have increased over the years. However, Deraniyagala and Norwood sub-basins have converted to dry due to the decrease in precipitation, whereas Kithulgala, Holombuwa, Glencourse, and Hanwella showed an increase in precipitation. A significant variation in atmospheric temperature was not observed. Furthermore, the LULC has mostly changed from vegetation/barren land to built-up in many parts of the basin. Simple correlation and partial correlation analysis showed that flood frequency and inundation areas have a significant correlation with LULC and hydro-climatic factors, especially precipitation over time. The results of this research will therefore be useful for policy makers and environmental specialists to understand the relationship of flood frequencies with the anthropogenic influences on LULC and climatic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources and Risk Management)
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15 pages, 6704 KiB  
Article
Urban Flood Prediction through GIS-Based Dual-Coupled Hydraulic Models
by Marco Sinagra, Carmelo Nasello and Tullio Tucciarelli
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100174 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Propagation of pluvial floods in urban areas, occurring with return time periods of few years, can be well solved using dual models accounting for the mutual relationship between the water level in the streets and the discharges inside the sewer pipes. The extended [...] Read more.
Propagation of pluvial floods in urban areas, occurring with return time periods of few years, can be well solved using dual models accounting for the mutual relationship between the water level in the streets and the discharges inside the sewer pipes. The extended WEC-flood model (EWEC), based on the use of unstructured triangular meshes and a diffusive formulation of the momentum equations in both the 2D and the 1D lower domains, is presented along with its novelty, limits, and advantages. The model is then applied to a small computational domain in the Palermo area, where only some ‘hard’ data given by one rain gauge has been used for calibration and validation, along with other ‘soft’ data like yes/no surcharge observations and water depths available from photos and interviews. Model input data are mainly geometrical parameters, and calibration parameters are restricted only to average Manning coefficients. In the test case a very good validation has been obtained of three historical events using the EWEC model, with only one average Manning coefficient calibrated using other two historical events. Full article
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19 pages, 8944 KiB  
Article
Suitability Assessment of Fish Habitat in a Data-Scarce River
by Aysha Akter, Md. Redwoan Toukir and Ahammed Dayem
Hydrology 2022, 9(10), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9100173 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Assessing fish habitat suitability in a data-scarce tidal river is often challenging due to the absence of continuous water quantity and quality records. This study is comprised of an intensive field study on a 42 km reach which recorded bathymetry and physical water [...] Read more.
Assessing fish habitat suitability in a data-scarce tidal river is often challenging due to the absence of continuous water quantity and quality records. This study is comprised of an intensive field study on a 42 km reach which recorded bathymetry and physical water quality parameters (pH, electroconductivity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) testing and corresponding water levels and velocity. Frequent water sampling was carried out on 17 out of 90 locations for laboratory water quality tests. Based on this, an interpolation technique, i.e., Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), generates a map in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment using ArcGIS software to determine the river water quality parameters. Additionally, a hydrodynamic model study was conducted to simulate hydraulic parameters using Delft3D software followed by a water quality distribution. During validation, the Delft3D-simulated water quality could reasonably mimic most field data, and GIS featured dissolved oxygen. The overall water quality distribution showed a lower dissolved oxygen level (~3 mg/L) in the industrial zone compared to the other two zones during the study period. On the other hand, these validated hydraulic properties were applied in the Physical Habitat Simulation Model (PHABSIM) set up to conduct the hydraulic habitat suitability for Labeo rohita (Rohu fish). Thus, the validated model could represent the details of habitat suitability in the studied river for future decision support systems, and this study envisaged applying it to other similar rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic and Deterministic Modelling of Hydrologic Variables)
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