Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area.The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
An Efficient GPU Implementation of a Coupled Overland-Sewer Hydraulic Model with Pollutant Transport
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040146 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Numerical simulation of flows that consider interaction between overland and drainage networks has become a practical tool to prevent and mitigate flood situations in urban environments, especially when dealing with intense storm events, where the limited capacity of the sewer systems can be [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation of flows that consider interaction between overland and drainage networks has become a practical tool to prevent and mitigate flood situations in urban environments, especially when dealing with intense storm events, where the limited capacity of the sewer systems can be a trigger for flooding. Additionally, in order to prevent any kind of pollutant dispersion through the drainage network, it is very interesting to have a certain monitorization or control over the quality of the water that flows in both domains. In this sense, the addition of a pollutant transport component to both surface and sewer hydraulic models would benefit the global analysis of the combined water flow. On the other hand, when considering a realistic large domain with complex topography or streets structure, a fine spatial discretization is mandatory. Hence the number of grid cells is usually very large and, therefore, it is necessary to use parallelization techniques for the calculation, the use of Graphic Processing Units (GPU) being one of the most efficient due to the leveraging of thousands of processors within a single device. In this work, an efficient GPU-based 2D shallow water flow solver (RiverFlow2D-GPU) is fully coupled with EPA’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Both models are able to develop a transient water quality analysis taking into account several pollutants. The coupled model, referred to as RiverFlow2D-GPU UD (Urban Drainge) is applied to three real-world cases, covering the most common hydraulic situations in urban hydrology/hydraulics. A UK Environmental Agency test case is used as model validation, showing a good agreement between RiverFlow2D-GPU UD and the rest of the numerical models considered. The efficiency of the model is proven in two more complex domains, leading to a >100x faster simulations compared with the traditional CPU computation. Full article
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Article
Systems Analysis of Coupled Natural and Human Processes in the Mekong River Basin
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030140 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The Mekong River Basin is one of the world’s major transboundary basins. The hydrology, agriculture, ecology, and other watershed functions are constantly changing as a result of a variety of human activities carried out inside and by neighboring countries including China, Myanmar, Thailand, [...] Read more.
The Mekong River Basin is one of the world’s major transboundary basins. The hydrology, agriculture, ecology, and other watershed functions are constantly changing as a result of a variety of human activities carried out inside and by neighboring countries including China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam in order to meet increased food and water demands for an increasing population. The Mekong River, which provides irrigation and fishing for a population of over 60 million people, also has an estimated 88,000 MW of untapped hydropower potential. The construction of dams for energy supply has a wide-ranging impact on downstream reservoir regions, resulting in unprecedented changes in hydrologic functions, the environment, and people’s livelihoods. We present a holistic view of how external stressors such as climate change and variability, land cover, and land-use change affect supply and demand. We present an integrated modeling framework for analyzing the supply–demand scenarios and tradeoffs between different sectors. Specifically, we evaluated the impacts of future climate on irrigation, hydropower, and other needs in the basin through a feedback loop. We focused on hydrologic extremes to evaluate their impacts on the reservoir operations during flood and low flow events. The inflow is projected to change by +13% to −50% in the future, while a 0.25% (15.24 billion m3) reduction is projected for the net irrigation water requirement (NIWR). A unit percentage increase in irrigation demand will reduce energy generation by 0.15%, but climate change has a beneficial impact on dam performance with a predicted increase in energy generation and supply to all sectors. Flood events will cause excessive stress on reservoir operation to handle up to six times more flow volumes; however, the low-flow events will marginally affect the system. While the flow and storage rule curves consider both supply and demand, changing human water use comes second to changing climate or other biophysical considerations. This paper emphasizes the importance of considering feedback between climate–water–human society in the systems modeling framework in order to meet societal and ecological challenges. The findings will provide information on the risks and tradeoffs that exist in the water, energy, and food sectors of the basin. Full article
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Article
Integrating Drone Technology into an Innovative Agrometeorological Methodology for the Precise and Real-Time Estimation of Crop Water Requirements
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030131 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Precision agriculture has been at the cutting edge of research during the recent decade, aiming to reduce water consumption and ensure sustainability in agriculture. The proposed methodology was based on the crop water stress index (CWSI) and was applied in Greece within the [...] Read more.
Precision agriculture has been at the cutting edge of research during the recent decade, aiming to reduce water consumption and ensure sustainability in agriculture. The proposed methodology was based on the crop water stress index (CWSI) and was applied in Greece within the ongoing research project GreenWaterDrone. The innovative approach combines real spatial data, such as infrared canopy temperature, air temperature, air relative humidity, and thermal infrared image data, taken above the crop field using an aerial micrometeorological station (AMMS) and a thermal (IR) camera installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Following an initial calibration phase, where the ground micrometeorological station (GMMS) was installed in the crop, no equipment needed to be maintained in the field. Aerial and ground measurements were transferred in real time to sophisticated databases and applications over existing mobile networks for further processing and estimation of the actual water requirements of a specific crop at the field level, dynamically alerting/informing local farmers/agronomists of the irrigation necessity and additionally for potential risks concerning their fields. The supported services address farmers’, agricultural scientists’, and local stakeholders’ needs to conform to regional water management and sustainable agriculture policies. As preliminary results of this study, we present indicative original illustrations and data from applying the methodology to assess UAV functionality while aiming to evaluate and standardize all system processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evaporation and Evaporative Demand)
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Article
Reinvestigating the Parabolic-Shaped Eddy Viscosity Profile for Free Surface Flows
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030126 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The flow in rivers is turbulent. The main parameter related to turbulence in rivers is the eddy viscosity, which is used to model a turbulent flow and is involved in the determination of both velocities and sediment concentrations. A well-known and largely used [...] Read more.
The flow in rivers is turbulent. The main parameter related to turbulence in rivers is the eddy viscosity, which is used to model a turbulent flow and is involved in the determination of both velocities and sediment concentrations. A well-known and largely used vertical distribution of eddy viscosity in free surface flows (open channels and rivers) is given by the parabolic profile that is based on the logarithmic velocity profile assumption and is valid therefore only in the log-law layer. It was improved thanks to the log-wake law velocity profile. These two eddy viscosities are obtained from velocity profiles, and the main shortcoming of the log-wake profile is the empirical Coles’ parameter. A more rigorous and reliable analytical eddy viscosity model is needed. In this study, we present two analytical eddy viscosity models based on the concepts of velocity and length scales, which are related to the exponentially decreasing turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) function and mixing length, namely, (1) the exponential-type profile of eddy viscosity and (2) an eddy viscosity based on an extension of von Karman’s similarity hypothesis. The eddy viscosity from the second model is Re*-independent, while the eddy viscosity from the first model is Re*-dependent (where Re* is the friction Reynolds number). The proposed analytical models were validated through computation of velocity profiles, obtained from the resolution of the momentum equation and comparisons to experimental data. With an additional correction function related to the damping effect of turbulence near the free surface, both models are similar to the log-wake-modified eddy viscosity profile but with different values of the Coles’ parameter, i.e., Π=0.2 for the first model and Π=0.15 for the second model. These values are similar to those found in open-channel flow experiments. This provides an explanation about the accuracy of these two analytical models in the outer part of free surface flows. For large values of Re* (Re* > 2000), the first model becomes Re* independent, and the two coefficients reach asymptotic values. Finally, the two proposed eddy viscosity models are validated by experimental data of eddy viscosity. Full article
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Article
Water and Energy Balance Model GOES-PRWEB: Development and Validation
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030113 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
In 2009, the University of Alabama-Huntsville configured their GOES satellited-based solar radiation product to include Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (USVI), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba. The half-hourly and daily integrated data are available at 1 km resolution for Puerto Rico [...] Read more.
In 2009, the University of Alabama-Huntsville configured their GOES satellited-based solar radiation product to include Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (USVI), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba. The half-hourly and daily integrated data are available at 1 km resolution for Puerto Rico and the USVI and 2 km for Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba. These data made it possible to implement estimates of satellite radiation-based evapotranspiration methods on all of the islands. The use of the solar radiation data in combination with estimates of other climate parameters facilitated the development of a water and energy balance algorithm for Puerto Rico. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical background and technical approach for estimating the components of the daily water and energy balance. The operational water and energy balance model is the first of its kind in Puerto Rico. Model validation results are presented for reference and actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and streamflow. Mean errors for all analyses were less than 7%. The water and energy balance model results can benefit such diverse fields as agriculture, ecology, coastal water management, human health, renewable energy development, water resources, drought monitoring, and disaster and emergency management. This research represents a preliminary step in developing a suite of gridded hydro-climate products for the Caribbean Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
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Article
Interdisciplinary Water Development in the Peruvian Highlands: The Case for Including the Coproduction of Knowledge in Socio-Hydrology
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030112 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Agrarian communities in the Peruvian Andes depend on local water resources that are threatened by both a changing climate and changes in the socio-politics of water allocation. A community’s local autonomy over water resources and its capacity to plan for a sustainable and [...] Read more.
Agrarian communities in the Peruvian Andes depend on local water resources that are threatened by both a changing climate and changes in the socio-politics of water allocation. A community’s local autonomy over water resources and its capacity to plan for a sustainable and secure water future depends, in part, on integrated local environmental knowledge (ILEK), which leverages and blends traditional and western scientific approaches to knowledge production. Over the course of a two-year collaborative water development project with the agrarian district of Zurite, we designed and implemented an applied model of socio-hydrology focused on the coproduction of knowledge among scientists, local knowledge-holders and students. Our approach leveraged knowledge across academic disciplines and cultures, trained students to be valued producers of knowledge, and, most importantly, integrated the needs and concerns of the community. The result is a community-based ILEK that informs sustainable land and water management and has the potential to increase local autonomy over water resources. Furthermore, the direct link between interdisciplinary water science and community benefits empowered students to pursue careers in water development. The long-term benefits of our approach support the inclusion of knowledge coproduction among scholars, students and, in particular, community members, in applied studies of socio-hydrology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Hydrology: The New Paradigm in Resilient Water Management)
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Article
Multi-Objective Model-Based Assessment of Green-Grey Infrastructures for Urban Flood Mitigation
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030110 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
This paper presents the performance quantification of different green-grey infrastructures, including rainfall-runoff and infiltration processes, on the overland flow and its connection with a sewer system. The present study suggests three main components to form the structure of the proposed model-based assessment. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents the performance quantification of different green-grey infrastructures, including rainfall-runoff and infiltration processes, on the overland flow and its connection with a sewer system. The present study suggests three main components to form the structure of the proposed model-based assessment. The first two components provide the optimal number of green infrastructure (GI) practices allocated in an urban catchment and optimal grey infrastructures, such as pipe and storage tank sizing. The third component evaluates selected combined green-grey infrastructures based on rainfall-runoff and infiltration computation in a 2D model domain. This framework was applied in an urban catchment in Dhaka City (Bangladesh) where different green-grey infrastructures were evaluated in relation to flood damage and investment costs. These practices implemented separately have an impact on the reduction of damage and investment costs. However, their combination has been shown to be the best action to follow. Finally, it was proved that including rainfall-runoff and infiltration processes, along with the representation of GI within a 2D model domain, enhances the analysis of the optimal combination of infrastructures, which in turn allows the drainage system to be assessed holistically. Full article
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Article
Assessment of TOPKAPI-X Applicability for Flood Events Simulation in Two Small Catchments in Saxony
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030109 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Numerical simulations of rainfall-runoff processes are useful tools for understanding hydrological processes and performing impact assessment studies. The advancements in computer technology and data availability have assisted their rapid development and wide use. This project aims to evaluate the applicability of a physically [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations of rainfall-runoff processes are useful tools for understanding hydrological processes and performing impact assessment studies. The advancements in computer technology and data availability have assisted their rapid development and wide use. This project aims to evaluate the applicability of a physically based, fully distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI-X for the simulation of flood events in two small watersheds of Saxony, Germany. The results indicate that the model was calibrated well for 4.88 km2 Wernersbach catchment (NSE 0.89), whereas 276 km2 Wesenitz catchment calibration was only satisfactory (NSE 0.7). The addition of the second soil layer improved the model’s performance in comparison to the simulations with only one soil layer for Wernersbach (NSE increase from 0.83 to 0.89). During the validation process, the model showed a variable performance. The best performance was achieved for Wernersbach for the year with the highest runoff (NSE 0.95) in the last decade. The lowest performance for the Wernersbach and Wesenitz catchments was 0.64 for both. The reasons for the model’s low performance in some years are discussed, and include: (i) input data quality and data insufficiency, (ii) methods used within the simulations (interpolation, ETP estimation, etc.), and (iii) assumptions made during the calibration (manual calibration, parameter selection, etc.). Full article
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Article
Hydrological Connectivity in a Permafrost Tundra Landscape near Vorkuta, North-European Arctic Russia
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030106 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment in the north-European Arctic. The stable isotopic composition of water in different compartments was used as a tracer of [...] Read more.
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment in the north-European Arctic. The stable isotopic composition of water in different compartments was used as a tracer of hydrological processes and connectivity at the water track catchment scale. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sandy loams were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months in saturated soil horizons with low hydraulic conductivity. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low deuterium excess (d-excess) values, from 2‰ to 4‰. Observed evaporative loss suggests that these hollows were disconnected from the surface and shallow subsurface runoff. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12‰ and 14‰, close to summer precipitation. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5 ± 5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected’ hollows, 11.8 ± 1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions and its supply to streams via shallow subsurface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta River, evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric vegetation over the elevated intertrack tundra patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Flood Impacts on Critical Infrastructure in a Coastal Floodplain in Western Puerto Rico during Hurricane María
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030104 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Flooding during extreme weather events damages critical infrastructure, property, and threatens lives. Hurricane María devastated Puerto Rico (PR) on 20 September 2017. Sixty-four deaths were directly attributable to the flooding. This paper describes the development of a hydrologic model using the Gridded Surface [...] Read more.
Flooding during extreme weather events damages critical infrastructure, property, and threatens lives. Hurricane María devastated Puerto Rico (PR) on 20 September 2017. Sixty-four deaths were directly attributable to the flooding. This paper describes the development of a hydrologic model using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), capable of simulating flood depth and extent for the Añasco coastal flood plain in Western PR. The purpose of the study was to develop a numerical model to simulate flooding from extreme weather events and to evaluate the impacts on critical infrastructure and communities; Hurricane María is used as a case study. GSSHA was calibrated for Irma, a Category 3 hurricane, which struck the northeastern corner of the island on 7 September 2017, two weeks before Hurricane María. The upper Añasco watershed was calibrated using United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream discharge data. The model was validated using a storm of similar magnitude on 11–13 December 2007. Owing to the damage sustained by PR’s WSR-88D weather radar during Hurricane María, rainfall was estimated in this study using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. Flooding in the coastal floodplain during Hurricane María was simulated using three methods: (1) Use of observed discharge hydrograph from the upper watershed as an inflow boundary condition for the coastal floodplain area, along with the WRF rainfall in the coastal flood plain; (2) Use of WRF rainfall to simulate runoff in the upper watershed and coastal flood plain; and (3) Similar to approach (2), except the use of bias-corrected WRF rainfall. Flooding results were compared with forty-two values of flood depth obtained during face-to-face interviews with residents of the affected communities. Impacts on critical infrastructure (water, electric, and public schools) were evaluated, assuming any structure exposed to 20 cm or more of flooding would sustain damage. Calibration equations were also used to improve flood depth estimates. Our model included the influence of storm surge, which we found to have a minimal effect on flood depths within the study area. Water infrastructure was more severely impacted by flooding than electrical infrastructure. From these findings, we conclude that the model developed in this study can be used with sufficient accuracy to identify infrastructure affected by future flooding events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
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Article
Impact of Pumping Rate on Contaminant Transport in Groundwater—A Numerical Study
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030103 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
Public supply wells are commonly considered one of the most significant sources of freshwater on Earth. Therefore, potential well water contamination can conceivably be regarded as a crucial issue that is closely correlated with both environmental protection and water demand. In the present [...] Read more.
Public supply wells are commonly considered one of the most significant sources of freshwater on Earth. Therefore, potential well water contamination can conceivably be regarded as a crucial issue that is closely correlated with both environmental protection and water demand. In the present study, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate unsteady and spatially varying groundwater flow, along with contaminant migration. Besides, the proposed model is capable of investigating well water quality by the change of the wells’ pumping rates. The developed model uses a finite-volume time splitting numerical technique to solve governing groundwater flow and soluble contaminant transport equations. Comparison of the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, as well as experimental and field data, clearly demonstrates the satisfactory performance of the present model. The fundamental aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of pumping rate and its variations on pollution migration through saturated porous media. To meet this purpose, contaminant concentrations and contaminants’ travel time were studied under different pump flow rate conditions. The modeling results revealed that choosing an optimum range for the pumping rate increases contaminant travel time and reduces aquifer vulnerability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management)
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Article
A Model-Based Tool for Assessing the Impact of Land Use Change Scenarios on Flood Risk in Small-Scale River Systems—Part 1: Pre-Processing of Scenario Based Flood Characteristics for the Current State of Land Use
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030102 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Land use changes influence the water balance and often increase surface runoff. The resulting impacts on river flow, water level, and flood should be identified beforehand in the phase of spatial planning. In two consecutive papers, we develop a model-based decision support system [...] Read more.
Land use changes influence the water balance and often increase surface runoff. The resulting impacts on river flow, water level, and flood should be identified beforehand in the phase of spatial planning. In two consecutive papers, we develop a model-based decision support system for quantifying the hydrological and stream hydraulic impacts of land use changes. Part 1 presents the semi-automatic set-up of physically based hydrological and hydraulic models on the basis of geodata analysis for the current state. Appropriate hydrological model parameters for ungauged catchments are derived by a transfer from a calibrated model. In the regarded lowland river basins, parameters of surface and groundwater inflow turned out to be particularly important. While the calibration delivers very good to good model results for flow (Evol =2.4%, R = 0.84, NSE = 0.84), the model performance is good to satisfactory (Evol = −9.6%, R = 0.88, NSE = 0.59) in a different river system parametrized with the transfer procedure. After transferring the concept to a larger area with various small rivers, the current state is analyzed by running simulations based on statistical rainfall scenarios. Results include watercourse section-specific capacities and excess volumes in case of flooding. The developed approach can relatively quickly generate physically reliable and spatially high-resolution results. Part 2 builds on the data generated in part 1 and presents the subsequent approach to assess hydrologic/hydrodynamic impacts of potential land use changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Land Use Changes on Hydrological Processes and Modelling)
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Article
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Natural Attenuation at a Contaminated Site
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030101 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
This study evaluates the natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons as remediation action in a contaminated site downtown the city of Parma (Italy). To achieve this goal, a combination of new investigation methods (bio-molecular analysis, compound specific isotope analysis, phytoscreening) has been proposed. The [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons as remediation action in a contaminated site downtown the city of Parma (Italy). To achieve this goal, a combination of new investigation methods (bio-molecular analysis, compound specific isotope analysis, phytoscreening) has been proposed. The approach (named circular multi step) allows to: fully understand the phenomena that occur at the study site, design new investigation activities, and manage best practices. Consequently, each step of the approach improves the conceptual and numerical models with new knowledge. The activities carried out at the study site allowed to detect a contamination of perchloroethylene in a large part of the city of Parma and, of main importance, underneath a kindergarten. The results of the study did not show significant natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and that the detected contamination could refer to the same unknown contaminant source. Furthermore, the innovative phytoscreening technique was applied to assess the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the ground level. The plume spread was estimated through numerical modeling starting from potential contaminant sources. This study enhances the knowledge of groundwater flow and contamination in Parma and allows authorities to design new investigation/reclamation activities through management actions. Full article
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Article
Rainfall-Induced Landslides and Erosion Processes in the Road Network of the Jaén Province (Southern Spain)
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030100 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Rainfall thresholds are one of the most widely applied methods for indirectly estimating landslide return periods, which are subsequently used in hazard analyses. In this study, the starting point is an incidence database of landslides and erosive processes affecting the road network of [...] Read more.
Rainfall thresholds are one of the most widely applied methods for indirectly estimating landslide return periods, which are subsequently used in hazard analyses. In this study, the starting point is an incidence database of landslides and erosive processes affecting the road network of the province of Jaén (southern Spain), in which the positions and dates of civil repair works can be found. Meanwhile, the use of a daily rainfall database in a dense grid (1 km) allowed for the estimation of the rainfall series at each incidence point with high precision. Considering the news in the local media and applying spatial proximity, temporal proximity, and maximum return period criteria, rainfall events of various duration (1 to 90 days) could be associated approximately with each point. Then, the rainfall thresholds and their return periods were estimated. A linear equation was adjusted for the rainfall duration threshold (E = 6.408 D + 74.829), and a power-law curve was adjusted for the intensity–duration pair (I = 47.961 D−0.458). Non-significant differences were observed between the thresholds and the return periods for the lower and higher magnitude incidences, but the durations for the former were lower (1–13 days), compared to those of the latter (7–22 days). From the equations, rainfall events of different durations could be estimated for use in hazard analysis, as well as for the future development of warning systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall-Induced Landslides Hazard)
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Article
Simplified Interception/Evaporation Model
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030099 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
It is known that at the event scale, evaporation losses of rainfall intercepted by canopy are a few millimeters, which is often not much in comparison to other stocks in the water balance. Nevertheless, at yearly scale, the number of times that the [...] Read more.
It is known that at the event scale, evaporation losses of rainfall intercepted by canopy are a few millimeters, which is often not much in comparison to other stocks in the water balance. Nevertheless, at yearly scale, the number of times that the canopy is filled by rainfall and then depleted can be so large that the interception flux may become an important fraction of rainfall. Many accurate interception models and models that describe evaporation by wet canopy have been proposed. However, they often require parameters that are difficult to obtain, especially for large-scale applications. In this paper, a simplified interception/evaporation model is proposed, which considers a modified Merrian model to compute interception during wet spells, and a simple power-law equation to model evaporation by wet canopy during dry spells. Thus, the model can be applied for continuous simulation, according to the sub hourly rainfall data that is appropriate to study both processes. It is shown that the Merrian model can be derived according to a simple linear storage model, also accounting for the antecedent intercepted stored volume, which is useful to consider for the suggested simplified approach. For faba bean cover crop, an application of the suggested procedure, providing reasonable results, is performed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evaporation and Evaporative Demand)
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Article
Statistical Modeling of Fine Sediments Dredged Using a Variable Area Dredging Suction Head to Improve Water Quality
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030098 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The changing climate affects the agricultural lands, and, in turn, the changes in agricultural lands alter the watershed. A major concern regarding waterbodies is the increased sedimentation rates due to climate change. To improve the water quality, it is crucial to remove fine [...] Read more.
The changing climate affects the agricultural lands, and, in turn, the changes in agricultural lands alter the watershed. A major concern regarding waterbodies is the increased sedimentation rates due to climate change. To improve the water quality, it is crucial to remove fine sediments. Using current environmental dredging methods is challenging because of the sediment volumes that must be dredged, the absence of nearby disposal sites, and the shoreline infrastructure at the dredging locations. To address these issues, we used a surgical dredging method with a variable area suction head that can easily maneuver around the docks, pilings, and other infrastructures. It can also isolate the fine grain material to better manage the dredged volumes in the seabed where nutrients are typically adhered. To this end, a statistical analysis of the dredged samples is essential to improve the design efficiency. In this work, we collected several samples using a variable area suction head with different design settings. The collected samples using each design setting were then used to model the distributions of the different grain sizes in the dredged sediments. The proposed statistical model can be effectively used for the prediction of sediment sampling outcomes to improve the gradation of the fine sediments. Full article
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Article
Flood Mitigation Measure and Water Storage in East Africa: An Analysis for the Rio Muaguide, Mozambique
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020092 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 288237
Abstract
In the last century, floods have been more frequently hitting population and human activity, especially in the sub-Saharan context. The aim of this study is to propose suitable flood mitigation measures for the downstream part of the Rio Muaguide, which flows in northern [...] Read more.
In the last century, floods have been more frequently hitting population and human activity, especially in the sub-Saharan context. The aim of this study is to propose suitable flood mitigation measures for the downstream part of the Rio Muaguide, which flows in northern Mozambique. In this terminal part of the river, the bed has been buried by sediment in many reaches; due to the reduction of the section conveyance, wide areas are inundated during the rainy season with negative consequences for several villages relying on subsistence agriculture. The design of any measure requires quantitative determinations but, as many less developed countries, Mozambique is affected by data scarcity. Therefore, in this study global and freely available data have been used to perform hydrologic and two-dimensional hydro-dynamic modelling, finally producing a flood hazard map. Particular care has been put into a critical analysis of several data sources, in terms of their suitability for the purposes of the work. Based on the modelling results and on field evidence, an intervention has been proposed with a double functionality of mitigating the effects of periodic floods and storing water to be used by the agricultural community during drier seasons. The proposed intervention combines restoring a sedimentation-less shape of the river sections and exploiting a natural basin as a storage basin. The methods applied and the intervention proposed for the Rio Muaguide are prototypal for several analogous streams in the coastal portion of Mozambique. Full article
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Article
Introducing an Open-Source Regional Water Quality Data Viewer Tool to Support Research Data Access
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020091 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Water quality data collection, storage, and access is a difficult task and significant work has gone into methods to store and disseminate these data. We present a tool to disseminate research in a simple method that does not replace but extends and leverages [...] Read more.
Water quality data collection, storage, and access is a difficult task and significant work has gone into methods to store and disseminate these data. We present a tool to disseminate research in a simple method that does not replace but extends and leverages these tools. The tool is not geo-graphically limited and works with any spatially-referenced data. In most regions, government agencies maintain central repositories for water quality data. In the United States, the federal government maintains two systems to fill that role for hydrological data: the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), since superseded by the Water Quality Portal (WQP). The Consortium of the Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has developed the Hydrologic Information System (HIS) to standardize the search and discovery of these data as well as other observational time series datasets. Additionally, CUAHSI developed and maintains HydroShare.org (5 May 2021) as a web portal for researchers to store and share hydrology data in a variety of formats including spatial geographic information system data. We present the Tethys Platform based Water Quality Data Viewer (WQDV) web application that uses these systems to provide researchers and local monitoring organizations with a simple method to archive, view, analyze, and distribute water quality data. WQDV provides an archive for non-official or preliminary research data and access to those data that have been collected but need to be distributed prior to review or inclusion in the state database. WQDV can also accept subsets of data downloaded from other sources, such as the EPA WQP. WQDV helps users understand what local data are available and how they relate to the data in larger databases. WQDV presents data in spatial (maps) and temporal (time series graphs) forms to help the users analyze and potentially screen the data sources before export for additional analysis. WQDV provides a convenient method for interim data to be widely disseminated and easily accessible in the context of a subset of official data. We present WQDV using a case study of data from Utah Lake, Utah, United States of America. Full article
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Article
Linking DPSIR Model and Water Quality Indices to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in Groundwater Resources
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020090 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The achievement of sustainable development goals in groundwater resources related to water quality issues is a critical question in many regions. This study aims to combine powerful tools for helping stakeholders and policymakers achieve sustainable development goals in groundwater resources of agricultural areas. [...] Read more.
The achievement of sustainable development goals in groundwater resources related to water quality issues is a critical question in many regions. This study aims to combine powerful tools for helping stakeholders and policymakers achieve sustainable development goals in groundwater resources of agricultural areas. The DPSIR (Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response) model in combination with the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index and Groundwater Directive 2006/118/European Community—Threshold Values was applied using a hydrogeochemical dataset derived from the analysis of groundwater samples collected from 31 monitoring sites in an unconfined alluvial aquifer. Elevated Cl (up to 423.2 mg L−1), NO3 (up to 180.1 mg L−1) concentration and electrical conductivity (up to 2037 μS cm−1) value are observed for groundwater samples of the study area. The outcome of the “One Out-All Out” procedure revealed that the groundwater in 42% of the monitored sites is unsuitable for drinking according to the health-based guideline values established by Directive 98/83/European Community. A difficulty to achieve targets under Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 6 in the study area is revealed. The proposed response actions are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management)
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Article
Simulation of Dam Breaks on Dry Bed Using Finite Volume Roe-TVD Method
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020088 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Dams are one of the most important hydraulic structures. In view of unrecoverable damages occurring after a dam failure, analyzing a dams’ break is necessary. In this study, a dam located in Iran is considered. According to adjacent tourist and entertainment zones, the [...] Read more.
Dams are one of the most important hydraulic structures. In view of unrecoverable damages occurring after a dam failure, analyzing a dams’ break is necessary. In this study, a dam located in Iran is considered. According to adjacent tourist and entertainment zones, the breaking of the dam could lead to severe problems for the area and bridges downstream of the river. To investigate the issue, a numerical FORTRAN code based on the 2D finite volume Roe-TVD method on a fixed bed is provided to assess the effects of the dam break. Turbulence terms and dry bed conditions were considered in the code. A numerical wave tank (NWT) with a triangular barrier in the bed was numerically modeled and compared with analytical models to verify the capability of the code. Comparing numerical, experimental and analytical results showed that estimated water level and mass conservation in the numerical model is in good agreement with the experimental data and analytical solutions. The 2D approach used has reduced the cost of computing compared to a 3D approach while obtaining accurate results. The code is finally applied to a full-scale dam-break flood. Six KM of the natural river downstream of the dam, including two bridges, B1 and B2, is considered. Flood flow hydrographs and water level variations at bridges B1 and B2 are presented. The results denoted that bridges B1 and B2 will be flooded after 12 and 21 min, respectively, and are at risk of the potential break. Thus, it is necessary to announce and possibly evacuate the resort area alongside the dam in order to decrease losses. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Automatically Monitored Water Levels and Water Quality Indicators in Rivers with Different Hydromorphological Conditions and Pollution Levels in Greece
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020086 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Water resources, especially riverine ecosystems, are globally under qualitative and quantitative degradation due to human-imposed pressures. High-temporal-resolution data obtained from automatic stations can provide insights into the processes that link catchment hydrology and streamwater chemistry. The scope of this paper was to investigate [...] Read more.
Water resources, especially riverine ecosystems, are globally under qualitative and quantitative degradation due to human-imposed pressures. High-temporal-resolution data obtained from automatic stations can provide insights into the processes that link catchment hydrology and streamwater chemistry. The scope of this paper was to investigate the statistical behavior of high-frequency measurements at sites with known hydromorphological and pollution pressures. For this purpose, hourly time series of water levels and key water quality indicators (temperature, electric conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations) collected from four automatic monitoring stations under different hydromorphological conditions and pollution pressures were statistically elaborated. Based on the results, the hydromorphological conditions and pollution pressures of each station were confirmed to be reflected in the results of the statistical analysis performed. It was proven that the comparative use of the statistics and patterns of the water level and quality high-frequency time series could be used in the interpretation of the current site status as well as allowing the detection of possible changes. This approach can be used as a tool for the definition of thresholds, and will contribute to the design of management and restoration measures for the most impacted areas. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Climate Change on Irrigation Water Management in the Babai River Basin, Nepal
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020085 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
The diminishing spring discharge in the Middle Mountain Zone (MMZ) in Nepal is a matter of concern because it directly affects the livelihoods of low-income farmers in the region. Therefore, understanding the impacts of changes in climate and land-use patterns on water demand [...] Read more.
The diminishing spring discharge in the Middle Mountain Zone (MMZ) in Nepal is a matter of concern because it directly affects the livelihoods of low-income farmers in the region. Therefore, understanding the impacts of changes in climate and land-use patterns on water demand and availability is crucial. We investigated the impact of climate change on streamflow and environmental flow, and the demand for spring-fed river water for irrigation using the limited meteorological data available for the Babai River Basin, Nepal. SWAT and CROPWAT8.0 were used to respectively calculate present and future streamflow and irrigation water demand. Three general circulation models under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) for the periods of 2020–2044, 2045–2069, and 2070–2099 were used to investigate the impact of climate change. Results indicate that the catchment is likely to experience an increase in rainfall and temperature in the future. The impact of the increment in rainfall and rise in temperature are replicated in the annual river flow that is anticipated to increase by 24–37%, to the historical data of 1991–2014. Despite this increase, projections show that the Babai River Basin will remain a water deficit basin from January to May in future decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Effects on Water Resources Management)
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Article
A Catalogue of Tropical Cyclone Induced Instantaneous Peak Flows Recorded in Puerto Rico and a Comparison with the World’s Maxima
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020084 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Peak streamflow rates from the Insular Caribbean have received limited attention in worldwide catalogues in spite of their potential for exceptionality given many of the islands’ steep topographic relief and proneness to high rainfall rates associated with tropical cyclones. This study compiled 1922 [...] Read more.
Peak streamflow rates from the Insular Caribbean have received limited attention in worldwide catalogues in spite of their potential for exceptionality given many of the islands’ steep topographic relief and proneness to high rainfall rates associated with tropical cyclones. This study compiled 1922 area-normalized peak streamflow rates recorded during tropical cyclones in Puerto Rico from 1899 to 2020. The results show that the highest peak flow values recorded on the island were within the range of the world’s maxima for watersheds with drainage areas from 10 to 619 km2. Although higher tropical cyclone rainfall and streamflow rates were observed on average for the central–eastern half of Puerto Rico, the highest of all cyclone-related peaks occurred throughout the entire island and were caused by tropical depressions, tropical storms, or hurricanes. Improving our understanding of instantaneous peak flow rates in Puerto Rico and other islands of the Caribbean is locally important due to their significance in terms of flooding extent and its associated impacts, but also because these could serve as indicators of the implications of a changing climate on tropical cyclone intensity and the associated hydrologic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
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Article
Modeling of the Geological Probability Procedure for the Prediction of High Flows in Small Streams, Case Study of Medvednica Mt., Croatia
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020083 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Floods are defined by maximum water levels or flow of high-water waves. Here, we defined the deterministic method for the calculation of the probability of a high discharge event, named as the Probability Of Success (POS). The POS method previously developed for petroleum [...] Read more.
Floods are defined by maximum water levels or flow of high-water waves. Here, we defined the deterministic method for the calculation of the probability of a high discharge event, named as the Probability Of Success (POS). The POS method previously developed for petroleum subsurface systems has been modified for the surface hydrological system with the purpose of flood prediction. The case study of this research is the small basin of Kašina Stream on Medvednica Mt. (NW Croatia). The data are obtained upstream from the hydrological station Gornja Kašina. The POS model is defined by four categories. Each geological category is described with accompanied events and probabilities. Floods are defined by four categories: total precipitation, total water flow, basement, and maximal water capacity in soil. The categories total precipitation and basement were divided into two sub-categories each: quantity and duration; porosity and soil depth. Data are collected for a hydrometeorological event, namely an intensive convective storm on 24–25 July 2020, when Zagreb was locally hit by heavy urban floods. The presented probability method yielded a probability of 1.76% that such an event could happen to the station. However, the flooding was not recorded. A comparison of the real event and the predicted probability supported the adequacy and applicability of the method, showing it has high reliability. The presented probability model could be easily applied, with small modifications, to the entire area of Northern Croatia for the prediction of small basin flooding events. Full article
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Article
Disastrous Flash Floods Triggered by Moderate to Minor Rainfall Events. Recent Cases in Coastal Benguela (Angola)
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020073 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The present work focuses on two recent flash floods in coastal Benguela (Angola), both triggered by moderate rainfall but which had disastrous consequences for local populations (namely 71 deaths in 2015 and 17 in 2019). The research involved a regional survey to establish [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on two recent flash floods in coastal Benguela (Angola), both triggered by moderate rainfall but which had disastrous consequences for local populations (namely 71 deaths in 2015 and 17 in 2019). The research involved a regional survey to establish the effects of these floods combined with a geomorphological and socio-economic analysis of the most affected areas to understand the main forcing factors. The two flash floods produced major damage in restricted sectors within very small coastal catchments (<16 km2). The prevalence of fine-grained sedimentary rocks, relatively steep hills, thin soil cover, and vegetation scarcity are natural factors that promote surface runoff. However, socio-economic conditions are most likely the main reasons of flood damage. Namely, rapid population growth with poor planning and making use of low-quality construction materials, the high waste yields that are not properly managed and the absence of flood risk awareness. In the small valleys around the fast-growing cities of coastal Benguela, hazardous flash floods occur recurrently, even after moderate precipitation. Most affected areas are determined by local conditions that compromise drainage at the time of the rainfall event, being very difficult to predict. Full article
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Article
A Streamflow Bias Correction and Performance Evaluation Web Application for GEOGloWS ECMWF Streamflow Services
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020071 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
We present the development and testing of a web application called the historical validation tool (HVT) that processes and visualizes observed and simulated historical stream discharge data from the global GEOGloWS ECMWF streamflow services (GESS), performs seasonally adjusted bias correction, computes goodness-of-fit metrics, [...] Read more.
We present the development and testing of a web application called the historical validation tool (HVT) that processes and visualizes observed and simulated historical stream discharge data from the global GEOGloWS ECMWF streamflow services (GESS), performs seasonally adjusted bias correction, computes goodness-of-fit metrics, and performs forward bias correction on subsequent forecasts. The HVT corrects GESS output at a local scale using a technique that identifies and corrects model bias using observed hydrological data that are accessed using web services. HVT evaluates the performance of the GESS historic simulation data and provides more accurate historic simulation and bias-corrected forecast data. The HVT also allows users of the GEOGloWS historical streamflow data to use local observed data to both validate and improve the accuracy of local streamflow predictions. We developed the HVT using Tethys Platform, an open-source web application development framework. HVT presents data visualization using web mapping services and data plotting in the web map interface while functions related to bias correction, metrics reporting, and data generation for statistical analysis are computed by the back end. We present five case studies using the HVT in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and Peru. In these case studies, in addition to presenting the application, we evaluate the accuracy of the method we implemented in the HVT for bias correction. These case studies show that the HVT bias correction in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru results in significant improvement in historic simulation across the countries, while bias correction only resulted in marginal historic simulation improvements in Australia and the Dominican Republic. The HVT web application allows users to use local data to adjust global historical simulation and forecasts and validate the results, making the GESS modeling results more useful at a local scale. Full article
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Article
Decision Support Tools for River Restoration: The Implementation of the “River Habitat Survey” Methodology on the River Selho (Guimarães Municipality, Northwest Portugal)
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020069 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
The river habitat survey (RHS) system is a method used to assess the physical features and quality of rivers, which was developed to assist in the conservation and recovery of riverside habitats. The RHS takes into account the need to characterize areas of [...] Read more.
The river habitat survey (RHS) system is a method used to assess the physical features and quality of rivers, which was developed to assist in the conservation and recovery of riverside habitats. The RHS takes into account the need to characterize areas of intervention from a hydromorphological point of view, in order to introduce corrective measures aimed at restoring degraded sections and habitats, and increasing local biodiversity. In this paper, we present the results obtained from the application of the RHS methodology to the River Selho, in the municipality of Guimarães (Portugal). The transects that we defined were strongly influenced by anthropic actions that have modified the riverside habitats, the artificialization of the river channel, and the urban occupation of the banks. Taking into account the results, we can point out the main problems that currently affect the hydromorphological quality of the transects analyzed in the River Selho, as well as identify the originating factors: the excessive silting of the watercourse; morphometric changes, with an emphasis on the narrowing and modification of the channel and the banks; as well as the massive destruction of the riparian zone. This study shows that the application of the RHS methodology is a useful tool for the management of degraded riverside areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Resources)
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Article
Multiscale Temporal Irreversibility of Streamflow and Its Stochastic Modelling
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020063 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
We investigate the impact of time’s arrow on the hourly streamflow process. Although time asymmetry, i.e., temporal irreversibility, has been previously implemented in stochastics, it has only recently attracted attention in the hydrological literature. Relevant studies have shown that the time asymmetry of [...] Read more.
We investigate the impact of time’s arrow on the hourly streamflow process. Although time asymmetry, i.e., temporal irreversibility, has been previously implemented in stochastics, it has only recently attracted attention in the hydrological literature. Relevant studies have shown that the time asymmetry of the streamflow process is manifested at scales up to several days and vanishes at larger scales. The latter highlights the need to reproduce it in flood simulations of fine-scale resolution. To this aim, we develop an enhancement of a recently proposed simulation algorithm for irreversible processes, based on an asymmetric moving average (AMA) scheme that allows for the explicit preservation of time asymmetry at two or more time-scales. The method is successfully applied to a large hourly streamflow time series from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) database, with time asymmetry prominent at time scales up to four days. Full article
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Article
Water Budget Analysis Considering Surface Water–Groundwater Interactions in the Exploitation of Seasonally Varying Agricultural Groundwater
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020060 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
In South Korea, groundwater intended for use in greenhouse cultivation is collected from shallow riverside aquifers as part of agricultural activities during the winter season. This study quantified the effects of intensive groundwater intake on aquifers during the winter and examined the roles [...] Read more.
In South Korea, groundwater intended for use in greenhouse cultivation is collected from shallow riverside aquifers as part of agricultural activities during the winter season. This study quantified the effects of intensive groundwater intake on aquifers during the winter and examined the roles of nearby rivers in this process. Observation data were collected for approximately two years from six wells and two river-level observation points on the study site. Furthermore, the river water levels before and after the weir structures were examined in detail, because they are determined by artificial structures in the river. The structures have significant impacts on the inflow and outflow from the river to the groundwater reservoirs. As a result, a decline in groundwater levels owing to groundwater depletion was observed during the water curtain cultivation (WCC) period in the winter season. In addition, we found that the groundwater level increased owing to groundwater recharge due to rainfall and induced recharge by rivers during the spring–summer period after the end of the WCC period. MODFLOW, a three-dimensional difference model, was used to simulate the groundwater level decreases and increases around the WCC area in Cheongwon-gun. Time-variable recharge data provided by the soil and water assessment tool model, SWAT for watershed hydrology, was used to determine the amount of groundwater recharge that was input to the groundwater model. The groundwater level time series observations collected from observation wells during the two-year simulation period (2012 to 2014) were compared with the simulation values. In addition, to determine the groundwater depletion of the entire demonstration area and the sustainability of the WCC, the quantitative water budget was analyzed using integrated hydrologic analysis. The result indicated that a 2.5 cm groundwater decline occurred on average every year at the study site. Furthermore, an analysis method that reflects the stratification and boundary conditions of underground aquifers, hydrogeologic properties, hydrological factors, and artificial recharge scenarios was established and simulated with injection amounts of 20%, 40%, and 60%. This study suggested a proper artificial recharge method of injecting water by wells using riverside groundwater in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
System Dynamics Modeling for Evaluating Regional Hydrologic and Economic Effects of Irrigation Efficiency Policy
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020061 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Exploring the dynamic mechanisms of coupled sociohydrologic systems is necessary to solve future water sustainability issues. This paper employs system dynamics modeling to determine hydrologic and economic implications of an irrigation efficiency (IE) policy (increased conveyance efficiency and field efficiency) in a coupled [...] Read more.
Exploring the dynamic mechanisms of coupled sociohydrologic systems is necessary to solve future water sustainability issues. This paper employs system dynamics modeling to determine hydrologic and economic implications of an irrigation efficiency (IE) policy (increased conveyance efficiency and field efficiency) in a coupled sociohydrologic system with three climate scenarios. Simulations are conducted within the lower Rio Grande region (LRG) of New Mexico for the years 1969 to 2099, including water, land, capital, and population modules. Quadrant analysis is utilized to compare the IE policy outcomes with the base case and to categorize results of simulations according to hydrologic and economic sustainability. The four categories are beneficial, unacceptable, unsustainable agricultural development, and unsustainable hydrology. Simulation results for the IE policy analyzed here fall into the categories of unsustainable agricultural development or unacceptable, suggesting there are long-term negative effects to regional economies in all scenarios with mixed results for hydrologic variables. IE policy can yield water for redistribution as increased unit water supply in the field produces more deep percolation; however, IE policy sacrifices regional connectivity. Specifically, simulation results show that the policy increases abundance by 4.7–74.5% and return flow by −3.0–9.9%. These positive results, however, come at the cost of decreased hydrologic connectivity (−31.5 to −25.1%) and negative economic impacts (−32.7 to −5.7%). Long-term net depletions in groundwater are also observed from loss of hydrologic connectivity and increased agricultural water demand from projections of increased consumptive use of crops. Adaptive water management that limits water use in drought years and replenishes groundwater in abundant years as well as economic incentives to offset the costs of infrastructure improvements will be necessary for the IE policy to result in sustainable agriculture and water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Hydrology: The New Paradigm in Resilient Water Management)
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Article
Common Pool Resource Management: Assessing Water Resources Planning for Hydrologically Connected Surface and Groundwater Systems
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010051 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Common pool resource (CPR) management has the potential to overcome the collective action dilemma, defined as the tendency for individual users to exploit natural resources and contribute to a tragedy of the commons. Design principles associated with effective CPR management help to ensure [...] Read more.
Common pool resource (CPR) management has the potential to overcome the collective action dilemma, defined as the tendency for individual users to exploit natural resources and contribute to a tragedy of the commons. Design principles associated with effective CPR management help to ensure that arrangements work to the mutual benefit of water users. This study contributes to current research on CPR management by examining the process of implementing integrated management planning through the lens of CPR design principles. Integrated management plans facilitate the management of a complex common pool resource, ground and surface water resources having a hydrological connection. Water governance structures were evaluated through the use of participatory methods and observed records of interannual changes in rainfall, evapotranspiration, and ground water levels across the Northern High Plains. The findings, documented in statutes, field interviews and observed hydrologic variables, point to the potential for addressing large-scale collective action dilemmas, while building on the strengths of local control and participation. The feasibility of a “bottom up” system to foster groundwater resilience was evidenced by reductions in groundwater depths of 2 m in less than a decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Hydrology: The New Paradigm in Resilient Water Management)
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Article
How Perceptions of Trust, Risk, Tap Water Quality, and Salience Characterize Drinking Water Choices
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010049 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Provision of safe drinking water by water utilities is challenged by disturbances to water quality that have become increasingly frequent due to global changes and anthropogenic impacts. Many water utilities are turning to adaptable and flexible strategies to allow for resilient management of [...] Read more.
Provision of safe drinking water by water utilities is challenged by disturbances to water quality that have become increasingly frequent due to global changes and anthropogenic impacts. Many water utilities are turning to adaptable and flexible strategies to allow for resilient management of drinking water supplies. The success of resilience-based management depends on, and is enabled by, positive relationships with the public. To understand how relationships between managers and communities spill over to in-home drinking water behavior, we examined the role of trust, risk perceptions, salience of drinking water, and water quality evaluations in the choice of in-home drinking water sources for a population in Roanoke Virginia. Using survey data, our study characterized patterns of in-home drinking water behavior and explored related perceptions to determine if residents’ perceptions of their water and the municipal water utility could be intuited from this behavior. We characterized drinking water behavior using a hierarchical cluster analysis and highlighted the importance of studying a range of drinking water patterns. Through analyses of variance, we found that people who drink more tap water have higher trust in their water managers, evaluate water quality more favorably, have lower risk perceptions, and pay less attention to changes in their tap water. Utility managers may gauge information about aspects of their relationships with communities by examining drinking water behavior, which can be used to inform their future interactions with the public, with the goal of increasing resilience and adaptability to external water supply threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Hydrology: The New Paradigm in Resilient Water Management)
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Article
Development of a Decision Support System for Sustainable Environmental Management and Stakeholder Engagement
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010040 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Undertaking integrated and sustainable water resources management (ISWRM) and providing socially acceptable solutions with scientifically solid bases is a dynamic and challenging process. Two basic pillars–umbrellas can be identified in the literature: stakeholder engagement and analysis; and integrated monitoring–modelling in the form of [...] Read more.
Undertaking integrated and sustainable water resources management (ISWRM) and providing socially acceptable solutions with scientifically solid bases is a dynamic and challenging process. Two basic pillars–umbrellas can be identified in the literature: stakeholder engagement and analysis; and integrated monitoring–modelling in the form of a decision support system (DSS) that can assess, evaluate and rank the management options. This study presents a framework that can be used as a good-practice example of successful stakeholder engagement (public engagement and collaboration with local communities towards shared visions) and an integrated DSS for ISWRM (including characterisation at catchment and local scales, programmes of measures and their evaluation): the Framework for Integrated Land and Landscape Management (FILLM), developed by an Irish multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder platform, the Water Forum. The fundamental theoretical principles and practical aspects of the FILLM are analysed. A step-by-step guide is proposed for its application, bridging the above pillars, using examples, reviewing methods and software, and analysing challenges and trends. It can help both socio-economic and environmental scientists (modellers) understand each other’s roles and find reviews of useful tools and methods for their work. This work can be a reference point for future ISWRM and environment management and can contribute to holistic education on such topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Land Use Changes on Hydrological Processes and Modelling)
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Article
Risk Assessment of Future Climate and Land Use/Land Cover Change Impacts on Water Resources
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010038 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Climate and land use and land cover (LULC) changes will impact watershed-scale water resources. These systemic alterations will have interacting influences on water availability. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) framework for water resource impact analysis from future systemic change is described and implemented [...] Read more.
Climate and land use and land cover (LULC) changes will impact watershed-scale water resources. These systemic alterations will have interacting influences on water availability. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) framework for water resource impact analysis from future systemic change is described and implemented to examine combined climate and LULC change impacts from 2011–2100 for a study site in west-central Texas. Internally, the PRA framework provides probabilistic simulation of reference and future conditions using weather generator and water balance models in series—one weather generator and water balance model for reference and one of each for future conditions. To quantify future conditions uncertainty, framework results are the magnitude of change in water availability, from the comparison of simulated reference and future conditions, and likelihoods for each change. Inherent advantages of the framework formulation for analyzing future risk are the explicit incorporation of reference conditions to avoid additional scenario-based analysis of reference conditions and climate change emissions scenarios. In the case study application, an increase in impervious area from economic development is the LULC change; it generates a 1.1 times increase in average water availability, relative to future climate trends, from increased runoff and decreased transpiration. Full article
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Article
Seasonal and Ephemeral Snowpacks of the Conterminous United States
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010032 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Snowpack seasonality in the conterminous United States (U.S.) is examined using a recently-released daily, 4 km spatial resolution gridded snow water equivalent and snow depth product developed by assimilating station-based observations and gridded temperature and precipitation estimates from PRISM. Seasonal snowpacks for the [...] Read more.
Snowpack seasonality in the conterminous United States (U.S.) is examined using a recently-released daily, 4 km spatial resolution gridded snow water equivalent and snow depth product developed by assimilating station-based observations and gridded temperature and precipitation estimates from PRISM. Seasonal snowpacks for the period spanning water years 1982–2017 were calculated using two established methods: (1) the classic Sturm approach that requires 60 days of snow cover with a peak depth >50 cm and (2) the snow seasonality metric (SSM) that only requires 60 days of continuous snow cover to define seasonal snow. The latter approach yields continuous values from −1 to +1, where −1 (+1) indicates an ephemeral (seasonal) snowpack. The SSM approach is novel in its ability to identify both seasonal and ephemeral snowpacks. Both approaches identify seasonal snowpacks in western U.S. mountains and the northern central and eastern U.S. The SSM approach identifies greater areas of seasonal snowpacks compared to the Sturm method, particularly in the Upper Midwest, New England, and the Intermountain West. This is a result of the relaxed depth constraint compared to the Sturm approach. Ephemeral snowpacks exist throughout lower elevation regions of the western U.S. and across a broad longitudinal swath centered near 35° N spanning the lee of the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic coast. Because it lacks a depth constraint, the SSM approach may inform the location of shallow but long-duration snowpacks at risk of transitioning to ephemeral snowpacks with climatic change. A case study in Oregon during an extreme snow drought year (2014/2015) highlights seasonal to ephemeral snowpack transitions. Aggregating seasonal and ephemeral snowpacks to the HUC-8 watershed level in the western U.S. demonstrates the majority of watersheds are at risk of losing seasonal snow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Land Surface Hydrological Processes)
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Article
Numerical Modeling of Venturi Flume
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010027 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
In order to measure flow rate in open channels, including irrigation channels, hydraulic structures are used with a relatively high degree of reliance. Venturi flumes are among the most common and efficient type, and they can measure discharge using only the water level [...] Read more.
In order to measure flow rate in open channels, including irrigation channels, hydraulic structures are used with a relatively high degree of reliance. Venturi flumes are among the most common and efficient type, and they can measure discharge using only the water level at a specific point within the converging section and an empirical discharge relationship. There have been a limited number of attempts to simulate a venturi flume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to improve the accuracy of the readings and empirical formula. In this study, simulations on different flumes were carried out using a total of seven different models, including the standard k–ε, RNG k–ε, realizable k–ε, k–ω, and k–ω SST models. Furthermore, large-eddy simulation (LES) and detached eddy simulation (DES) were performed. Comparison of the simulated results with physical test data shows that among the turbulence models, the k–ε model provides the most accurate results, followed by the dynamic k LES model when compared to the physical experimental data. The overall margin of error was around 2–3%, meaning that the simulation model can be reliably used to estimate the discharge in the channel. In different cross-sections within the flume, the k–ε model provides the lowest percentage of error, i.e., 1.93%. This shows that the water surface data are well calculated by the model, as the water surface profiles also follow the same vertical curvilinear path as the experimental data. Full article
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Article
Robust Vegetation Parameterization for Green Roofs in the EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010012 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
In increasingly expanding cities, roofs are still largely unused areas to counteract the negative impacts of urbanization on the water balance and to reduce flooding. To estimate the effect of green roofs as a sustainable low impact development (LID) technique on the building [...] Read more.
In increasingly expanding cities, roofs are still largely unused areas to counteract the negative impacts of urbanization on the water balance and to reduce flooding. To estimate the effect of green roofs as a sustainable low impact development (LID) technique on the building scale, different approaches to predict the runoff are carried out. In hydrological modelling, representing vegetation feedback on evapotranspiration (ET) is still considered challenging. In this research article, the focus is on improving the representation of the coupled soil–vegetation system of green roofs. Relevant data to calibrate and validate model representations were obtained from an existing field campaign comprising several green roof test plots with different characteristics. A coupled model, utilizing both the Penman–Monteith equation to estimate ET and the software EPA stormwater management model (SWMM) to calculate the runoff, was set up. Through the application of an automatic calibration procedure, we demonstrate that this coupled modelling approach (Kling–Gupta efficiency KGE = 0.88) outperforms the standard ET representation in EPA SWMM (KGE = −0.35), whilst providing a consistent and robust parameter set across all green roof configurations. Moreover, through a global sensitivity analysis, the impact of changes in model parameters was quantified in order to aid modelers in simplifying their parameterization of EPA SWMM. Finally, an improved model using the Penman–Monteith equation and various recommendations are presented. Full article
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Article
Resolution-Dependent Perspectives on Caribbean Hydro-Climate Change
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040093 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data [...] Read more.
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data to understand the leading mode of seasonal hydro-climate variability and its regional controls. The spatial loadings reflect wet islands in a dry marine climate, while temporal amplitude is modulated by the large-scale zonal circulation. When summer-time trade winds weaken, daytime confluence around Caribbean islands enlarges, gathering and lifting more moisture. In addition to the static geographic forcing, transient easterly waves impart the majority of marine rainfall between June and September. Higher resolution products capture the thermal orographic effect and reveal upward trends in island rainfall and soil moisture over the satellite era, while lower resolution products miss this effect. The climate of mountainous Caribbean islands is trending toward increased runoff and soil moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
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Article
Significance and Causality in Continuous Wavelet and Wavelet Coherence Spectra Applied to Hydrological Time Series
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040082 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Wavelet transform, wavelet spectra, and coherence are popular tools for studying fluctuations in time series in the form of a bidimensional time and scale representation. We discuss two aspects of wavelet analysis—namely the significance and stochastic/deterministic character of the wavelet spectra. Real-time series [...] Read more.
Wavelet transform, wavelet spectra, and coherence are popular tools for studying fluctuations in time series in the form of a bidimensional time and scale representation. We discuss two aspects of wavelet analysis—namely the significance and stochastic/deterministic character of the wavelet spectra. Real-time series of discharge, sodium, and sulfate concentrations in the alpine Rhône River, Switzerland, are used to illustrate these issues. First, the consequences of using an arbitrary stochastic process (usually, AR (1)) instead of the best-fitted general ARMA process in the evaluation of the significance of wavelet spectra are analyzed. Using a general ARMA instead of AR (1) decreases the significance level of the differences in wavelet power spectra (WPS) of ARMA and AR (1) compared to the WPS of the time series in all cases studied and points to a possible systematic overestimation of significance in many published studies. Besides, the significance of particular patches in the spectra is affected by multiple testing. A (conservative) way to circumvent this problem, using global wavelet spectra and global coherence spectra, is evaluated. Finally, we discuss the issue of causality and investigated it in the three measured time series mentioned above. Even if the use of the best fitted ARMA pointed to no deterministic features being present in the corrected series studied (i.e., stochastic processes are dominant in the three data series), coherence spectra between variables allowed to reveal cause-effect relationships between two “coherent” variables and/or the existence of a common effect on both variables. Therefore, such type of analysis provides a useful tool to better understand data causal relationships. Full article
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Article
A New Physically-Based Spatially-Distributed Groundwater Flow Module for SWAT+
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040075 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven [...] Read more.
Watershed models are used worldwide to assist with water and nutrient management under conditions of changing climate, land use, and population. Of these models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT+ are the most widely used, although their performance in groundwater-driven watersheds can sometimes be poor due to a simplistic representation of groundwater processes. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new physically-based spatially-distributed groundwater flow module called gwflow for the SWAT+ watershed model. The module is embedded in the SWAT+ modeling code and is intended to replace the current SWAT+ aquifer module. The model accounts for recharge from SWAT+ Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), lateral flow within the aquifer, Evapotranspiration (ET) from shallow groundwater, groundwater pumping, groundwater–surface water interactions through the streambed, and saturation excess flow. Groundwater head and groundwater storage are solved throughout the watershed domain using a water balance equation for each grid cell. The modified SWAT+ modeling code is applied to the Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) (327 km2) in southern Georgia, USA for demonstration purposes. Using the gwflow module for the LREW increased run-time by 20% compared to the original SWAT+ modeling code. Results from an uncalibrated model are compared against streamflow discharge and groundwater head time series. Although further calibration is required if the LREW model is to be used for scenario analysis, results highlight the capabilities of the new SWAT+ code to simulate both land surface and subsurface hydrological processes and represent the watershed-wide water balance. Using the modified SWAT+ model can provide physically realistic groundwater flow gradients, fluxes, and interactions with streams for modeling studies that assess water supply and conservation practices. This paper also serves as a tutorial on modeling groundwater flow for general watershed modelers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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Article
Development and Evaluation of a Water Quality Index for the Iraqi Rivers
Hydrology 2020, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7030067 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 4737
Abstract
Water quality evaluation is fundamental for water resources management. Water quality index (WQI) is an accurate and easily understandable method for assessing water quality for different purposes. In this study, the Iraqi water quality index (Iraq WQI) was constructed to be used to [...] Read more.
Water quality evaluation is fundamental for water resources management. Water quality index (WQI) is an accurate and easily understandable method for assessing water quality for different purposes. In this study, the Iraqi water quality index (Iraq WQI) was constructed to be used to evaluate the Iraqi rivers for drinking. For this purpose, some statistical techniques, experts’ advice, literature reviews, and authors’ experience were used. First, the principal component analysis (PCA) method and the modified Delphi method were used to select the most influential water quality parameters and their relative weights. Second, the quality curves of selected parameters were drawn to calculate the WQI scores basing on the water quality standards. Of twenty-seven parameters, six parameters were chosen to be within the index depending on their effect on water quality in order to reflect the specific characteristics of the Iraqi waters. The Iraq WQI was applied to the Tigris River within Baghdad as a case study and for some sites on other Iraqi rivers, and gave acceptable results. Results revealed that the statistical techniques used in this paper can be applied in all Iraqi rivers considering their specific characteristics. Based on the reliability of the Iraq WQI, there is no longer a need to use Indices designed for water for other countries. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Groundwater Level Prediction Model Based on Hybrid KNN-RF Technique
Hydrology 2020, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7030059 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
Reliable seasonal prediction of groundwater levels is not always possible when the quality and the amount of available on-site groundwater data are limited. In the present work, a hybrid K-Nearest Neighbor-Random Forest (KNN-RF) is used for the prediction of variations in groundwater levels [...] Read more.
Reliable seasonal prediction of groundwater levels is not always possible when the quality and the amount of available on-site groundwater data are limited. In the present work, a hybrid K-Nearest Neighbor-Random Forest (KNN-RF) is used for the prediction of variations in groundwater levels (L) of an aquifer with the groundwater relatively close to the surface (<10 m) is proposed. First, the time-series smoothing methods are applied to improve the quality of groundwater data. Then, the ensemble K-Nearest Neighbor-Random Forest (KNN-RF) model is treated using hydro-climatic data for the prediction of variations in the levels of the groundwater tables up to three months ahead. Climatic and groundwater data collected from eastern Rwanda were used for validation of the model on a rolling window basis. Potential predictors were: the observed daily mean temperature (T), precipitation (P), and daily maximum solar radiation (S). Previous day’s precipitation P (t − 1), solar radiation S (t), temperature T (t), and groundwater level L (t) showed the highest variation in the fluctuations of the groundwater tables. The KNN-RF model presents its results in an intelligible manner. Experimental results have confirmed the high performance of the proposed model in terms of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Nash–Sutcliffe (NSE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Full article
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Article
Dimensionless Stage-Discharge Relationship for a Non-Linear Water Reservoir: Theory and Experiments
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020023 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
In the field of hydrology, stage–discharge relationships are commonly used to estimate the discharge at the basin outlet or by experimental plots. Many experimental efforts have been made in order to derive stage–discharge relationships, according to the Buckingham theorem and dimensional analysis, for [...] Read more.
In the field of hydrology, stage–discharge relationships are commonly used to estimate the discharge at the basin outlet or by experimental plots. Many experimental efforts have been made in order to derive stage–discharge relationships, according to the Buckingham theorem and dimensional analysis, for a multiplicity of gauge geometry. However, these relationships require experimental and physical meaningless numerical coefficients, thus they need extended calibration. The latter issue merits attention, since the empirical coefficients can be applied when the experimental conditions are strictly reproduced in the field. The aim of this paper is to derive a theoretically based stage–discharge relationship of a non-linear water reservoir that requires limited calibration, by using the continuity equation and the principle of conservation of energy. An analysis was performed using a rectangular water tank with a hole at the bottom. However, the suggested approach can be similarly used for tank geometries that differ from the example used in this study. Since the proposed approach is purely hydraulic, only limited calibration of the physical meaningful discharge coefficient characteristic of the hole is needed. A tank design procedure is suggested, and different theoretical and experimental applications of the proposed methodology are performed and discussed. For the considered cases, the mass water balance was also checked. Full article
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Article
Hydrological Model for Sustainable Development in the Aral Sea Region
Hydrology 2019, 6(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6040091 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Possible scenarios of the Aral Sea crisis solution are discussed, and a new scenario is proposed. Previous scenarios have provided for the transfer of water from Siberian Rivers to Central Asia and the restriction of unsustainable expansion of irrigation in this region. The [...] Read more.
Possible scenarios of the Aral Sea crisis solution are discussed, and a new scenario is proposed. Previous scenarios have provided for the transfer of water from Siberian Rivers to Central Asia and the restriction of unsustainable expansion of irrigation in this region. The scenario proposed in this paper is partly based on the use of Caspian water evaporators located on the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. Engineering realization of this scenario needs only the construction of the drainage system for the runoff of Caspian waters to the natural evaporators, between which Kara-Bogaz-Gol is the functioning evaporator. This paper shows that realization of this scenario allows the rescue of the Aral Sea and normalization of the water balance in Central Asia. Under this, as the simulation modeling results show, there exist different versions of the scenario depending on the area of evaporators and restrictions for the runoff of Amu Darya and Syr Darya waters to the irrigation systems. Calculation results show that the Aral Sea could be restored within 90–240 years depending on the scenario versions. With only Kara-Bogaz-Gol as the evaporator, the Aral Sea cannot be restored within a century. Additionally, if the anthropogenic runoff of river waters was decreased by 10 percent, the Aral Sea would be restored over about 90 years. Possible versions of the recovery scenario are discussed and assessed. Full article
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Article
Calibration of NSRP Models from Extreme Value Distributions
Hydrology 2019, 6(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6040089 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
In this work, the authors investigated the feasibility of calibrating a model which is suitable for the generation of continuous high-resolution rainfall series, by using only data from annual maximum rainfall (AMR) series, which are usually longer than continuous high-resolution data, or they [...] Read more.
In this work, the authors investigated the feasibility of calibrating a model which is suitable for the generation of continuous high-resolution rainfall series, by using only data from annual maximum rainfall (AMR) series, which are usually longer than continuous high-resolution data, or they are the unique available data set for many locations. In detail, the basic version of the Neyman–Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP) model was considered, and numerical experiments were carried out, in order to analyze which parameters can mostly influence the extreme value frequency distributions, and whether heavy rainfall reproduction can be improved with respect to the usual calibration with continuous data. The obtained results were highly promising, as the authors found acceptable relationships among extreme value distributions and statistical properties of intensity and duration for the pulses. Moreover, the proposed procedure is flexible, and it is clearly applicable for a generic rainfall generator, in which probability distributions and shape of the pulses, and extreme value distributions can assume any mathematical expression. Full article
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Article
Doing Hydrology Backwards—Analytic Solution Connecting Streamflow Oscillations at the Basin Outlet to Average Evaporation on a Hillslope
Hydrology 2019, 6(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6040085 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
The concept of doing hydrology backwards, introduced in the literature in the last decade, relies on the possibility to invert the equations relating streamflow fluctuations at the catchment outlet to estimated hydrological forcings throughout the basin. In this work, we use a recently [...] Read more.
The concept of doing hydrology backwards, introduced in the literature in the last decade, relies on the possibility to invert the equations relating streamflow fluctuations at the catchment outlet to estimated hydrological forcings throughout the basin. In this work, we use a recently developed set of equations connecting streamflow oscillations at the catchment outlet to baseflow oscillations at the hillslope scale. The hillslope-scale oscillations are then used to infer the pattern of evaporation needed for streamflow oscillations to occur. The inversion is illustrated using two conceptual models of movement of water in the subsurface with different levels of complexity, but still simple enough to demonstrate our approach. Our work is limited to environments where diel oscillations in streamflow are a strong signal in streamflow data. We demonstrate our methodology by applying it to data collected in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho and show that the hydrology backwards principles yield results that are well within the order of magnitude of daily evapotranspiration fluctuations. Our analytic results are generic and they encourage the development of experimental campaigns to validate integrated hydrological models and test implicit parameterization assumptions. Full article
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Article
Flood Hazard Analysis of Proposed Regulator on Shatt Al-Arab River
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030080 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Recently, the Shatt Al-Arab River has suffered from increased salinization of its water due to the reduction of freshwater from its tributaries, mainly from the Tigris River, which has resulted in long-distance salinity intrusion. Therefore, there is a need to establish a regulator [...] Read more.
Recently, the Shatt Al-Arab River has suffered from increased salinization of its water due to the reduction of freshwater from its tributaries, mainly from the Tigris River, which has resulted in long-distance salinity intrusion. Therefore, there is a need to establish a regulator in the Abu-Flus district to prevent salt intrusion. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a proposed regulator on the Shatt Al-Arab River with simulations using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) model. The upstream boundary conditions were the daily discharges of Tigris River and the downstream boundary conditions were the hourly water stages of the Shatt Al-Arab River. The river model was operated by using the daily discharges recorded in 2014 for calibration and verification of the model. Then, a program operated with a suggested regulator and a flood wave assumed a 200 m3/s peak flow for a duration of 27 days. The flooding occurrence period of the flood wave was investigated under the effect of three study cases of regulator gates, which were fully open (case B1), tide gate (case B2), and fully closed (case B3). The results showed that flooding inundation occurred only in two cases (B2 and B3). These results will encourage the construction of the regulator considering certain precautions. Full article
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Article
Copula-Based Bivariate Flood Risk Assessment on Tarbela Dam, Pakistan
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030079 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3117
Abstract
Flooding from the Indus river and its tributaries has regularly influenced the region of Pakistan. Therefore, in order to limit the misfortune brought about by these inevitable happenings, it requires taking measures to estimate the occurrence and effects of these events. The current [...] Read more.
Flooding from the Indus river and its tributaries has regularly influenced the region of Pakistan. Therefore, in order to limit the misfortune brought about by these inevitable happenings, it requires taking measures to estimate the occurrence and effects of these events. The current study uses flood frequency analysis for the forecast of floods along the Indus river of Pakistan (Tarbela). The peak and volume are the characteristics of a flood that commonly depend on one another. For progressively proficient hazard investigation, a bivariate copula method is used to measure the peak and volume. A univariate analysis of flood data fails to capture the multivariate nature of these data. Copula is the most common technique used for a multivariate analysis of flood data. In this paper, four Archimedean copulas have been tried using the available information, and in light of graphical and measurable tests, the Gumbel Hougaard copula was found to be most appropriate for the data used in this paper. The primary (TAND, TOR), conditional and Kendall return periods have been also determined. The copula method was found to be a powerful method for the distribution of marginal variables. It also gives the Kendall return period for the multivariate analysis the consequences of flooding. Full article
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Article
A Simplistic Approach for Assessing Hydroclimatic Vulnerability of Lakes and Reservoirs with Regulated Superficial Outflow
Hydrology 2019, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6030061 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et [...] Read more.
This study proposes a simplistic model for assessing the hydroclimatic vulnerability of lakes/reservoirs (LRs) that preserve their steady-state conditions based on regulated superficial discharge (Qd) out of the LR drainage basin. The model is a modification of the Bracht-Flyr et al. method that was initially proposed for natural lakes in closed basins with no superficial discharge outside the basin (Qd = 0) and under water-limited environmental conditions {mean annual ratio of potential/reference evapotranspiration (ETo) versus rainfall (P) greater than 1}. In the proposed modified approach, an additional Qd function is included. The modified model is applied using as a case study the Oreastiada Lake, which is located inside the Kastoria basin in Greece. Six years of observed data of P, ETo, Qd, and lake topography were used to calibrate the modified model based on the current conditions. The calibrated model was also used to assess the future lake conditions based on the future climatic projections (mean conditions of 2061-2080) derived by 19 general circulation models (GCMs) for three cases of climate change (three cases of Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The modified method can be used as a diagnostic tool in water-limited environments for analyzing the superficial discharge changes of LRs under different climatic conditions and to support the design of new management strategies for mitigating the impact of climate change on (a) flooding conditions, (b) hydroelectric production, (c) irrigation/industrial/domestic use and (d) minimum ecological flows to downstream rivers. Full article
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Article
Effects of Bias-Correcting Climate Model Data on the Projection of Future Changes in High Flows
Hydrology 2019, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6020046 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Bias-correction methods are commonly applied to climate model data in hydrological climate impact studies. This is due to the often large deviations between simulated and observed climate variables. These biases may cause unrealistic simulation results when directly using the climate model data as [...] Read more.
Bias-correction methods are commonly applied to climate model data in hydrological climate impact studies. This is due to the often large deviations between simulated and observed climate variables. These biases may cause unrealistic simulation results when directly using the climate model data as input for hydrological models. Our analysis of the EURO-CORDEX (Coordinated Downscaling Experiment for Europe) data for the Northwestern part of Germany showed substantial biases for all climatological input variables needed by the hydrological model PANTA RHEI. The sensitivity for climatological input data demonstrated that changes in only one climate variable significantly affect the simulated average discharge and mean annual peak flow. The application of bias correction methods of different complexity on the climate model data improved the plausibility of hydrological modeling results for the historical period 1971–2000. The projections for the future period 2069–2099 for high flows indicate on average small changes for representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and an increase of approximately 10% for RCP8.5 when applying non-bias corrected climate model data. These values significantly differed when applying bias correction. The bias correction methods were evaluated in terms of their ability to (a) maintain the change signal for precipitation and (b) the goodness of fit for hydrological parameters for the historical period. Our results for this evaluation indicated that no bias correction method can explicitly be preferred over the others. Full article
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