Special Issue "Essential Oils"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Esther Sendra

AgroFood Technology Department, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Miguel Hernández University, Orihuela, Spain
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Interests: dairy foods; functional dairy products: probiotics, prebiotics and fibers; effect of animal feeding on milk quality and properties; foods of animal origin; quality and product development and improvement; fatty acid analysis of foods; gas chromatography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 

Essential oils (EOs) have a long history of being used in foods as flavor agents and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, mainly for topical uses. In recent years, other applications of EOs are under study, such as their use in foods as antioxidant and antimicrobials, as well as their incorporation into foods to gain benefit from their bioactive properties. Health promoting properties, recently linked to aromatic and medicinal plants, as well as to their EOs, are increasingly growing, examples include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, among others. A huge number of traditionally used plants are being evaluated for the composition and potential benefits from their EOs. Several issues need to be addressed in the near future regarding EOs application to foods, such as compatibility with other food ingredients, incorporation into packaging systems, interactions with other ingredients, in vivo effects, bioavailability of active compounds, determination of admissible daily intake, or maximum doses to be used in food.

Prof. Dr. Esther Sendra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • essential oils
  • food-related microorganisms
  • antimicrobial activity
  • action mechanisms
  • antioxidant activity
  • GC-MS
  • volatile compounds

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Essential Oils in Foods: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century
Received: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have been used since ancient times. Essential oils (EO) are a mixture of numerous compounds, mainly terpenes, alcohols, acids, esters, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones,aminesandsulfides,thatareprobablyproducedbyplantsasaresponsetostress[1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with [...] Read more.
An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol under normal and heat stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Pelargonium capitatum × radens and Laurus nobilis L.
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood, [...] Read more.
Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood, rose-scented geranium and bay laurel against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and to examine consumer acceptability of fresh produce treated with these essential oils. Our results showed that essential oil derived from rose-scented geranium exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity at the same and similar minimum inhibition concentration levels (0.4%, v/v and 0.4% and 0.5%, v/v) respectively against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. All three essential oils showed antioxidant properties, with the highest activity occurring in bay laurel essential oil. In a sensory test, tomatoes, cantaloupe and spinach sprayed with 0.4% rose-scented geranium essential oil received higher scores by panelists. In conclusion, rose-scented geranium essential oil could be developed into a natural antimicrobial to prevent contamination of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce, plus this oil would provide additional health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of its residue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Essential Oils and Combination of Copper and Lactic Acid on the Growth of E. coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium
Received: 6 December 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we compared the effectiveness of armoise and clove bud essential oils (EOs) and the combination of low concentrations of copper (Cu) and lactic acid (LA) against E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory medium. Three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC700599, [...] Read more.
In this study, we compared the effectiveness of armoise and clove bud essential oils (EOs) and the combination of low concentrations of copper (Cu) and lactic acid (LA) against E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory medium. Three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC700599, ATCC51659, and ATCC43895) were used in this study. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the turbidity of a broth medium and by determination of bacterial populations. Our results showed that armoise (0.15% v/v), clove bud (0.1% v/v) EOs, or Cu (50 ppm) in combination with LA (0.2% v/v) caused a minimum 5.0 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in the laboratory medium. Cu in combination with LA may thus be preferable to EOs in food in order to control the growth of foodborne pathogens. In addition, the combination treatment of Cu and LA could provide the food industry with a practical approach to reducing the risk of foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan
Foods 2015, 4(4), 645-653; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods4040645
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)

Other

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Open AccessErratum
Correction: Ghasemi, M., et al. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions Foods 2016, 5, 56
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils)
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