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Appl. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 18 (September-2 2023) – 561 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, an innovative approach concerning the investigation of the human heart is introduced, employing state-of-the-art technologies. In particular, sophisticated algorithms were developed to automatically reconstruct a 3D model of a human heart based on DICOM data and to segment the main parts that constitute it. Regarding the reconstructed 3D model, a diagnosis of the examined patient can be derived, whereas in the present study, a clinical case involving the coarctation of the aorta was inspected. The outcomes of the computation analysis coupled with the segmented patient-specific 3D model were inserted into a virtual reality environment, where clinicians can visualize the blood flow at the vessel walls and train on real-life medical scenarios, enhancing their procedural understanding prior to the actual operation. View this paper
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12 pages, 892 KiB  
Communication
Automatic Needle Route Proposal in Preoperative Neck CT for Injection Laryngoplasty
by Walid Abdullah Al, Wonjae Cha and Il Dong Yun
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10554; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810554 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 964
Abstract
Transcutaneous injection laryngoplasty (TIL) is a commonly used method to treat vocal fold paresis, where the affected vocal folds are augmented through injection. Determining the injection site and route is a major step during the preprocedural planning of TIL. In this communication, we [...] Read more.
Transcutaneous injection laryngoplasty (TIL) is a commonly used method to treat vocal fold paresis, where the affected vocal folds are augmented through injection. Determining the injection site and route is a major step during the preprocedural planning of TIL. In this communication, we propose and investigate an automatic method for needle route computation in preoperative neck CT. Recently, deep reinforcement learning (RL) agents showed noteworthy results for localizing the vocal folds. In this work, we focus on finding the optimal needle trajectory from the neck skin to the vocal folds localized by such RL agents. Identifying critical structures and constraints in the medical routine, we propose a minimal cost-based search to find the optimal path. Furthermore, we evaluate the proposed method with neck CT volumes from 136 patients, where it is shown that our computed needle paths have high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Approaches for Medical Image Analysis)
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14 pages, 10323 KiB  
Article
Research on the RVE of the Calculated Strength of River Ice at the Mesoscale in the Freezing Period of the Yellow River
by Yu Deng, Juan Wang and Jiao Zhou
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10553; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810553 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Microscopic fabric changes are the main reason for the complex physical and material properties of Yellow River ice at the macroscale. To study the physical and material properties of Yellow River ice, Yellow River ice was taken as the research object, and definition [...] Read more.
Microscopic fabric changes are the main reason for the complex physical and material properties of Yellow River ice at the macroscale. To study the physical and material properties of Yellow River ice, Yellow River ice was taken as the research object, and definition and determination methods for the representative volume element (RVE) of the Yellow River ice based on its computed strength at the microscale were proposed. A micromechanical numerical model for Yellow River ice was built, the corresponding macromechanical properties were simulated, and the RVE size of the macromechanical strength of the Yellow River ice was determined to be 250 mm. The uniaxial compressive strength of river ice in different working conditions was simulated and analyzed, and the accuracy and effectiveness of the RVE of the calculated strength of river ice were verified. The research results provide a reference for analyzing the damage process of Yellow River ice at the microscopic level, providing a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism of Yellow River ice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation and Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Composite Materials)
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12 pages, 4956 KiB  
Article
A Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Computational Simulation Method for Soil–Rock Mixtures Considering Grain Crushing
by Zhengsheng Li, Haiyang Yi, Yiming Xu, Gangqiang Li and Zhuang Zhuo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10552; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810552 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
A new 3D mesoscale computational approach to simulate the mechanical behavior of soil–rock mixtures (SRMs) with the consideration of the grain-crushing process is proposed in this study. The proposed approach adopts a random SRM mesostructure generation algorithm to create a random SRM structure. [...] Read more.
A new 3D mesoscale computational approach to simulate the mechanical behavior of soil–rock mixtures (SRMs) with the consideration of the grain-crushing process is proposed in this study. The proposed approach adopts a random SRM mesostructure generation algorithm to create a random SRM structure. Based on the generated mesostructure, the whole simulation area is divided into discrete cubic numbers, and the mesostructure is transformed into a material distribution matrix as an input for the computational approach. The computational approach is achieved by the coupling calculation of Matlab and COMSOL. Theimulations are presented alongside experimental data to validate the efficiency of the proposed approach. The simulation results indicate that the proposed computational approach can accurately capture the mechanical behavior of SRMs under loadings. This method helps to predict the physical properties of SRMs and has promising applications in engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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14 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Dioxide Gas Levels in TBM Tunnel Construction with Diesel Locomotives Based on Directive 2017/164/EU
by Hector Garcia-Gonzalez, Rafael Rodriguez and Marc Bascompta
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10551; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810551 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Directive 2017/164/EU proposed a drastic reduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels, thereby fortifying the health protection framework within the mining industry. Despite the commendable record of non-road emissions standards (Stage IV and V) in continuing to reduce [...] Read more.
Directive 2017/164/EU proposed a drastic reduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels, thereby fortifying the health protection framework within the mining industry. Despite the commendable record of non-road emissions standards (Stage IV and V) in continuing to reduce NOx emissions, concerns remain about compliance with the directive’s strict limits, particularly in demanding tunnels and mining fields. To illustrate this problem, this study undertakes a comprehensive assessment of the practical feasibility surrounding the implementation of these proposed limits in a 6.2 internal diameter tunnel-boring machine (TBM) tunnel constructed with Stage III emission locomotives. The results cast light upon the formidable challenges entailed in achieving strict compliance with the envisioned limits, with a substantial number of measurements notably surpassing these thresholds, primarily concerning NO2 emissions from Stage III engines. To address these challenges, this study highlights the key role of moving to Stage IV-V locomotives or introducing electric locomotives to effectively reduce NOx emissions, ensure compliance with the directive, and avoid delays in tunnel construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Underground Engineering: Excavation, Monitoring, and Control)
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10 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Strength of Mine Residue Soil by Bioremediation Combined with Biopolymers
by António A. S. Correia, Joana B. Caldeira, Rita Branco and Paula V. Morais
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10550; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810550 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Traditional soil stabilization methods are usually associated with high energy consumption, carbon emissions, and long-term environmental impact. Recent developments have shown the potential use of bio-based techniques as eco-friendly alternatives for soil stabilization. The present work studies the effects of the addition of [...] Read more.
Traditional soil stabilization methods are usually associated with high energy consumption, carbon emissions, and long-term environmental impact. Recent developments have shown the potential use of bio-based techniques as eco-friendly alternatives for soil stabilization. The present work studies the effects of the addition of the biopolymers xanthan gum (XG) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a mine residue soil, combined or not with biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques, in terms of compressive stress–strain behavior. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed on previously disturbed samples (two cycles of percolation, extraction and homogenization) to evaluate if the biostimulation and bioremediation remain active in a real adverse scenario. The results allowed for us to conclude that both biopolymers, when applied individually (with a content of 1%), are effective stabilizers (CMC allows for unconfined compressive strength increases of up to 109%), showing better results for CMC than Portland cement. The biostimulation of the autochthonous community of the mine residue soil was revealed to be a non-effective technique, even when combined with the biopolymers. However, good results were observed when the bioaugmentation was combined with xanthan gum, with unconfined compressive strength improvements of up to 27%. The study revealed that these bio-based techniques are promising soil engineering techniques, offering environmentally friendly alternatives for sustainable soil stabilization and contributing to a greener and more sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Geotechnics)
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17 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Compounds from Commiphora myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. Resin and Their Promising Application with Biochar
by Jin Woo Kim, Saerom Park, Young Whan Sung, Hak Jin Song, Sung Woo Yang, Jiwoo Han, Jeong Wook Jo, Im-Soon Lee, Sang Hyun Lee, Yong-Keun Choi and Hyung Joo Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10549; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810549 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Commiphora myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts were prepared via immersion in extraction solvents (hot water, DMSO, hexane, ethanol, and methanol) which have various physical properties, such as different polarity and dielectric constant values. Methanolic C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts showed broad antibacterial [...] Read more.
Commiphora myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts were prepared via immersion in extraction solvents (hot water, DMSO, hexane, ethanol, and methanol) which have various physical properties, such as different polarity and dielectric constant values. Methanolic C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts showed broad antibacterial activity against isolated airborne bacteria. All methanolic C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts were analyzed using GC-MS and Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and curzerene were found as the main terpenoids. In addition, the methanolic C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts were found to have antiviral activity (81.2% viral RNA inhibition) against the H1N1 influenza virus. Biochars (wood powder- and rice husk-derived) coated with C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extracts also showed antiviral activity (22.6% and 24.3% viral RNA inhibition) due to the adsorption of terpenoids onto biochar. C. myrrha (T.Nees) Engl. resin extract using methanol as the extraction solvent is a promising agent with antibacterial and antiviral efficacy that can be utilized as a novel material via adsorption onto biochar for air filtration processes, cosmetics, fertilizers, drug delivery, and corrosion inhibition. Full article
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17 pages, 7430 KiB  
Article
Temporal Resolution of Acoustic Process Emissions for Monitoring Joint Gap Formation in Laser Beam Butt Welding
by Sayako Kodera, Leander Schmidt, Florian Römer, Klaus Schricker, Saichand Gourishetti, David Böttger, Tanja Krüger, András Kátai, Benjamin Straß, Bernd Wolter and Jean Pierre Bergmann
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10548; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810548 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
With the increasing power and speed of laser welding, in-process monitoring has become even more crucial to ensure process stability and weld quality. Due to its low cost and installation flexibility, acoustic process monitoring is a promising method and has demonstrated its effectiveness. [...] Read more.
With the increasing power and speed of laser welding, in-process monitoring has become even more crucial to ensure process stability and weld quality. Due to its low cost and installation flexibility, acoustic process monitoring is a promising method and has demonstrated its effectiveness. Although its feasibility has been the focus of existing studies, the temporal resolution of acoustic emissions (AE) has not yet been addressed despite its utmost importance for realizing real-time systems. Aiming to provide a benchmark for further development, this study investigates the relationship between duration and informativeness of AE signals during high-power (3.5 kW) and high-speed (12 m/min) laser beam butt welding. Specifically, the informativeness of AE signals is evaluated based on the accuracy of detecting and quantifying joint gaps for various time windows of signals, yielding numerical comparison. The obtained results show that signals can be shortened up to a certain point without sacrificing their informativeness, encouraging the optimization of the signal duration. Our results also suggest that large gaps (>0.3mm) induce unique signal characteristics in AE, which are clearly identifiable from 1 ms signal segments, equivalent to 0.2mm weld seam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Laser Machining Technology)
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14 pages, 3399 KiB  
Article
State of Charge Estimation for Power Battery Using Improved Extended Kalman Filter Method Based on Neural Network
by Xiaoyu Liu and Xiang Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10547; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810547 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
In order to enhance the accuracy of the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm in the estimation of the state of charge (SoC) of power batteries, we first derived the state space equation and measurement equation of lithium power batteries based on the [...] Read more.
In order to enhance the accuracy of the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm in the estimation of the state of charge (SoC) of power batteries, we first derived the state space equation and measurement equation of lithium power batteries based on the Thevenin battery model and the modified Ampere-Hour integral algorithm. Then, the basic principles of EKF, backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs), and a biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm were analyzed, and the arc curve mobility model was used to improve the global search ability of the BBO algorithm. By combining these three algorithms, this paper proposes a BP neural network method based on the BBO algorithm. This method uses the BBO algorithm to optimize the incipient weight and threshold of the BP neural network and uses this improved neural network to modify the estimated value of the extended Kalman filter algorithm (BBOBP-EKF). Finally, the BBOBP-EKF algorithm, the extended Kalman filter algorithm based on the BP neural network (BP-EKF), and the EKF algorithm are used to estimate the error value of the SOC of a power battery, and according to the experimental data, it was confirmed that the proposed BBOBP-EKF algorithm has been improved compared to other algorithms with respect to each error index term, in which the maximum error is 1% less than that of the BP-EKF algorithm and 2.4% less than that of the EKF algorithm, the minimum error is also the smallest, and the estimation accuracy is improved compared to the traditional algorithms. Full article
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13 pages, 1990 KiB  
Article
The Association between BMI, Days Spent in Hospital, Blood Loss, Surgery Time and Polytrauma Pelvic Fracture—A Retrospective Analysis of 76 Patients
by Tomasz Pielak, Rafał Wójcicki, Piotr Walus, Adam Jabłoński, Michał Wiciński, Przemysław Jasiewicz, Bartłomiej Małkowski, Szymon Nowak and Jan Zabrzyński
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10546; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810546 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BMI, days spent in hospital, blood loss, and surgery time in patients who suffered from isolated pelvic fractures and pelvic fractures with concomitant injuries (polytrauma patients). Methods: This study included 76 [...] Read more.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BMI, days spent in hospital, blood loss, and surgery time in patients who suffered from isolated pelvic fractures and pelvic fractures with concomitant injuries (polytrauma patients). Methods: This study included 76 consecutive patients who were admitted for pelvic ring fracture surgery between 2017 and 2022. The inclusion criteria were pelvic fractures and indications for operative treatment (LC II and III, APC II and III, and VS). The exclusion criteria were non-operative treatment for pelvic ring fractures, acetabular fractures and fractures requiring primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and periprosthetic acetabular fractures. Demographic data were collected, including age (in years), sex, type of fracture according to Young–Burgess, date of injury and surgery, surgical approach and stabilization methods, mechanism of trauma, concomitant trauma in other regions, body mass index (BMI), blood transfusions, number of days spent in the hospital, and surgery duration. Results: Patients who suffered from a pelvic ring injury with concomitant injuries had a significantly greater amount of blood units transferred (1.02 units vs. 0.55 units), and the length of hospital stay was also longer compared to the mean results (5.84 days vs. 3.58 days), p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively. Moreover, patients with a higher BMI had more frequent APC II and APC III fractures (p = 0.012). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that polytrauma patients who suffered from pelvic ring injury are, indeed, at risk of blood transfusion in terms of greater units of blood and a longer duration of hospital stay. Moreover, BMI has an impact on pelvic ring fracture morphology. However, there is no doubt that there is an absolute need for further studies and investigations to provide better overall management of polytrauma patients with pelvic fractures. Full article
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24 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Concurrent Topology Optimization Based on BESO, Implemented in MATLAB
by Georgios Kazakis and Nikos D. Lagaros
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810545 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
In multi-scale topology optimization methods, the analysis encompasses two distinct scales: the macro-scale and the micro-scale. The macro-scale refers to the overall size and dimensions of the structural domain being studied, while the micro-scale pertains to the periodic unit cell that constitutes the [...] Read more.
In multi-scale topology optimization methods, the analysis encompasses two distinct scales: the macro-scale and the micro-scale. The macro-scale refers to the overall size and dimensions of the structural domain being studied, while the micro-scale pertains to the periodic unit cell that constitutes the macro-scale. This unit cell represents the entire structure or component targeted for optimization. The primary objective of this research is to present a simplified MATLAB code that addresses the multi-scale concurrent topology optimization challenge. This involves simultaneously optimizing both the macro-scale and micro-scale aspects, taking into account their interactions and interdependencies. To achieve this goal, the proposed approach leverages the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. The formulation introduced in this study accommodates both cellular and composite materials, dealing with both separate volume constraints and the utilization of a single volume constraint. By offering this simplified formulation and harnessing the capabilities of the multi-scale approach, the research aims to provide valuable insights into the concurrent optimization of macro- and micro-scales. This advancement contributes to the field of topology optimization and enhances its applications across various engineering disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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20 pages, 5424 KiB  
Article
A Multivariate Model of Drinking Water Quality Based on Regular Monitoring of Radioactivity and Chemical Composition
by Cecilia Ionela Tăban, Ana Maria Benedek, Mihaela Stoia, Maria Denisa Cocîrlea and Simona Oancea
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10544; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810544 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
From a public health perspective, the monitoring of water quality intended for human consumption belongs to the operational and audit management of the supply zones. Our study explores the spatial and temporal patterns of the parameters of drinking water in Sibiu County, Romania. [...] Read more.
From a public health perspective, the monitoring of water quality intended for human consumption belongs to the operational and audit management of the supply zones. Our study explores the spatial and temporal patterns of the parameters of drinking water in Sibiu County, Romania. We related the relevant physical-chemical parameters (ammonia, chlorine, nitrates, Al, Fe, Pb, Cd, Mn, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and oxidizability) and radioactivity (gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and radon-222 content) from a 5-year survey to the water source (surface water and groundwater, which may be of subsurface or deep origin), space (sampling locality) and time (sampling month and year). We conducted a combined evaluation using the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), Pearson correlation analysis of the physical-chemical parameter, multivariate linear redundancy analysis (RDA), t-value biplots construction, and co-inertia analysis. The obtained regional model shows that the source, locality, and month of sampling are significant factors in physical-chemical parameters’ variation. Fe and turbidity have significantly higher values in surface water, and nitrates and conductivity in groundwater. The highest values are recorded in January (nitrates), March (Cl, ammonia, pH) and August (Fe, turbidity). The RDA ordination diagram illustrates the localities with particular or similar characteristics of drinking water, two of which (rural sources) being of concern. The water source is the best predictor for radioactivity, which increases from surface to ground. The gross alpha and beta activities are significantly and positively correlated, and are both correlated with conductivity. In addition, the gross alpha activity is positively correlated with nitrates and negatively with pH, while the gross beta activity is positively correlated with Mn and negatively with Fe; these relationships are also revealed by the co-inertia analysis. In conclusion, our model using multilevel statistical techniques illustrates a potential approach to short-term dynamics of water quality which will be useful to local authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environment and Water Resource Management)
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15 pages, 5590 KiB  
Article
The Change in the Shape Characteristics of the Plastic Zone in the Surrounding Rock of an Auxiliary Retracement Channel and a Reasonable Channel Spacing Determination Method
by Xu Gao, Chenyi Liu, Hongkai Zhang, Kunlin Yang, Yingjie Hu and Xiaofei Guo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10543; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810543 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 642
Abstract
In underground coal mines, the stability of the retracement channel in the surrounding rock is crucial for the safe and efficient retracement of the equipment and to guarantee the continuity of the retracement work. To reveal the deformation and damage mechanism of the [...] Read more.
In underground coal mines, the stability of the retracement channel in the surrounding rock is crucial for the safe and efficient retracement of the equipment and to guarantee the continuity of the retracement work. To reveal the deformation and damage mechanism of the surrounding rock of an auxiliary retracement channel (ARC) and the determination method for the reasonable spacing of two retracement channels during the end of the mining period, the deviatoric stress field in front of the working face and the change in the shape characteristics of the plastic zone in the ARC are investigated in this paper. The formation of ultimate stress equilibrium, high deviatoric stress, decreasing deviatoric stress, and low deviatoric stress environments in front of the working face during the end of mining occur successively, and the different deviatoric stress environments are the main reasons for the different shape characteristics of the plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The changes in the shape characteristics of the plastic zone correspond to the changes in the shape characteristics in the zone with deviatoric stress and exhibit the following order: full plastic deformation zone, butterfly-shaped zone, elliptical zone, and circular plastic zone. A reasonable spacing determination method for the two retracement channels is proposed: the ARC is arranged in the decreasing deviatoric stress environment, where the surrounding rock plastic zone shape is elliptical, and the ARC is relatively stable. Based on this research result, the spacing of the double retracement channels at the Lijiahao 22-116 working face was determined to be 25 m, which achieved a positive application effect and allowed the safe and efficient retracement of the working face equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methodology and Analysis in Coal Mine Gas Control)
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37 pages, 12290 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Time-Dependent Behavior of Deeply Buried Tunnels in Soft Rock Environments and Relevant Measures Guaranteeing Their Long-Term Stability
by Wadslin Frenelus and Hui Peng
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10542; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810542 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
The time-dependent behavior and long-term stability of deep-buried tunnels in soft rocks have received lots of considerations in tunnel engineering and allied sciences. To better explore and deepen the engineering application of rock creep, extensive research studies are still needed, although fruitful outcomes [...] Read more.
The time-dependent behavior and long-term stability of deep-buried tunnels in soft rocks have received lots of considerations in tunnel engineering and allied sciences. To better explore and deepen the engineering application of rock creep, extensive research studies are still needed, although fruitful outcomes have already been obtained in many related investigations. In this article, the Weilai Tunnel in China’s Guangxi province is studied, taking its host rocks as the main research object. In fact, aiming at forecasting the time-varying deformation of this tunnel, a novel elasto-visco-plastic creep constitutive model with two variants is proposed, by exploiting the typical complex load–unload process of rock excavation. The model is well validated, and good agreements are found with the relevant experimental data. Moreover, the time-dependent deformation rules are properly established for the surrounding rocks, by designing two new closed-form solutions based on the proposed creep model and the Hoek–Brown criterion. To investigate the effects of the major creep parameters and the geological strength index (GSI) of the surrounding rocks on the time-dependent trend of the tunnel, an in-depth parametric study is carried out. It is shown that the convergence deformation of the surrounding rocks is remarkably influenced by the GSI and creep parameters. The convergence deformations calculated from the closed-form solutions conform well to the on-site monitoring data. In only 27 days after excavation, the creep deformation of the Weilai tunnel overtakes 400 mm, which is enormous. To guarantee the long-term stability of this tunnel, a robust support scheme and its long-term monitoring with appropriate remote sensors are strongly suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Reliability Structures and Materials in Civil Engineering)
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44 pages, 14805 KiB  
Review
Geodynamic Aspects of Magnetic Data Analysis and Tectonic–Paleomagnetic Mapping in the Easternmost Mediterranean: A Review
by Lev V. Eppelbaum, Youri I. Katz and Zvi Ben-Avraham
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10541; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810541 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The Easternmost Mediterranean is a transition region from the ocean to the continent where the spreading and collision zones of the lithospheric plates join. The methodology of paleomagnetic mapping of the transition zones is based on combining geological and geophysical techniques for continental [...] Read more.
The Easternmost Mediterranean is a transition region from the ocean to the continent where the spreading and collision zones of the lithospheric plates join. The methodology of paleomagnetic mapping of the transition zones is based on combining geological and geophysical techniques for continental and oceanic platforms: magnetic data interpretation, paleomagnetic reconstructions, results of magnetized rock radiometric dating, satellite data analysis, tectonic–structural reconstructions, biogeographical studies, and utilization of different geophysical survey results. The satellite-derived gravity map reflects practically all significant tectonic units in the region, which assists us in the supposed paleomagnetic mapping. The satellite-derived and aeromagnetic maps with the tectonic features and the map of Curie discontinuity of Israel indicate the complexity of this region. Advanced magnetic data analysis supported by paleomagnetic data attraction and other geological–geophysical methods allowed the revealing of the block of oceanic crust with the Kiama paleomagnetic zone relating to the Early Permian age. A narrow reversely magnetized Earth crust block was revealed in the Lower Galilee. Some examples of advanced magnetic anomaly analysis are presented for several areas where the magnetization vector inclination is other than the modern direction: the Sea of Galilee, Carmel, Rosh-Ha-Ayin, Malqishon, and Hebron. In Israeli land, for the combined paleomagnetic mapping, the well-studied using paleomagnetic and radiometric methods (as well as tectonic–structural) areas were selected: (1) Makhtesh Ramon, (2) the Sea of Galilee with the adjoining zones, (3) Carmel, (4) Hula, and (5) Hermon. It is shown that the regional analysis of paleomagnetic data distribution played an essential role in detecting the influence of the recently recognized counterclockwise rotating mantle structure on the near-surface layers. Full article
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26 pages, 1461 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Relevance of Human Gut and Skin Microbiome in Disease: The Influence on Atopic Dermatitis
by Maria Pia Ferraz
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10540; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810540 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
It is acknowledged that humans have a diverse and abundant microbial community known as the human microbiome. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the numerous functions these microorganisms have in human health is still in its early stages. Microorganisms belonging to the human microbiome typically [...] Read more.
It is acknowledged that humans have a diverse and abundant microbial community known as the human microbiome. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the numerous functions these microorganisms have in human health is still in its early stages. Microorganisms belonging to the human microbiome typically coexist with their host, but in certain situations, they can lead to diseases. They are found in several areas of the human body in healthy individuals. The microbiome is highly diverse, and its composition varies depending on the body site. It primarily comprises bacteria that are crucial for upholding a state of well-being and equilibrium. The microbiome’s influence on atopic dermatitis development was, therefore, analyzed. The importance of maintaining a balanced and functional commensal microbiota, as well as the use of prebiotics and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis were also explored. The skin microbiome’s association with atopic dermatitis will allow for a better understanding of pathogenesis and also exploring new therapeutic approaches, making the skin microbiome an increasingly relevant therapeutic target. Full article
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15 pages, 6443 KiB  
Article
Runway Pavement Structural Analysis Using Remote Laser Doppler Vibrometers
by Ge Yang, Xindong Zhao, Yu Tian and Lingjie Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10539; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810539 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Structural analysis is crucial for airfield pavement evaluation and plays a critical role in ensuring airfield operation safety and efficiency. Traditionally, the evaluation has relied on the Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) test. This method encounters challenges, including interruptions in airfield operations, limited coverage [...] Read more.
Structural analysis is crucial for airfield pavement evaluation and plays a critical role in ensuring airfield operation safety and efficiency. Traditionally, the evaluation has relied on the Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) test. This method encounters challenges, including interruptions in airfield operations, limited coverage of inspection locations, and extensive time required for data collection and analysis. In the presented research, a remote method for the measurement and analysis of runway pavement structural deflection induced by transiting aircraft was introduced, employing a Remote Laser Doppler Vibrometer (RLDV). First, a test system was developed to acquire deflection measurements of airport pavements using RLDV. To address inaccuracies arising from minor angle measurements and fixed-end beam vibrations, vibration correction methods were developed and validated. Thereafter, a linear regression model was constructed using data from both RLDV and HWD measurements, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.94. This correlation highlights the reliable utility of RLDV in analyzing pavement structural response. The objective of this research is to present a novel approach for the evaluation of pavement structural performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Structures and Infrastructures)
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18 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
ER-LAC: Span-Based Joint Entity and Relation Extraction Model with Multi-Level Lexical and Attention on Context Features
by Yaqin Zhu, Xuhang Li, Zijian Wang, Jiayong Li, Cairong Yan and Yanting Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10538; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810538 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
In recent years, joint entity–relation extraction (ERE) models have become a hot research topic in natural language processing (NLP). Several studies have proposed a span-based ERE framework, which utilizes simple span embeddings for entity and relation classification. This framework addresses the issues of [...] Read more.
In recent years, joint entity–relation extraction (ERE) models have become a hot research topic in natural language processing (NLP). Several studies have proposed a span-based ERE framework, which utilizes simple span embeddings for entity and relation classification. This framework addresses the issues of overlap and error propagation that were present in previous entity–relation extraction models. However, span-based models overlook the influence of lexical information on the semantic representation of the span and fail to consider relations with a strong intrinsic connection between span pairs. To tackle these aforementioned issues, we present a new ERE model called ER-LAC (Span-based Joint Entity and Relation Extraction Model with Multi-level Lexical and Attention on Context Features). This model is designed with multi-granularity lexical features to enhance the semantic representation of spans, and a transformer classifier is employed to capture the internal connections between span pairs, thereby improving the performance of relational classification. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, ablation experiments were conducted on the CoNLL04 dataset. The proposed model was also compared with other models on three datasets, showcasing its computational efficiency. The results indicate that the introduced lexical features and classifier enhance the F1 score for entity extraction by 0.84% to 2.04% and improve the F1 score for relationship classification by 0.96% to 2.26% when compared to the previous state-of-the-art (SOTA) model and the baseline SpERT model, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 12281 KiB  
Article
Lane Line Type Recognition Based on Improved YOLOv5
by Boyu Liu, Hao Wang, Yongqiang Wang, Congling Zhou and Lei Cai
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10537; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810537 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The recognition of lane line type plays an important role in the perception of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In actual vehicle driving on roads, there are a variety of lane line type and complex road conditions which present significant challenges to ADAS. [...] Read more.
The recognition of lane line type plays an important role in the perception of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In actual vehicle driving on roads, there are a variety of lane line type and complex road conditions which present significant challenges to ADAS. To address this problem, this paper proposes an improved YOLOv5 method for recognising lane line type. This method can accurately and quickly identify the types of lane lines and can show good recognition results in harsh environments. The main strategy of this method includes the following steps: first, the FasterNet lightweight network is introduced into all the concentrated-comprehensive convolution (C3) modules in the network to accelerate the inference speed and reduce the number of parameters. Then, the efficient channel attention (ECA) mechanism is integrated into the backbone network to extract image feature information and improve the model’s detection accuracy. Finally, the sigmoid intersection over union (SIoU) loss function is used to replace the original generalised intersection over union (GIoU) loss function to further enhance the robustness of the model. Through experiments, the improved YOLOv5s algorithm achieves 95.1% of [email protected] and 95.2 frame·s−1 of FPS, which can satisfy the demand of ADAS for accuracy and real-time performance. And the number of model parameters are only 6M, and the volume is only 11.7 MB, which will be easily embedded into ADAS and does not require huge computing power to support it. Meanwhile, the improved algorithms increase the accuracy and speed of YOLOv5m, YOLOv5l, and YOLOv5x models to different degrees. The appropriate model can be selected according to the actual situation. This plays a practical role in improving the safety of ADAS. Full article
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38 pages, 6704 KiB  
Article
Performance Improvement of Melanoma Detection Using a Multi-Network System Based on Decision Fusion
by Hassan El-khatib, Ana-Maria Ștefan and Dan Popescu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10536; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810536 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The incidence of melanoma cases continues to rise, underscoring the critical need for early detection and treatment. Recent studies highlight the significance of deep learning in melanoma detection, leading to improved accuracy. The field of computer-assisted detection is extensively explored along all lines, [...] Read more.
The incidence of melanoma cases continues to rise, underscoring the critical need for early detection and treatment. Recent studies highlight the significance of deep learning in melanoma detection, leading to improved accuracy. The field of computer-assisted detection is extensively explored along all lines, especially in the medical industry, as the benefit in this field is to save hu-man lives. In this domain, this direction must be maximally exploited and introduced into routine controls to improve patient prognosis, disease prevention, reduce treatment costs, improve population management, and improve patient empowerment. All these new aspects were taken into consideration to implement an EHR system with an automated melanoma detection system. The first step, as presented in this paper, is to build a system based on the fusion of decisions from multiple neural networks, such as DarkNet-53, DenseNet-201, GoogLeNet, Inception-V3, InceptionResNet-V2, ResNet-50, ResNet-101, and compare this classifier with four other applications: Google Teachable Machine, Microsoft Azure Machine Learning, Google Vertex AI, and SalesForce Einstein Vision based on the F1 score for further integration into an EHR platform. We trained all models on two databases, ISIC 2020 and DermIS, to also test their adaptability to a wide range of images. Comparisons with state-of-the-art research and existing applications confirm the promising performance of the proposed system. Full article
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13 pages, 3006 KiB  
Review
Desquamative Gingivitis, Oral Hygiene, and Autoimmune Oral Diseases: A Scoping Review
by Andrea Scribante, Matteo Pellegrini, Giacomo Li Vigni, Federica Pulicari and Francesco Spadari
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810535 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical condition with a chronic course, not specific to a particular disease, characterized by intense erythema, scaling, vesicles, and/or blisters that may involve both the marginal free gingiva (MG) and the neighboring adherent gingiva (AG). This scoping review aimed [...] Read more.
Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical condition with a chronic course, not specific to a particular disease, characterized by intense erythema, scaling, vesicles, and/or blisters that may involve both the marginal free gingiva (MG) and the neighboring adherent gingiva (AG). This scoping review aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between oral hygiene and gingival lesions induced by autoimmune diseases of the oral cavity and whether periodontal disease can negatively influence a clinical picture of desquamative gingivitis due to an immune disorder of the oral cavity. Case series studies and randomized controlled trials were considered for this scoping review; studies that did not comply with the inclusion criteria were excluded. A total of seven studies were selected for this review. The PRISMA-ScR (preferred reporting items for scoping reviews) consensus has been followed. Based on the included studies, it is possible to state that improvement in disease and patient-reported outcomes may be the result of appropriate oral hygiene education when patients are found to have autoimmune diseases with gingival manifestations. Full article
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17 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Circular Physical Human–Machine Interfaces of Three Shoulder Exoskeletons on Tissue Oxygenation
by Christine Linnenberg, Benjamin Reimeir, Robert Eberle and Robert Weidner
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10534; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810534 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Occupational shoulder exoskeletons need to provide meaningful torques to achieve the desired support, thereby high pressures can occur within the physical human–machine interface (pHMI) of exoskeletons that may lead to discomfort, pain, or soft tissue injuries. This pilot study investigates the effects of [...] Read more.
Occupational shoulder exoskeletons need to provide meaningful torques to achieve the desired support, thereby high pressures can occur within the physical human–machine interface (pHMI) of exoskeletons that may lead to discomfort, pain, or soft tissue injuries. This pilot study investigates the effects of occurring circumferential pressures within the pHMI in three different shoulder exoskeletons on the tissue oxygenation underneath the interfaces in resting position and dynamic use of the exoskeletons in 12 healthy subjects using near-infrared spectroscopy. Similar to standard Vascular Occlusion Tests, the tissue oxygen decreases while wearing the exoskeletons at rest (−2.1 (1.4) %/min). Dynamic use of the exoskeleton enhances the decrease in tissue oxygen (−7.3 (4.1) %/min) significantly and leads to greater resaturation after reopening the interface compared to resting position. This can be a sign of restricted blood supply to the upper extremity while wearing the exoskeleton. The shape and width of the circular interfaces showed no effect on the tissue oxygenation during use. Tissue oxygenation can be established as an additional safety criterion of exoskeletal pHMIs. The design of pHMI of shoulder exoskeletons should be reconsidered, e.g., in terms of open structures or the elasticity of closure straps to avoid occlusion effects. Full article
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16 pages, 6939 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility Modeling of a Rubber Track for Lightweight Mobile Robots
by Daniela Szpaczyńska, Marian Janusz Łopatka and Piotr Krogul
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10533; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810533 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The elastic-damping properties of the rubber track structure can have a significant impact on the running gear performance of lightweight mobile robots. Taking these properties into account is particularly important for modeling obstacle negotiation and estimating the robot’s driving force. The article presents [...] Read more.
The elastic-damping properties of the rubber track structure can have a significant impact on the running gear performance of lightweight mobile robots. Taking these properties into account is particularly important for modeling obstacle negotiation and estimating the robot’s driving force. The article presents track susceptibility identification using both static and dynamic tests. The experimental results were used to validate the multi-body dynamics model of the rubber track for three modeling methods and for three track link number model variants. The methods and variants were compared by the accuracy of the susceptibility parameters obtained using them. The impact of the modeling methods on the track bending resistance simulations was also checked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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15 pages, 11185 KiB  
Article
Simulation Study on Fire Product Movement Law and Evacuation in a University High-Rise Teaching Building
by Yan Cui, Hao Wang, Bo You, Chuan Cheng and Ming Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810532 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
High-rise teaching buildings are complex public buildings that combine the evacuation risks of school buildings and high-rise buildings. In this regard, studying fire product transport patterns and personnel evacuation characteristics of high-rise school buildings is crucial for safe and rapid evacuation. In this [...] Read more.
High-rise teaching buildings are complex public buildings that combine the evacuation risks of school buildings and high-rise buildings. In this regard, studying fire product transport patterns and personnel evacuation characteristics of high-rise school buildings is crucial for safe and rapid evacuation. In this paper, we applied Pyrosim2018 software to build a model of a teaching building and performed numerical fire simulation to analyze temperature, CO gas, and visibility to determine the available evacuation time ASET; meanwhile, we performed evacuation simulation by Pathfinder 2019 to determine the required evacuation time and analyze the congestion problem during evacuation. By improving the evacuation route, secondary simulations were conducted and compared with the previous results. The results show that visibility is the main factor affecting evacuation in of the event of a fire in this school building. Based on the visibility analysis, it is recommended that personnel evacuate from floors four and above within 709.2 S when the fire location is at a specific position on the third floor. While the original safety exits of the school building can avoid a large number of casualties, they cannot guarantee the safe evacuation of all people, and planning a reasonable evacuation route can obviously relieve the evacuation pressure in the high-rise corridor. Full article
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10 pages, 1522 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value, Physical Properties, and Sensory Quality of Sugar-Free Cereal Bars Fortified with Grape and Apple Pomace
by Agata Blicharz-Kania, Kostiantyn Vasiukov, Agnieszka Sagan, Dariusz Andrejko, Weronika Fifowska and Marek Domin
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10531; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810531 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Cereal bars are so-called convenience foods. Consumers value these products as a healthier alternative to traditional chocolate bars. Since these snacks usually contain added dried fruit, they have high potential for the utilisation of waste materials from the fruit industry. The study aimed [...] Read more.
Cereal bars are so-called convenience foods. Consumers value these products as a healthier alternative to traditional chocolate bars. Since these snacks usually contain added dried fruit, they have high potential for the utilisation of waste materials from the fruit industry. The study aimed to determine the effect of fortification of cereal bars with grape and apple pomace on their nutritional value, physical properties, and sensory quality. The control recipe was modified by replacing 10 or 20 g of sultanas with apple or grape pomace. The fortification with these food by-products resulted in a significant increase in the moisture content of the products, an increase in soluble fibre content, and a decrease in the level of antioxidant compounds. The strength of the cereal bars supplemented with grape and apple pomace increased. In addition, the panellists noticed a colour difference compared to the unmodified product (2 < ΔE < 5). A positive effect of the addition of the fruit pomace on the visual characteristics of the cereal bars was also observed. No changes were observed in the tastiness of the product. On the other hand, the aroma of the modified products and the texture of the bars containing the apple residue were less acceptable. In conclusion, cereal bars containing grape pomace and up to 10 g of apple pomace are characterised by high soluble dietary fibre content and desirable sensory and mechanical properties and are therefore recommended for industrial production. Full article
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12 pages, 1026 KiB  
Article
Skeletal and Dentoalveolar Effects of Maxillary Protraction Using Tooth- and Miniscrew-Anchored Devices in Patients with Class III Malocclusion with Maxillary Deficiency: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study
by Jong-Chan Baik, Youn-Kyung Choi, Hyeran Helen Jeon, Sung-Hun Kim, Seong-Sik Kim, Soo-Byung Park and Yong-Il Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10530; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810530 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to determine skeletal and dental changes after a growth spurt and shortly after treatment using a facemask in skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency. Methods: We retrospectively studied 50 patients (25 patients per group) with skeletal Class [...] Read more.
Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to determine skeletal and dental changes after a growth spurt and shortly after treatment using a facemask in skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency. Methods: We retrospectively studied 50 patients (25 patients per group) with skeletal Class III malocclusion who underwent facemask treatment with tooth-anchored (T-A, mean age 7.92) and miniscrew-anchored (M-A, mean age 9.84) intraoral appliances. In both groups, the facemask applied a traction force of 350–400 g to each side, such that the traction was directed 30° forward and downward. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained from all patients before (T1), immediately after (T2), and at an average of 37.11 months after maxillary protraction (T3). A total of 13 cephalometric measurements were analyzed to determine the skeletal and dental changes. A paired t-test was used to verify the effects before, after, and during follow-up periods in each group. Results: An anteroposterior relationship, the values of SNA and ANB, evident in both groups at T2, was significantly improved in the M-A group (p < 0.05). However, the values of ANB and MP–SN, which indicate the relapse of anteroposterior and vertical relation of maxilla and mandible, were significantly higher in the T-A group compared with the M-A group during follow-up period. The maxillary first molars were significantly more extruded and maxillary incisors were more protruded in the T-A group than the M-A group, and this persisted at T3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Miniscrew-anchored maxillary protraction increased the skeletal improvement of anteroposterior relationship and reduced the dental and skeletal relapses compared with tooth-anchored maxillary protraction in growing patients with a hyperdivergent patterns and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Applications of Orthodontic TSADs and CBCT)
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24 pages, 9475 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Human Activity Recognition Method Using an MLP Neural Network and Euler Angle Extraction Based on IMU Sensors
by Yaxin Mao, Lamei Yan, Hongyu Guo, Yujie Hong, Xiaocheng Huang and Youwei Yuan
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10529; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810529 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology has gained popularity in human activity recognition (HAR) due to its ability to identify human activity by measuring acceleration, angular velocity, and magnetic flux in key body areas like the wrist and knee. It has propelled the extensive [...] Read more.
Inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology has gained popularity in human activity recognition (HAR) due to its ability to identify human activity by measuring acceleration, angular velocity, and magnetic flux in key body areas like the wrist and knee. It has propelled the extensive application of HAR across various domains. In the healthcare sector, HAR finds utility in monitoring and assessing movements during rehabilitation processes, while in the sports science field, it contributes to enhancing training outcomes and preventing exercise-related injuries. However, traditional sensor fusion algorithms often require intricate mathematical and statistical processing, resulting in higher algorithmic complexity. Additionally, in dynamic environments, sensor states may undergo changes, posing challenges for real-time adjustments within conventional fusion algorithms to cater to the requirements of prolonged observations. To address these limitations, we propose a novel hybrid human pose recognition method based on IMU sensors. The proposed method initially calculates Euler angles and subsequently refines them using magnetometer and gyroscope data to obtain the accurate attitude angle. Furthermore, the application of FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) feature extraction facilitates the transition of the signal from its time-based representation to its frequency-based representation, enhancing the practical significance of the data. To optimize feature fusion and information exchange, a group attention module is introduced, leveraging the capabilities of a Multi-Layer Perceptron which is called the Feature Fusion Enrichment Multi-Layer Perceptron (GAM-MLP) to effectively combine features and generate precise classification results. Experimental results demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method, achieving an impressive accuracy rate of 96.13% across 19 different human pose recognition tasks. The proposed hybrid human pose recognition method is capable of meeting the demands of real-world motion monitoring and health assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches for Human Activity Recognition)
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19 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Improving Collaborative Filtering Recommendations with Tag and Time Integration in Virtual Online Communities
by Hyeon Jo, Jong-hyun Hong and Joon Yeon Choeh
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10528; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810528 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 785
Abstract
In recent years, virtual online communities have experienced rapid growth. These communities enable individuals to share and manage images or websites by employing tags. A collaborative tagging system (CTS) facilitates the process by which internet users collectively organize resources. CTS offers a plethora [...] Read more.
In recent years, virtual online communities have experienced rapid growth. These communities enable individuals to share and manage images or websites by employing tags. A collaborative tagging system (CTS) facilitates the process by which internet users collectively organize resources. CTS offers a plethora of useful information, including tags and timestamps, which can be utilized for recommendations. A tag represents an implicit evaluation of the user’s preference for a particular resource, while timestamps indicate changes in the user’s interests over time. As the amount of information increases, it is feasible to integrate more detailed data, such as tags and timestamps, to improve the quality of personalized recommendations. The current study employs collaborative filtering (CF), which incorporates both tag and time information to enhance recommendation precision. A computational recommender system is established to generate weights and calculate similarities by incorporating tag data and time. The effectiveness of our recommendation model was evaluated by linearly merging tag and time data. In addition, the proposed CF method was validated by applying it to big data sets in the real world. To assess its performance, the size of the neighborhood was adjusted in accordance with the standard CF procedure. The experimental results indicate that our proposed method significantly improves the quality of recommendations compared to the basic CF approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Computing, Networking and Artificial Intelligence)
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16 pages, 2975 KiB  
Article
Lateral Vibration Control Strategy of High-Speed Elevator Car Based on Sparrow Search Optimization Algorithm
by Wanbin Su, Yefeng Jiang, Cancan Yi and Shuhang Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10527; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810527 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
Aiming at the problems of inefficient mitigation of the lateral vibration of high-speed elevator cars, which results in low riding comfort, this paper introduces the electromagnetic active rolling guide shoes and incorporates the sky-hook damping control strategy into the high-speed elevator structure. On [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problems of inefficient mitigation of the lateral vibration of high-speed elevator cars, which results in low riding comfort, this paper introduces the electromagnetic active rolling guide shoes and incorporates the sky-hook damping control strategy into the high-speed elevator structure. On this basis, it adopts an optimization algorithm based on Sparrow Search Algorithm (SSA) to adjust the parameters of the lateral vibration controller, thereby reducing the amplitude of the lateral vibration and controlling it within the human comfort range. Specifically, this paper first incorporates electromagnetic active rolling guide shoes into the vibration reduction device of the high-speed elevator car. Based on the motion characteristics of lateral vibration, a mathematical model is established in which the sky-hook damping control strategy is introduced. Then, a simulation model is built, and the damping parameters of the controller are optimized using the SSA, resulting in effective control of the lateral vibration amplitude of the high-speed elevator car. Simulations demonstrate that the lateral vibration control model of the high-speed elevator car, optimized by SSA, achieves lower amplitudes within the frequency range of 1–2 Hz compared to the results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm (GA), demonstrating the effectiveness of SSA in optimizing the damping parameters of the car controller. Finally, the simulation results are compared with the measured data, and the research findings indicate that the proposed method for lateral vibration control of the car can effectively suppress the lateral vibration amplitude. Full article
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16 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
QZRAM: A Transparent Kernel Memory Compression System Design for Memory-Intensive Applications with QAT Accelerator Integration
by Chi Gao, Xiaofei Xu, Zhizou Yang, Liwei Lin and Jian Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10526; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810526 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1578
Abstract
In recent decades, memory-intensive applications have experienced a boom, e.g., machine learning, natural language processing (NLP), and big data analytics. Such applications often experience out-of-memory (OOM) errors, which cause unexpected processes to exit without warning, resulting in negative effects on a system’s performance [...] Read more.
In recent decades, memory-intensive applications have experienced a boom, e.g., machine learning, natural language processing (NLP), and big data analytics. Such applications often experience out-of-memory (OOM) errors, which cause unexpected processes to exit without warning, resulting in negative effects on a system’s performance and stability. To mitigate OOM errors, many operating systems implement memory compression (e.g., Linux’s ZRAM) to provide flexible and larger memory space. However, these schemes incur two problems: (1) high-compression algorithms consume significant CPU resources, which inevitably degrades application performance; and (2) compromised compression algorithms with low latency and low compression ratios result in insignificant increases in memory space. In this paper, we propose QZRAM, which achieves a high-compression-ratio algorithm without high computing consumption through the integration of QAT (an ASIC accelerator) into ZRAM. To enhance hardware and software collaboration, a page-based parallel write module is introduced to serve as a more efficient request processing flow. More importantly, a QAT offloading module is introduced to asynchronously offload compression to the QAT accelerator, reducing CPU computing resource consumption and addressing two challenges: long CPU idle time and low usage of the QAT unit. The comprehensive evaluation validates that QZRAM can reduce CPU resources by up to 49.2% for the FIO micro-benchmark, increase memory space (1.66×) compared to ZRAM, and alleviate the memory overflow phenomenon of the Redis benchmark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross-Applications of Natural Language Processing and Text Mining)
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18 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Thermodynamics for the Removal of As(III) and As(V) from Water Using Synthesized ZnO Nanoparticles and the Effects of pH, Temperature, and Time
by Helia Magali Morales, Grecia Torreblanca, Arnulfo Mar, Mataz Alcoutlabi, Thomas Mark Eubanks, Erik Plata and Jason George Parsons
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10525; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810525 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
In the present study, the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions using synthesized ZnO nanomaterials was achieved. The ZnO nanomaterial was synthesized using a precipitation technique and characterized using XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the ZnO nanoparticles were [...] Read more.
In the present study, the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions using synthesized ZnO nanomaterials was achieved. The ZnO nanomaterial was synthesized using a precipitation technique and characterized using XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the ZnO nanoparticles were present in the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM of the particles showed they were aggregates of triangular and spherical particles. The average nanoparticle size was determined to be 62.03 ± 4.06 nm using Scherrer’s analysis of the three largest diffraction peaks. Raman spectroscopy of the ZnO nanoparticles showed only ZnO peaks, whereas the after-reaction samples indicated that As(V) was present in both As(V)- and As(III)-reacted samples. The adsorption of the ions was determined to be pH-independent, and a binding pH of 4 was selected as the pH for reaction. Batch isotherm studies showed the highest binding capacities occurred at 4 °C with 5.83 mg/g and 14.68 mg/g for As(III) and As(V), respectively. Thermodynamic studies indicated an exothermic reaction occurred and the binding of both As(III) and As(VI) took place through chemisorption, which was determined by the ΔH values of −47.29 and −63.4 kJ/mol for As(V) and As(III), respectively. In addition, the change in Gibbs free energy, ΔG, for the reaction confirmed the exothermic nature of the reaction; the spontaneity of the reaction decreased with increasing temperature. Results from batch time dependency studies showed the reaction occurred within the first 60 min of contact time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
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