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Insects, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 63 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Artificial vibrations can affect the behaviour of insect pests and contribute to controlling their [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogeny of Anopheles (Kerteszia) (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Mitochondrial Genes
Insects 2020, 11(5), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050324 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Identification of mosquito species is necessary for determining the entomological components of malaria transmission, but it can be difficult in morphologically similar species. DNA sequences are largely used as an additional tool for species recognition, including those that belong to species complexes. Kerteszia [...] Read more.
Identification of mosquito species is necessary for determining the entomological components of malaria transmission, but it can be difficult in morphologically similar species. DNA sequences are largely used as an additional tool for species recognition, including those that belong to species complexes. Kerteszia mosquitoes are vectors of human and simian malaria in the Neotropical Region, but there are few DNA sequences of Kerteszia species in public databases. In order to provide relevant information about diversity and improve knowledge in taxonomy of Kerteszia species in Peru, we sequenced part of the mitochondrial genome, including the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region. Phylogenetic analyses structured all species of mosquitoes collected in Peru into a single clade, separate from the Brazilian species. The Peruvian clade was composed of two lineages, encompassing sequences from Anopheles (Kerteszia) boliviensis and Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus. An. pholidotus sequences were recorded for the first time in Peru, whereas An. boliviensis sequences were for the first time published in the GenBank database. Sequences generated from specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii clustered into three separate clades according to the collection localities of Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra da Cantareira, confirming An. cruzii as a species complex, composed of at least three putative species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis Early Embryos
Insects 2020, 11(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050323 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most devastating and highly invasive agricultural pests world-wide, resulting in severe economic loss. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the transcriptional changes that occur during the activation of its zygotic [...] Read more.
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most devastating and highly invasive agricultural pests world-wide, resulting in severe economic loss. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the transcriptional changes that occur during the activation of its zygotic genome at the early stages of embryonic development, especially the expression of genes involved in sex determination and the cellularization processes. In this study, we applied Illumina sequencing to identify B. dorsalis sex determination genes and early zygotic genes by analyzing transcripts from three early embryonic stages at 0–1, 2–4, and 5–8 h post-oviposition, which include the initiation of sex determination and cellularization. These tests generated 13,489 unigenes with an average length of 2185 bp. In total, 1683, 3201 and 3134 unigenes had significant changes in expression levels at times after oviposition including at 2–4 h versus 0–1 h, 5–8 h versus 0–1 h, and 5–8 h versus 2–4 h, respectively. Clusters of gene orthology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed throughout embryonic development to better understand the functions of differentially expressed unigenes. We observed that the RNA binding and spliceosome pathways were highly enriched and overrepresented during the early stage of embryogenesis. Additionally, transcripts for 21 sex-determination and three cellularization genes were identified, and expression pattern analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were highly expressed during embryogenesis. This study is the first assembly performed for B. dorsalis based on Illumina next-generation sequencing technology during embryogenesis. Our data should contribute significantly to the fundamental understanding of sex determination and early embryogenesis in tephritid fruit flies, and provide gene promoter and effector gene candidates for transgenic pest-management strategies for these economically important species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ImergardTMWP: A Non-Chemical Alternative for an Indoor Residual Spray, Effective against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Africa
Insects 2020, 11(5), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050322 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito [...] Read more.
Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito control in recent years. It is of utmost importance to search for new, inexpensive, and safe alternatives, with new modes of action, that might improve the efficacy of current insecticides. The efficacy of a novel mechanical insecticidal mineral derived from volcanic rock, ImergardTMWP, was investigated to determine its efficacy as a stand-alone residual wall spray and as a mixture with deltamethrin (K-Othrine® Polyzone) in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. The evaluation was conducted with susceptible (Kisumu) and wild-type Anopheles gambiae (s.l.). Deltamethrin applied alone demonstrated 40–45% mortality (at 72 h post-exposure) during the first four months, which declined to 25% at six months for wild An. gambiae from Cove. ImergardTMWP alone and mixed with deltamethrin, under the same assay conditions, produced 79–82% and 73–81% mortality, respectively, during the same six-month period. ImergardTMWP met the 80% WHO bio-efficacy threshold for residual activity for the first five months with 78% residual activity at six months. ImergardTMWP can be used as a mixture with chemical insecticides or as a stand-alone pesticide for mosquito control in Africa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Foraging on Bumble Bees, Bombus terrestris, Reared under Laboratory Conditions
Insects 2020, 11(5), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050321 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Bumble bees are important pollinators broadly used by farmers in greenhouses and under conditions in which honeybee pollination is limited. As such, bumble bees are increasingly being reared for commercial purposes, which brings into question whether individuals reared under laboratory conditions are fully [...] Read more.
Bumble bees are important pollinators broadly used by farmers in greenhouses and under conditions in which honeybee pollination is limited. As such, bumble bees are increasingly being reared for commercial purposes, which brings into question whether individuals reared under laboratory conditions are fully capable of physiological adaptation to field conditions. To understand the changes in bumble bee organism caused by foraging, we compared the fundamental physiological and immunological parameters of Bombus terrestris workers reared under constant optimal laboratory conditions with workers from sister colonies that were allowed to forage for two weeks in the field. Nutritional status and immune response were further determined in wild foragers of B. terrestris that lived under the constant influence of natural stressors. Both wild and laboratory-reared workers subjected to the field conditions had a lower protein concentration in the hemolymph and increased antimicrobial activity, the detection of which was limited in the non-foragers. However, in most of the tested parameters, specifically the level of carbohydrates, antioxidants, total hemocyte concentration in the hemolymph and melanization response, we did not observe any significant differences between bumble bee workers produced in the laboratory and wild animals, nor between foragers and non-foragers. Our results show that bumble bees reared under laboratory conditions can mount a sufficient immune response to potential pathogens and cope with differential food availability in the field, similarly to the wild bumble bee workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Honeybee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Population Dynamics of Hyalomma dromedarii on Camels in the United Arab Emirates
Insects 2020, 11(5), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050320 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Hyalomma dromedarii is the most important tick species infesting camels in the Middle East. So far, there are no studies on the population dynamics of H. dromedarii ticks on camels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Thus, the current study was performed: [...] Read more.
Hyalomma dromedarii is the most important tick species infesting camels in the Middle East. So far, there are no studies on the population dynamics of H. dromedarii ticks on camels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Thus, the current study was performed: (1) to assess H. dromedarii population dynamics under common camel breeding and management practices in the study area, (2) to evaluate H. dromedarii life stage changes and sex ratio over time, and (3) to measure parasitological indicators of H. dromedarii infestation. We conducted monthly on-site tick visual counts and collection from camels in Al Ain, UAE, over 12 months. Our results show that the infestation prevalence was very high during the whole study period, with a mean of 94.33%. The maximum infestation intensity occurred in June, while the minimum occurred in January. Overall, H. dromedarii ticks were found on camels during the entire year in spite of monthly applications of an acaricide. This study reveals that H. dromedarii has a very high prevalence and continuous presence on camels in the UAE regardless of the weather fluctuations and acaricide applications and showed the need for an effective control strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preventative Approach to Microbial Control of Capnodis tenebrionis by Soil Application of Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana
Insects 2020, 11(5), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050319 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Management of the Mediterranean flat-headed root-borer, Capnodis tenebrionis, is critical due to the larvae’s root localization. Neonate larvae can be exposed to natural enemies before penetrating the roots. Application of Metarhizium brunneum strain Mb7 and Beauveria bassiana strain GHA formulations on rice [...] Read more.
Management of the Mediterranean flat-headed root-borer, Capnodis tenebrionis, is critical due to the larvae’s root localization. Neonate larvae can be exposed to natural enemies before penetrating the roots. Application of Metarhizium brunneum strain Mb7 and Beauveria bassiana strain GHA formulations on rice granules was investigated for their efficacy against C. tenebrionis larvae. Mb7 application, evaluated on apricot twigs, significantly and dose-dependently reduced colonization rates of neonates, with highest mortality at 108 conidia/g soil. Neonate susceptibility to Mb7 and GHA was evaluated on potted rootstocks (GF677 almond × peach, 2729 plum) planted in entomopathogenic fungi (EPF)-premixed soil (1.3–1.6 × 105 conidia/cm3 soil) or in EPF-free soil surface-treated with 5 g Mb7 fungal granules (1.25 × 109 conidia). Larval colonization rates were reduced 7.4-fold in 2729 by both fungi; only Mb7 completely prevented colonization of GF677 by larvae. Larvae inside plant galleries exhibited mycosis with EPF-treated soils and both fungi proliferated on larval frass. Mb7 conidia germinated in the rhizosphere of GF677, and conidia of both fungi remained viable throughout the trial. Galleria baiting technique was used on EPF-treated soil to evaluate EPF infectivity over time; Mb7 and GHA persisted 180 and 90 days post inoculation, respectively. The formulation (fungus-covered rice grains), delivery method (mixing with soil) and persistence (3–6 months) of Mb7 and GHA are feasible for potential field application to control C. tenebrionis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parasitism of Soldiers of the Termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), by the Scuttle Fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae)
Insects 2020, 11(5), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050318 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Termites of the genus Macrotermes (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) are serious agricultural and structural pests, which also play vital roles in ecosystem functioning, and are crucial for the maintenance of tropical biodiversity. They are widely distributed, mainly in Southeast Asian countries; however, the parasitism of [...] Read more.
Termites of the genus Macrotermes (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) are serious agricultural and structural pests, which also play vital roles in ecosystem functioning, and are crucial for the maintenance of tropical biodiversity. They are widely distributed, mainly in Southeast Asian countries; however, the parasitism of termites has been little researched. This research was conducted to identify and study the ecology of the parasitoids of termites at Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) soldier termites were collected from 25 mounds. In four of the 25 mounds, scuttle fly larvae were found inside the bodies of the soldier termites, and adult flies were found in all of the mounds. Some of the larvae successfully developed to pupae under laboratory conditions. The percentages of parasitized major soldier termites collected from the four mounds were 43.79%, 47.43%, 0.86%, and 3.49%, respectively, and the percentages of parasitized minor soldier termites were 0.64%, 0.00%, 0.21%, and 0.00%, respectively. Larvae, pupae, and adult flies were identified using both morphological and molecular identifications. Molecular identification used the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. The results of both identification methods identified the parasitic Diptera as the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae). The phylogenetic analysis of the 23 scuttle fly samples (11 larvae, 7 pupae, and 5 adults) classified them into two clades: (1) Those closely related to a previous report in India; (2) those related to M. scalaris found in Asia and Africa. This is the first discovery of M. scalaris in M. gilvus. Further investgation into termite parasitism by M. scalaris and its possible use in the biological control of termites is needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nest Entrances, Spatial Fidelity, and Foraging Patterns in the Red Ant Myrmica rubra: A Field and Theoretical Study
Insects 2020, 11(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050317 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 308
Abstract
The nest architecture of social insects deeply impacts the spatial distribution of nestmates their interactions, information exchanges and collective responses. In particular, the number of nest entrances can influence the interactions taking place beyond the nest boundaries and the emergence of collective structures [...] Read more.
The nest architecture of social insects deeply impacts the spatial distribution of nestmates their interactions, information exchanges and collective responses. In particular, the number of nest entrances can influence the interactions taking place beyond the nest boundaries and the emergence of collective structures like foraging trails. Here, we investigated in the field how the number of nest entrances impacted the foraging dynamics of Myrmica rubra ant colonies. We located the nest entrances where recruitment occurred towards sugar feeders placed in their surroundings. The nests showed one or multiple entrance(s) aggregated in clusters spaced by at least 15 cm. Foragers from colonies with two clusters of entrances were distributed more homogeneously among the feeders than those of colonies with one cluster. In addition, foragers always returned to the first discovered feeder and demonstrated a high fidelity to their original entrance. Finally, a multi-agent model highlighted that additional entrances and clusters of entrances delayed the mobilisation of workers but favoured the simultaneous exploitation of several sources, which was further enhanced by the spatial fidelity of foragers. Multiple nest entrances seem to be a way for medium-sized colonies to benefit from advantages conferred by polydomy while avoiding associated costs to maintain social cohesion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synergy of Lepidopteran Nucleopolyhedroviruses AcMNPV and SpliNPV with Insecticides
Insects 2020, 11(5), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050316 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The joint use of baculoviruses and synthetic insecticides for integrated pest management requires the study of the additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among them on pest mortality. Droplet bioassays were conducted with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) and seven [...] Read more.
The joint use of baculoviruses and synthetic insecticides for integrated pest management requires the study of the additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among them on pest mortality. Droplet bioassays were conducted with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) and seven insecticides (azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, cyantraniliprole, emamectin, metaflumizone, methoxyfenozide and spinetoram) on Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera littoralis. The lethal concentrations LC50 and LC95 were calculated through probit regressions. Then, the sequential feeding of insecticides and nucleopolyhedroviruses was studied. Larvae were provided with the LC50 of one insecticide, followed by the LC50 of one nucleopolyhedrovirus 24 h later. The inverse order was also conducted. The insecticide LC50 and LC95 were higher for S. littoralis than for S. exigua. AcMNPV showed greater toxicity on S. exigua than SpliNPV on S. littoralis. Emamectin showed synergy with AcMNPV when the chemical was applied first, and metaflumizone and AcMNPV were synergistic regardless of the order of application, both from the first day of evaluation. SpliNPV was synergistic with azadirachtin and emamectin when it was applied first, but synergy was reached after 12–13 days. Excellent control is possible with the LC50 of azadirachtin, emamectin and metaflumizone in combination with nucleopolyhedroviruses, and merits further study as a means of controlling lepidopteran pests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ecology of the Western Queen Butterfly Danaus gilippus thersippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts
Insects 2020, 11(5), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050315 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 387
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the ecological knowledge surrounding the western queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus thersippus (H. Bates). Specifically, our objectives were to synthesize existing data and knowledge on the ecology of the queen and use results of this assessment [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the ecological knowledge surrounding the western queen butterfly, Danaus gilippus thersippus (H. Bates). Specifically, our objectives were to synthesize existing data and knowledge on the ecology of the queen and use results of this assessment to inform the direction of future research on this understudied species. We identified six core areas for assessment: distribution, the biodiversity of plant resources, western queen and their host plant phenology, chemical ecology, and four key life history traits. We mapped the distribution of D. g. thersippus from museum specimen records, citizen science (e.g., iNaturalist) and image sharing app-based observations, along with other observational data enumerating all current known plant resources and long-range movements. We assembled 14 larval food plants, six pyrrolizidine alkaloids plants and six nectar plants distributed in the western Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the United States and Baja California. We report on its phenology and its long-range movement. Butterfly species have declined across the western US, and western monarch populations have declined by 97%. Danaus g. thersippus has received little research attention compared with its famous congener D. plexippus L. Danaus g. thersippus’ desert distribution may be at its temperature limits for the species distribution and for its rare host plant Asclepias nyctaginifolia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drench Application of Systemic Insecticides Disrupts Probing Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
Insects 2020, 11(5), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050314 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium that is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus and transmitted by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri. There are no curative methods to control HLB and the prevention of new infections is [...] Read more.
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium that is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus and transmitted by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri. There are no curative methods to control HLB and the prevention of new infections is essential for HLB management. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of systemic insecticides, such as the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and a mixture of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole (diamide) on the probing behavior of CLas-infected D. citri and their effect on CLas transmission. The electrical penetration graph (EPG-DC) technique was used to monitor the stylet penetration activities of CLas-infected D. citri on sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] ‘Valencia’ treated with systemic insecticides. Systemic insecticides disrupted the probing behavior of CLas-infected D. citri, in a way that affected CLas transmission efficiency, particularly by negatively affecting the stylet activities related to the phloem phase. All insecticides reduced (by 57–73%) the proportion of psyllids that exhibited sustainable phloem ingestion (waveform E2 > 10 min), with significant differences observed on plants treated with thiamethoxam and thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole. The transmission rate of CLas with high inoculum pressure (five CLas-infected D. citri per plant and a seven-day inoculation access period) to untreated control plants was 93%. In contrast, CLas transmission was reduced to 38.8% when test plants were protected by systemic insecticides. Our results indicated that all insecticides tested presented a potential to reduce CLas inoculation by an average of 59%; therefore, these insecticides can be used to reduce the spread of HLB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview
A Historical Review of Management Options Used against the Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)
Insects 2020, 11(5), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050313 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), remains a significant economic pest globally in situations where intensive animal production or horticultural production provide a suitable developmental medium. Stable flies have been recorded as pests of livestock and humans since the late 1800s [...] Read more.
The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), remains a significant economic pest globally in situations where intensive animal production or horticultural production provide a suitable developmental medium. Stable flies have been recorded as pests of livestock and humans since the late 1800s to early 1900s. Over 100 years of research has seen numerous methodologies used to control this fly, in particular to protect cattle from flies to minimise production losses. Reduced milk production in dairy cows and decreased weight gain in beef cattle account for losses in the US alone of > $2000 million annually. Rural lifestyles and recreation are also seriously affected. Progress has been made on many control strategies against stable fly over a range of chemical, biological, physical and cultural options. This paper reviews management options from both a historical and a technical perspective for controlling this pest. These include the use of different classes of insecticides applied to affected animals as toxicants or repellents (livestock and humans), as well as to substrates where stable fly larvae develop. Arthropod predators of stable flies are listed, from which potential biological control agents (e.g., wasps, mites, and beetles) are identified. Biopesticides (e.g., fungi, bacteria and plant-derived products) are also discussed along with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) against stable flies for several animal industries. A review of cultural and physical management options including trapping, trap types and methodologies, farm hygiene, scheduled sanitation, physical barriers to fly emergence, livestock protection and amendments added to animal manures and bedding are covered. This paper presents a comprehensive review of all management options used against stable flies from both a historical and a technical perspective for use by any entomologist, livestock producer or horticulturalist with an interest in reducing the negative impact of this pest fly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of House Flies and Stable Flies)
Open AccessArticle
Habitat and Seasonality Affect Mosquito Community Composition in the West Region of Cameroon
Insects 2020, 11(5), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050312 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
To identify potential sylvatic, urban and bridge-vectors that can be involved in current or future virus spillover from wild to more urbanised areas, entomological field surveys were conducted in rural, peri-urban and urban areas spanning the rainy and dry seasons in western Cameroon. [...] Read more.
To identify potential sylvatic, urban and bridge-vectors that can be involved in current or future virus spillover from wild to more urbanised areas, entomological field surveys were conducted in rural, peri-urban and urban areas spanning the rainy and dry seasons in western Cameroon. A total of 2650 mosquitoes belonging to 37 species and eight genera were collected. Mosquito species richness was significantly influenced by the specific combination of the habitat type and the season. The highest species richness was found in the peri-urban area (S = 30, Chao1 = 121 ± 50.63, ACE = 51.97 ± 3.88) during the dry season (S = 28, Chao1 = 64 ± 25.7, ACE = 38.33 ± 3.1). Aedes (Ae.) africanus and Culex (Cx.) moucheti were only found in the rural and peri-urban areas, while Cx. pipiens s.l. and Ae. aegypti were only found in the urban area. Cx. (Culiciomyia) spp., Cx. duttoni and Ae. albopictus were caught in the three habitat types. Importantly, approximately 52% of the mosquito species collected in this study have been implicated in the transmission of diverse arboviruses. This entomological survey provides a catalogue of the different mosquito species that may be involved in the transmission of arboviruses. Further investigations are needed to study the vectorial capacity of each mosquito species in arbovirus transmission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical Mechanisms, Cross-resistance and Stability of Resistance to Metaflumizone in Plutella xylostella
Insects 2020, 11(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050311 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) is an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. It has developed resistance to many conventional and novel insecticide classes. Metaflumizone belongs to the new chemical class of semicarbazone insecticides. To delay the development of metaflumizone resistance in [...] Read more.
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) is an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. It has developed resistance to many conventional and novel insecticide classes. Metaflumizone belongs to the new chemical class of semicarbazone insecticides. To delay the development of metaflumizone resistance in P. xylostella and to guide insecticide use in the field, the biochemical mechanisms, cross-resistance spectrum, and stability of resistance to metaflumizone were studied in a laboratory-selected resistant strain (metaflu-SEL). Synergism tests with the carboxylesterase inhibitor triphenyl phosphate (TPP), the glutathione S-transferase depletor diethyl maleate (DEM), and the P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had no obvious effect on metaflumizone in the metaflu-SEL strain and the susceptible strain (SS) of P. xylostella, with synergism ratios that ranged from 1.02 to 1.86. Biochemical studies revealed that the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase increased only 1.13-fold in the metaflu-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL stain; meanwhile, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity showed no difference. These results suggest that these detoxification enzymes may be not actively involved in metaflumizone resistance. Furthermore, the metaflu-SEL population showed a moderate level of cross-resistance to indoxacarb (11.63-fold), but only very low cross-resistance to spinosad (1.75-fold), spinetoram (3.52-fold), abamectin (2.81-fold), beta-cypermethrin (0.71-fold), diafenthiuron (0.79-fold), chlorantraniliprole (2.16-fold), BT (WG-001) (3.34-fold), chlorfenapyr (0.49-fold), and chlorfluazuron (0.97-fold). Moreover, metaflumizone resistance decreased from 1087.85- to 1.23-fold in the metaflu-SEL strain after 12 generations without exposure to metaflumizone. These results are useful for formulating insecticide resistance management strategies to control P. xylostella and to delay the development of metaflumizone resistance in the field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains on the Nettle Caterpillar, Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae)
Insects 2020, 11(5), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050310 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
In the present work, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains on Euprosterna elaeasa as an alternative for the organophosphate insecticide use in oil palm plantations in the Americas. The toxic effects of four Bt-strains (HD-1 var. [...] Read more.
In the present work, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains on Euprosterna elaeasa as an alternative for the organophosphate insecticide use in oil palm plantations in the Americas. The toxic effects of four Bt-strains (HD-1 var. kurstaki, SA-12 var. kurstaki, ABTS-1857 var. aizawai, and GC-91 var. aizawai) were evaluated against E. elaeasa caterpillars for toxicity, survival, anti-feeding, and mortality in field-controlled conditions. The Bt-strains, ABTS-1857 var. aizawai (LC50 = 0.84 mg mL−1), GC-91 var. aizawai (LC50 = 1.13 mg mL−1), and HD-1 var. kurstaki (LC50 = 1.25 mg mL−1), were the most toxic to E. elaeasa. The caterpillar survival was 99% without exposure to Bt-strains, and decreased to 52–23% in insects treated with the LC50 and 10–1% in insects exposed to LC90 after 48 h. Furthermore, Bt-strains decreased significantly the consumption of oil palm leaves of E. elaeasa 3 h after exposure. Mortality of E. elaeasa caterpillars caused by Bt-strains had similar lethal effects in the laboratory and in field conditions. Our data suggest that Bt-strains have insecticidal activity against E. elaeasa and, therefore, have potential applications in oil palm pest management schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Host Plant and Antibiotic Effects on Scent Bouquet Composition of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua Calling Males, Two Polyphagous Tephritid Pests
Insects 2020, 11(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050309 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
In insects, the quality of sex pheromones plays a critical role in mating success and can be determined by the ability of larvae/adults to accrue chemical precursors. We tested the host-quality-effect hypothesis by analyzing the chemical composition of scent bouquets emitted by calling [...] Read more.
In insects, the quality of sex pheromones plays a critical role in mating success and can be determined by the ability of larvae/adults to accrue chemical precursors. We tested the host-quality-effect hypothesis by analyzing the chemical composition of scent bouquets emitted by calling males of two polyphagous tephritid species (Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua) that originated from 13 fruit species representing diverse plant families. In A. ludens, we worked with an ancestral host (Rutaceae), nine exotic ones (Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae, Lythraceae), and two species never attacked in nature but that represent candidates for host-range expansion (Solanaceae, Myrtaceae). In A. obliqua, we tested an ancestral, a native, and an exotic host (Anacardiaceae), one occasional (Myrtaceae), and one fruit never attacked in nature (Solanaceae). We identified a core scent bouquet and significant variation in the bouquet’s composition depending on the fruit the larvae developed in. We also tested the possible microbial role on the scent bouquet by treating adults with antibiotics, finding a significant effect on quantity but not composition. We dwell on plasticity to partially explain our results and discuss the influence hosts could have on male competitiveness driven by variations in scent bouquet composition and how this could impact insect sterile technique programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Analysis of Mating Responses in Bemisia tabaci MED Females
Insects 2020, 11(5), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050308 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Mating triggers substantial changes in gene expression and leads to subsequent physiological and behavioral modifications. However, postmating transcriptomic changes responding to mating have not yet been fully understood. Here, we carried out RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis in the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci [...] Read more.
Mating triggers substantial changes in gene expression and leads to subsequent physiological and behavioral modifications. However, postmating transcriptomic changes responding to mating have not yet been fully understood. Here, we carried out RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis in the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MED, to identify genes in females in response to mating. We compared mRNA expression in virgin and mated females at 24 h. As a result, 434 differentially expressed gene transcripts (DEGs) were identified between the mated and unmated groups, including 331 up- and 103 down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that many of these DEGs encode binding-related proteins and genes associated with longevity. An RT-qPCR validation study was consistent with our transcriptomic analysis (14/15). Specifically, expression of P450s (Cyp18a1 and Cyp4g68), ubiquitin-protein ligases (UBR5 and RNF123), Hsps (Hsp68 and Hsf), carboxylase (ACC-2), facilitated trehalose transporters (Tret1-2), transcription factor (phtf), and serine-protein kinase (TLK2) were significantly elevated in mated females throughout seven assay days. These combined results offer a glimpe of postmating molecular modifications to facilitate reproduction in B. tabaci females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change May Restrict the Predation Efficiency of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae
Insects 2020, 11(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050307 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 346
Abstract
(1) Dengue is the most spread mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and vector control is the only available means to suppress its prevalence, since no effective treatment or vaccine has been developed. A biological control program using copepods that feed on mosquito [...] Read more.
(1) Dengue is the most spread mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and vector control is the only available means to suppress its prevalence, since no effective treatment or vaccine has been developed. A biological control program using copepods that feed on mosquito larvae has been practiced in Vietnam and some other countries, but the application of copepods was not always successful. (2) To understand why the utility of copepods varies, we evaluated the predation efficiency of a copepod species (Mesocyclops aspericornis) on a vector species (Aedes aegypti) by laboratory experiments under different temperatures, nutrition and prey-density conditions. (3) We found that copepod predation reduced intraspecific competition among Aedes larvae and then shortened the survivor’s aquatic life and increased their pupal weight. In addition, the predatory efficiency of copepods was reduced at high temperatures. Furthermore, performance of copepod offspring fell when the density of mosquito larvae was high, probably because mosquito larvae had adverse effects on copepod growth through competition for food resources. (4) These results suggest that the increase in mosquitoes will not be suppressed solely by the application of copepods if the density of mosquito larvae is high or ambient temperature is high. We need to consider additional control methods in order to maintain the efficiency of copepods to suppress mosquito increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
An Insight into the Role of Trissolcus mitsukurii as Biological Control Agent of Halyomorpha halys in Northeastern Italy
Insects 2020, 11(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050306 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Sustainable strategies such as classical or augmentative biological control are currently being evaluated for the long-term management of the alien invasive pest Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). A three-year study carried out in northeastern Italy was performed to investigate the distribution and field [...] Read more.
Sustainable strategies such as classical or augmentative biological control are currently being evaluated for the long-term management of the alien invasive pest Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). A three-year study carried out in northeastern Italy was performed to investigate the distribution and field performance of the H. halys egg parasitoid Trissolcus mitsukurii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), in comparison with other parasitoid species. In the study area, adventive populations of T. mitsukurii were present since 2016, representing the earliest detection of this species in Europe. Trissolcus mitsukurii was the most abundant parasitoid and showed a higher “parasitoid impact” (i.e., number of parasitized eggs over the total number of field-collected eggs) compared to the other species, i.e., Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Trissolcus kozlovi Rjachovskij (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). The hyperparasitoid Acroclisoides sinicus (Huang and Liao) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was also recorded. Phylogenetic analysis of T. mitsukurii population distinguished two clades, one covering samples from Italy, Japan and China, the other from South Korea. The present study provides promising results for the biological control of a pest that is having a dramatic impact on a wide range of crops worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
KASP Genotyping as a Molecular Tool for Diagnosis of Cassava-Colonizing Bemisia tabaci
Insects 2020, 11(5), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050305 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that requires the use of molecular tools for identification. The most widely used approach for achieving this is the partial sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). A more reliable single [...] Read more.
Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that requires the use of molecular tools for identification. The most widely used approach for achieving this is the partial sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). A more reliable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping approach, using Nextera restriction-site-associated DNA (NextRAD) sequencing, has demonstrated the existence of six major haplogroups of B. tabaci on cassava in Africa. However, NextRAD sequencing is costly and time-consuming. We, therefore, developed a cheaper and more rapid diagnostic using the Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) approach. Seven sets of primers were designed to distinguish the six B. tabaci haplogroups based on the NextRAD data. Out of the 152 whitefly samples that were tested using these primer sets, 151 (99.3%) produced genotyping results consistent with NextRAD. The KASP assay was designed using NextRAD data on whiteflies from cassava in 18 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. This assay can, therefore, be routinely used to rapidly diagnose cassava B. tabaci by laboratories that are researching or monitoring this pest in Africa. This is the first study to develop an SNP-based assay to distinguish B. tabaci whiteflies on cassava in Africa, and the first application of the KASP technique for insect identification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Asteraceae Paradox: Chemical and Mechanical Protection of Taraxacum Pollen
Insects 2020, 11(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050304 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Excessive pollen harvesting by bees can compromise the reproductive success of plants. Plants have therefore evolved different morphological structures and floral cues to narrow the spectrum of pollen feeding visitors. Among “filtering” mechanisms, the chemical and mechanical protection of pollen might shape bee-flower [...] Read more.
Excessive pollen harvesting by bees can compromise the reproductive success of plants. Plants have therefore evolved different morphological structures and floral cues to narrow the spectrum of pollen feeding visitors. Among “filtering” mechanisms, the chemical and mechanical protection of pollen might shape bee-flower interactions and restrict pollen exploitation to a specific suite of visitors such as observed in Asteraceae. Asteraceae pollen is indeed only occasionally exploited by generalist bee species but plentifully foraged by specialist ones (i.e., Asteraceae paradox). During our bioassays, we observed that micro-colonies of generalist bumblebee (Bombus terrestris L.) feeding on Taraxacum pollen (Asteraceae) reduced their pollen collection and offspring production. Bees also experienced physiological effects of possible defenses in the form of digestive damage. Overall, our results suggest the existence of an effective chemical defense in Asteraceae pollen, while the hypothesis of a mechanical defense appeared more unlikely. Pre- and post-ingestive effects of such chemical defenses (i.e., nutrient deficit or presence of toxic compounds), as well as their role in the shaping of bee-flower interactions, are discussed. Our results strongly suggest that pollen chemical traits may act as drivers of plant selection by bees and partly explain why Asteraceae pollen is rare in generalist bee diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Nutritional Resource Exploitation by Insects)
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Open AccessReview
Comparative Ecology of Hyalomma lusitanicum and Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae)
Insects 2020, 11(5), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050303 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The genus Hyalomma belongs to the Ixodidae family and includes many tick species. Most species in this genus are African species, but two of them, Hyalomma lusitanicum and Hyalomma marginatum, are also found in Europe and, owing to their morphological similarity, it is [...] Read more.
The genus Hyalomma belongs to the Ixodidae family and includes many tick species. Most species in this genus are African species, but two of them, Hyalomma lusitanicum and Hyalomma marginatum, are also found in Europe and, owing to their morphological similarity, it is very difficult to tell them apart. This is a major concern because their phenology and vector capacities are quite different. Moreover, they share many habitats and both are currently spreading to new areas, probably due to climate change and animal/human movements. In this study, we review the described ecology of the two species and provide further interesting data on H. lusitanicum based on the authors’ experience, which could be useful in assessing the risk they pose to humans and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insight into the Systematics of European Lepidocyrtus (Collembola: Entomobryidae) Using Molecular and Morphological Data
Insects 2020, 11(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050302 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The Collembolan genus Lepidocyrtus is subdivided into up to eight subgenera, of which only Lepidocyrtus s.str. (Bourlet, 1839) and Lanocyrtus (Yoshii & Suhardjono, 1989) are represented by European species. The discovery of unique characters in the European species Lepidocyrtus tomosvaryi (rounded dental tubercle) [...] Read more.
The Collembolan genus Lepidocyrtus is subdivided into up to eight subgenera, of which only Lepidocyrtus s.str. (Bourlet, 1839) and Lanocyrtus (Yoshii & Suhardjono, 1989) are represented by European species. The discovery of unique characters in the European species Lepidocyrtus tomosvaryi (rounded dental tubercle) and L. peisonis (lateral tuft of long filiform chaetae in abdomen III) has only described so far for species of the subgenera Setogaster (Salmon, 1951) and Cinctocyrtus (Yoshii & Suhardjono, 1989) and has raised the need to perform a molecular analysis by involving other representative species of the genus. For this study, phylogenetic analysis of 15 Lepidocyrtus species occurring in the Carpathian Basin were carried out. The analyses, which was based on both concatenated datasets of COII and EF1-α sequences and individual gene sequences, clearly placed L. tomosvaryi within the subgenus Lanocyrtus and L. peisonis within Lepidocyrtus s.srt. European species groups defined on the basis of morphological characters were only partly confirmed by the concatenated and COII analyses because of the splitting of the pallidus–serbicus-group, whereas EF1- α sequences weakly supported this group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma-Infected Scaphoideus titanus in Different Vineyard Agroecosystems of Northwestern Italy
Insects 2020, 11(5), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050301 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Quantitative estimates of vector populations and their infectivity in the wild and in cultivated compartments of agroecosystems have been carried out to elucidate the role of the wild compartment in the epidemiology of Flavescence dorée (FD). Seven sites were selected for the investigations [...] Read more.
Quantitative estimates of vector populations and their infectivity in the wild and in cultivated compartments of agroecosystems have been carried out to elucidate the role of the wild compartment in the epidemiology of Flavescence dorée (FD). Seven sites were selected for the investigations in the Piedmont Region of Italy. They were characterized by a high variety of agricultural and ecological landscape features, and included a vineyard surrounded by wild vegetation. In order to describe abundance and prevalence of FD-infected vectors in the cultivated and wild compartments of the vineyard agroecosystem, adults of Scaphoideus titanus were collected by yellow sticky traps inside and outside the vineyard over the period July 10th–September 9th, 2015. They were counted and singly analyzed for the presence of FD phytoplasmas by PCR. Multifactorial correlations among vector population level, prevalence of infected insects inside and outside the vineyards, disease prevalence in cultivated and wild Vitis plants, and location of wild Vitis plants with respect to the vineyard were analyzed. Abundance of S. titanus adults significantly decreased from the end of July onwards, particularly inside the vineyard (average range 22.7 ± 2.5 insects/trap). Percentage of FD-positive S. titanus was significantly higher outside the vineyard (up to 48% on average) compared to inside the vineyard (up to 34% on average), and increased during the season in both compartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview
New Approaches in Urban Forestry to Minimize Invasive Species Impacts: The Case of Xiongan New Area in China
Insects 2020, 11(5), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050300 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
China is implementing an extensive urban forestry plan in Xiongan New Area (XNA), a new city in Hebei province. The city has been designated to serve Beijing’s noncapital functions and promote the integration of the broader Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei city-region. As part of a green [...] Read more.
China is implementing an extensive urban forestry plan in Xiongan New Area (XNA), a new city in Hebei province. The city has been designated to serve Beijing’s noncapital functions and promote the integration of the broader Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei city-region. As part of a green initiative to minimize environmental impacts and its carbon footprint, a massive urban forestry system has been planned on an unprecedented scale, expected to cover over 600 km2 by 2030. Using science to inform policy, one major goal is to simultaneously minimize impacts of invasive species, while making urban forests more resilient to potential invasive species threats. In this review, we introduce these urban forestry plans such as basic concepts and principles for afforestation, tree species to be planted, delineation of existing pests already established, and expected forest invasive species of concern threatening the new area. Finally, we introduce a framework for invasive pest management strategies in XNA based on a “big data” approach and decision system to minimize impacts of invasive species. This new approach to urban forestry has the potential to become an exemplary global model for urban forestry planning, one that integrates research activities focused on forest health surveys and monitoring with sustainable forestry management. Finally, we provide an overview of the forest health policy required for the design of an unprecedentedly large new urban forest from initial planning to full implementation of an integrated forest management program. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Vibrational Playbacks Disrupt Mating or Influence Other Relevant Behaviours in Bactericera cockerelli (Triozidae: Hemiptera)?
Insects 2020, 11(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050299 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Behaviours of insects can be manipulated by transmitting vibrational signals to host plants in order to develop pest management techniques. Bactericera cockerelli is an important pest and uses vibrations for mate-finding. In order to design a future control strategy for B. cockerelli, [...] Read more.
Behaviours of insects can be manipulated by transmitting vibrational signals to host plants in order to develop pest management techniques. Bactericera cockerelli is an important pest and uses vibrations for mate-finding. In order to design a future control strategy for B. cockerelli, three different bioassays were performed to assess whether vibrational signals could affect relevant behaviours. Single males or pairs were treated with a female playback in test 1 and 2, respectively. In test 3, mixed sex groups received either different disturbance playbacks. The use of a female playback significantly reduced the mating success of males, since they were attracted towards the source of the stimulus. Moreover, test 2 revealed that B. cockerelli females are competitive, since they used their signals to cover the playback and to duet with males, while in test 3, the disturbance playback, consisting of broadband noises significantly reduced male signalling activity. However, none of the treatments of test 3 negatively affected the mating success of males, which tended to mount the other conspecifics present on the same leaf. The role of vibrations in sexual communication and their potential application as control technique for B. cockerelli are discussed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Manipulation for Pest Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Distribution and the Risks of Bactericera cockerelli and Its Associated Plant Pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum for Global Potato Production
Insects 2020, 11(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050298 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The tomato potato psyllid (TPP), Bactericera cockerelli, is a psyllid native to North America that has recently invaded New Zealand and Australia. The potential for economic losses accompanying invasions of TPP and its associated bacterial plant pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), has [...] Read more.
The tomato potato psyllid (TPP), Bactericera cockerelli, is a psyllid native to North America that has recently invaded New Zealand and Australia. The potential for economic losses accompanying invasions of TPP and its associated bacterial plant pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), has caused much concern. Here, we employed ecological niche models to predict environments suitable for TPP/CLso on a global scale and then evaluated the extent to which global potato cultivation is at risk. In addition, at a finer scale the risk to the Australian potato acreage was evaluated. A total of 86 MaxEnt models were built using various combinations of settings and climatic predictors, and the best model based on model evaluation metrics was selected. Climatically suitable habitats were identified in Eurasia, Africa, South America, and Australasia. Intersecting the predicted suitability map with land use data showed that 79.06% of the global potato cultivation acreage, 96.14% of the potato production acreage in South America and Eurasia, and all the Australian potato cropping areas are at risk. The information generated by this study increases knowledge of the ecology of TPP/CLso and can be used by government agencies to make decisions about preventing the spread of TPP and CLso across the globe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus-Infected Whiteflies over Different Viral Acquisition Access Periods
Insects 2020, 11(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050297 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci in a persistent-circulative manner, threatens tomato production worldwide. Little is known about the complicated interaction during this process at the molecular level. In this study, viral AAPs at 0 h, 2 [...] Read more.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci in a persistent-circulative manner, threatens tomato production worldwide. Little is known about the complicated interaction during this process at the molecular level. In this study, viral AAPs at 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 48 h were investigated using a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover the transcriptional responses of whiteflies to virus infection. Our results have shown that 755, 587, 1140 and 1347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of the data of 0 h vs. 2 h, 0 h vs. 6 h, 0 h vs. 12 h and 0 h vs. 48 h, respectively. KEGG analysis showed that DEGs associated with metabolisms and signal transduction were down-regulated in virus-infected whiteflies. Additionally, 16 up-regulated putative transporter genes and 10 down-regulated genes associated with IL-17 signaling pathway were identified by time-associated gene cluster analysis. These data boost our comprehensions on whitefly-TYLCV interactions associated with different viral AAPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Development, Reproduction, and Life Table Parameters of the Foxglove Aphid, Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on Soybean at Constant Temperatures
Insects 2020, 11(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050296 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 380
Abstract
We investigated several characteristics of the development and reproduction of the aphid Aulacorthum solani raised on soybean (Glycine max) at 10 constant temperatures between 2.5 and 30 °C, and described the relationship between temperature and several critical biological characteristics using mathematical [...] Read more.
We investigated several characteristics of the development and reproduction of the aphid Aulacorthum solani raised on soybean (Glycine max) at 10 constant temperatures between 2.5 and 30 °C, and described the relationship between temperature and several critical biological characteristics using mathematical models. We found that A. solani could survive and reproduce on soybean at temperatures ranging from 5 to 27.5 °C. High fecundity was observed at temperatures from 12.5 to 20 °C. The lower developmental threshold and thermal constant for this species’ nymphal stages were estimated to be 5.02 °C and 131.2 degree-days, respectively, using a linear model. The upper developmental threshold was estimated to be 33.9 °C using the Lactin-2 model. The optimum temperature for nymphal development was estimated to be 26.9 °C. The maximum total fecundity was estimated as ca. 76.9 nymphs per adult at 18.1 °C. The daily fecundity sharply increased at earlier adult ages, and slowly decreased thereafter until final parthenogenesis occurred, over a range of temperatures from 12.5 to 25 °C. The maximum daily fecundity was estimated to be ca. 6.1 nymphs per adult per day for a 5.2 day old of adult at 21.3 °C using an age- and temperature-dependent model of adult fecundity. In terms of life table statistics, the intrinsic rates of increase and the finite rate of increase were both highest at 25 °C, while the net reproductive rate was highest at 20 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Lema bilineata (Germar), a New Alien Invasive Leaf Beetle for Europe, with Notes on the Related Species Lema daturaphila Kogan & Goeden
Insects 2020, 11(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050295 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Lema bilineata (Germar) is an alien invasive leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) first recorded in Europe in the summer of 2017 in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). It occurs on both cultivated plants (Nicotiana tabacum) and weeds (Salpichroa origanifolia and [...] Read more.
Lema bilineata (Germar) is an alien invasive leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) first recorded in Europe in the summer of 2017 in the province of Naples (Campania, Italy). It occurs on both cultivated plants (Nicotiana tabacum) and weeds (Salpichroa origanifolia and Datura spp.). Information on morphological characters, color variation and molecular data are deficient for L. bilineata, as is the case for most Lema species. These data could be useful to discriminate between this species and the closely related Lema daturaphila Kogan & Goeden, which has the same potential to become an alien invasive species. In this paper, color variation in adults and the morphology of the aedeagi and spermathecae of the two species are documented and compared, including micrographic images. Additional data on the current distribution of L. bilineata in Campania is also provided. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcoding region of both Italian and South African specimens of L. bilineata, as well as South African specimens of L. daturaphila, was sequenced. A preliminary phylogenetic tree is provided, based on the sequences available for Lema species. Full article
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