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Biological Traits of the Pincer Wasp Gonatopus flavifemur (Esaki & Hashimoto) Associated with Different Stages of Its Host, the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

1
Institute of Entomology, Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources of Guizhou, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China
3
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(5), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11050279
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
Gonatopus flavifemur (Esaki & Hashimoto) is a common parasitoid of the most important rice pest, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), in eastern and southeastern Asia. We investigated the parasitism rates, feeding rates, and offspring development of G. flavifemur in association with five instars of BPH nymphs and male and female adults under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% Relative Humidity). The results showed that the life stage of the host significantly affects parasitism, host feeding, and offspring development by G. flavifemur. The parasitism rate was highest on 4th instar nymphs, and the feeding rate was highest on 1st instar nymphs. The cocooning rate on male adult BPHs was significantly lower than that on other stages; however, emergence rates did not significantly differ among the BPH stages. The rate of female offspring upon emergence from 5th instars was higher than other stages. Both the parasitism and host-feeding functional responses of G. flavifemur to different BPH stages fit well with Holling type II models, supporting the results of parasitism and feeding rates and indicating that G. flavifemur would be a good agent for BPH control. In conclusion, G. flavifemur prefers to feed on young nymphs but prefers to parasitize older nymphs. In addition, 5th instar nymphs are favorable to female offspring of the pincer wasp. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gonatopus flavifemur; Nilaparvata lugens; host stage; parasitism; host feeding; development Gonatopus flavifemur; Nilaparvata lugens; host stage; parasitism; host feeding; development
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He, J.; He, Y.; Lai, F.; Chen, X.; Fu, Q. Biological Traits of the Pincer Wasp Gonatopus flavifemur (Esaki & Hashimoto) Associated with Different Stages of Its Host, the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Insects 2020, 11, 279.

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