Next Issue
Volume 11, May
Previous Issue
Volume 11, March

Table of Contents

Insects, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 59 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Stephanitis pyrioides is an important pest of azalea plants in the eastern region of the USA, [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Mortality and Adaptation of a Smurf Assay in Two Species of Tenebrionid Beetles Exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis
Insects 2020, 11(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040261 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore-forming bacterium which infects insect larvae naturally via the oral route. Its virulence factors interact with the epithelium of the digestive tract of insect larvae, disrupting its function and eventually leading to the death of susceptible hosts. The most [...] Read more.
Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore-forming bacterium which infects insect larvae naturally via the oral route. Its virulence factors interact with the epithelium of the digestive tract of insect larvae, disrupting its function and eventually leading to the death of susceptible hosts. The most cited B. thuringiensis killing mechanism is the extensive damage caused to the insect midgut, leading to its leakage. The mortality caused by B. thuringiensis has been shown to vary between serovars and isolates, as well as between host life stages. Moreover, whether susceptibility to B. thuringiensis-induced gut leakage is generalized to all host species and whether there is individual variation within species is unclear. In this study, we adapted a non-invasive “Smurf” assay from Drosophila melanogaster to two species of tenebrionid beetles: The mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, during exposure to B. thuringiensis. We highlight a differential mortality between two age/size classes of T. molitor larvae, as well as different killing dynamics between B. thuringiensis var. tenebrionis and var. tolworthi in T. castaneum. The Smurf assay did not reveal a high occurrence of extensive gut disintegration in both host species upon ingestion during B. thuringiensis exposure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Survival and Development of Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Populations from Different Geographic Areas on North American Conifers
Insects 2020, 11(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040260 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Host utilization information is critical to managers for estimating the hosts at risk and potential geographic range for gypsy moths from different geographic origins. In this study, the development and survival of gypsy moths from all three subspecies on 13 North American conifers [...] Read more.
Host utilization information is critical to managers for estimating the hosts at risk and potential geographic range for gypsy moths from different geographic origins. In this study, the development and survival of gypsy moths from all three subspecies on 13 North American conifers and three broadleaf hosts were compared. There was variation in the ability of gypsy moth larvae from different geographic origins to utilize (survive and develop on) key North American conifers. However, that variation was not consistent within gypsy moth subspecies, but instead was more consistent with populations from different origins being preadapted to utilize different hosts and having different biologic traits. Some Asian populations developed and survived well on some conifers while populations from Europe and North America gained weight faster and/or survived better than some Asian populations. Although development was slower and survival poorer on several of the conifers, first instar larvae were able to utilize conifers unless the needles were tough or feeding deterrents were present. Host phenology was also critical since the early instars fed preferentially on new foliage or buds. Gypsy moth larvae can utilize many hosts, so this makes it a very adaptable invasive species that warrants taking measures to prevent its spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Management of Invasive Insects in Forest Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ground Type on the Jump Performance of Adults of the Locust Locusta migratoria manilensis: A Preliminary Study
Insects 2020, 11(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040259 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 261
Abstract
The jump performance of locusts depends on several physiological and environmental factors. Few studies have examined the effects of different ground types on the jump performance of locusts. Here, mature adult locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) were examined using a custom-developed measuring [...] Read more.
The jump performance of locusts depends on several physiological and environmental factors. Few studies have examined the effects of different ground types on the jump performance of locusts. Here, mature adult locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) were examined using a custom-developed measuring system to test their jump performance (including postural features, kinematics, and reaction forces) on three types of ground (sand, soil, and wood). Significant differences were primarily observed in the elevation angle at take-off, the tibial angle at take-off, and the component of the mass-specific reaction force along the aft direction of the insect body between wood and the other two ground types (sand and soil). Slippage of the tarsus and insertion of the tibia were often observed when the locusts jumped on sand and soil, respectively. Nevertheless, comparisons of the different parameters of jump initiation (i.e., take-off speed and mass-specific kinetic energy) did not reveal any differences among the three types of ground, indicating that locusts were able to achieve robust jump performance on various substrates. This study provides insights into the biomechanical basis of the locust jump on different types of ground and enhances our understanding of the mechanism underlying the locust jump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Minimum Winter Temperature as a Limiting Factor of the Potential Spread of Agrilus planipennis, an Alien Pest of Ash Trees, in Europe
Insects 2020, 11(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040258 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 308
Abstract
The emerald ash borer, EAB (Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating alien pest of ash trees. It is spreading in European Russia and Ukraine and will appear in other European countries. Our aim was to determine the regions of Europe where the [...] Read more.
The emerald ash borer, EAB (Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating alien pest of ash trees. It is spreading in European Russia and Ukraine and will appear in other European countries. Our aim was to determine the regions of Europe where the winter temperature drops low enough to prevent A. planipennis establishment. We calculated the minimum daily air temperature from 2003–2019 for each grid square (0.5° × 0.5°) in East Asia, North America and Europe and determined the minimum daily temperature in the grid squares where A. planipennis was recorded. Temperatures of −30 to −33 °C occur in the northern portions of the pest range on all continents. No established population has been recorded in localities where temperatures below −34 °C occur. This temperature is close to the absolute supercooling point of A. planipennis larva (−35.3 °C). It is unlikely that low temperatures could prevent the spread of A. planipennis in northern Western Europe (Sweden, Norway, Finland, etc.), since the temperature in this area did not fall to −34 °C from 2003–2019. However, such temperatures are not rare in eastern European Russia (Kostroma, Vologda, Orenburg regions, etc.), where Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. excelsior occur. These regions could potentially become refuges for these ash species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Arthropod Pests)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Her Majesty’s Desert Throne: The Ecology of Queen Butterfly Oviposition on Mojave Milkweed Host Plants
Insects 2020, 11(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040257 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Butterfly–host plant relationships can inform our understanding of ecological and trophic interactions that contribute to ecosystem function, resiliency, and services. The ecology of danaid–milkweed (Apocynaceae) host plant interactions has been studied in several biomes but is neglected in deserts. Our objective was to [...] Read more.
Butterfly–host plant relationships can inform our understanding of ecological and trophic interactions that contribute to ecosystem function, resiliency, and services. The ecology of danaid–milkweed (Apocynaceae) host plant interactions has been studied in several biomes but is neglected in deserts. Our objective was to determine effects of plant traits, seasonality, and landscape-level host plant availability on selection of Mojave milkweed (Asclepias nyctaginifolia A. Gray) by ovipositing monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus plexippus) and queen butterflies (Danaus gilippus thersippus) in the Californian Mojave Desert. We surveyed all known Mojave milkweed locations in the Ivanpah Valley, California (n = 419) during early, mid-, and late spring in 2017. For each survey, we counted monarch and queen butterfly eggs on each Mojave milkweed plant. We also measured canopy cover, height, volume, and reproductive stage of each Mojave milkweed plant. We counted a total of 276 queen butterfly eggs and zero monarch butterfly eggs on Mojave milkweed host plants. We determined that count of queen butterfly eggs significantly increased with increasing Mojave milkweed canopy cover. Additionally, count of queen butterfly eggs was: (1) greater on adult Mojave milkweed plants than on juvenile and seedling plants and greater on juvenile Mojave milkweed plants than on seedling plants; and (2) greater during early spring than mid-spring—we recorded no eggs during late spring. Based on aggregation indices, queen butterfly eggs occurred on Mojave milkweed plants in a nonrandom, clustered pattern throughout the Ivanpah Valley. We provide the first evidence of trophic interactions between queen butterflies and Mojave milkweed at multiple spatial scales in the Mojave Desert, suggesting that conservation and management practices for both species should be implemented concurrently. Given its role as an herbivore, pollinator and prey, the queen butterfly may serve as a model organism for understanding effects of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., solar energy development) on “bottom-up” and trophic interactions among soils, plants and animals in desert ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Biodiversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mazes to Study the Effects of Spatial Complexity, Predation and Population Density on Mate Finding
Insects 2020, 11(4), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040256 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. For testing hypotheses about population [...] Read more.
The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. For testing hypotheses about population density and predation, we contend that habitat complexity can be simulated using insect mazes of varying mathematical difficulty. To demonstrate the concept, we investigated whether the use of 3D printed mazes of varying complexity could be used to increase spatial separation between sexes of Drosophila simulans, and whether the presence of a generalist predator hampered mate-finding. We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. As expected, there was an increase in time taken to find a mate and a lower incidence of mating as habitat complexity increased. Increasing the density of flies reduced the searching time and increased mating success, and overcame the effect of the predator in the maze. Printable 3D mazes offer the opportunity to quickly assess the effects of spatial separation on insect population growth in the laboratory, without the need for large enclosed spaces. Mazes could be scaled up for larger insects and can be used for other applications such as learning. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Stable Isotope Enrichment (Δ15N) in the Predatory Flower Bug (Orius majusculus) Predicts Fitness-Related Differences between Diets
Insects 2020, 11(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040255 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Mass rearing of insects, used both as biological control agents and for food and feed, is receiving increasing attention. Efforts are being made to improve diets that are currently in use, and to identify alternative diets, as is the case with the predatory [...] Read more.
Mass rearing of insects, used both as biological control agents and for food and feed, is receiving increasing attention. Efforts are being made to improve diets that are currently in use, and to identify alternative diets, as is the case with the predatory flower bug (Orius majusculus) and other heteropteran predators, due to the high costs of their current diet, the eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth (E. kuehniella). The assessment of alternative diets may include measurements of the predator’s fitness-related traits (development time, weight, etc.), and biochemical analyses such as lipid and protein content in the diet and the insects. However, assessing diet quality via the predator’s fitness-related traits is laborious, and biochemical composition is often difficult to relate to the measured traits. Isotope analysis, previously used for diet reconstruction studies, can also serve as a tool for the assessment of diet quality. Here, the variation in discrimination factors or isotope enrichment (Δ15N and Δ13C) indicates the difference in isotopic ratio between the insect and its diet. In this study, we investigated the link between Δ15N and diet quality in the predatory bug Orius majusculus. Three groups of bugs were fed different diets: Ephestia kuehniella eggs, protein-rich Drosophila melanogaster and lipid-rich D. melanogaster. The isotopic enrichment and fitness-related measurements were assessed for each group. Results show a relation between Δ15N and fitness-related measurements, which conform to the idea that lower Δ15N indicates a higher diet quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Differential Foraging of Indigenous and Exotic Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) Races on Nectar-Rich Flow in a Subtropical Ecosystem
Insects 2020, 11(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040254 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In the subtropics, agricultural activities such as beekeeping are greatly influenced by environmental challenges. In the desert of Central Arabia, honeybees forage on limited prairies that are affected by adverse weather conditions. Bee colonies reduce their field activities during extremely hot-dry-windy weather. This [...] Read more.
In the subtropics, agricultural activities such as beekeeping are greatly influenced by environmental challenges. In the desert of Central Arabia, honeybees forage on limited prairies that are affected by adverse weather conditions. Bee colonies reduce their field activities during extremely hot-dry-windy weather. This study investigated whether nectar-rich melliferous flora enhance the field activities of two honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera jemenitica (indigenous) and A. m. carnica (exotic), despite the presence of severe weather conditions. The foraging and pollen-gathering activities of the two subspecies were evaluated on Acacia trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth.), a common subtropical, summery endemic bee plant, in the central desert of the Arabian Peninsula. The native colonies were significantly (p < 0.001) more active foragers than the exotic colonies (109 ± 4 and 49 ± 2 workers/colony/3 min, respectively). Similarly, the native colonies recruited significantly (p ˂ 0.01) more active pollen-gathering bees than the imported colonies (22 ± 1 and 7 ± 1 workers/colony/3 min, respectively). Furthermore, far more food was collected by the indigenous colonies than by the exotic colonies, and a higher portion of all field trips was allocated to pollen gathering by the indigenous bees than by the imported bees. The nectar-rich Acacia trees reduced the negative effects of hot-dry-windy weather. More research on honeybee colonies operating in the subtropical conditions of Central Arabia is needed, especially regarding heat tolerance mechanisms and effects on queen and drone fertility. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Chitin Synthase Genes in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura
Insects 2020, 11(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040253 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin formation. CHS has been characterized in various insect species, but the structure and biochemical properties in Spodoptera litura have not been determined. [...] Read more.
Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin formation. CHS has been characterized in various insect species, but the structure and biochemical properties in Spodoptera litura have not been determined. In this study, we identified two CHS genes, SlCHS1 and SlCHS2, which encode proteins with 1565 and 1520 amino acid residues, respectively. Transcriptional analysis suggested that SlCHS1 has a high expression level in the integument whereas SlCHS2 showed the highest expression level in the midgut. During S. litura growth and development, SlCHS1 and SlCHS2 were both predominantly expressed in the fourth-instar larval stage. In addition, the expression of SlCHS1 and SlCHS2 could be induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Silencing of SlCHS1 by RNA interference significantly inhibited the pupation and molting of S. litura larvae (RNAi), while knockdown of SlCHS2 had no significant effects on the S. litura phenotype. These results may provide a new molecular target for control of S. litura. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Molecular Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Effects of Pesticides on European Foulbrood in Honeybee Larvae
Insects 2020, 11(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040252 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Neonicotinoid and fungicide exposure has been linked to immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to disease in honeybees (Apis mellifera). European foulbrood, caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius, is a disease of honeybee larvae which causes economic hardship for commercial beekeepers, in [...] Read more.
Neonicotinoid and fungicide exposure has been linked to immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to disease in honeybees (Apis mellifera). European foulbrood, caused by the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius, is a disease of honeybee larvae which causes economic hardship for commercial beekeepers, in particular those whose colonies pollinate blueberries. We report for the first time in Canada, an atypical variant of M. plutonius isolated from a blueberry-pollinating colony. With this isolate, we used an in vitro larval infection system to study the effects of pesticide exposure on the development of European foulbrood disease. Pesticide doses tested were excessive (thiamethoxam and pyrimethanil) or maximal field-relevant (propiconazole and boscalid). We found that chronic exposure to the combination of thiamethoxam and propiconazole significantly decreased the survival of larvae infected with M. plutonius, while larvae chronically exposed to thiamethoxam and/or boscalid or pyrimethanil did not experience significant increases in mortality from M. plutonius infection in vitro. Based on these results, individual, calculated field-realistic residues of thiamethoxam and/or boscalid or pyrimethanil are unlikely to increase mortality from European foulbrood disease in honeybee worker brood, while the effects of field-relevant exposure to thiamethoxam and propiconazole on larval mortality from European foulbrood warrant further study. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using UPLC–MS/MS to Evaluate the Dissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Aedes Mosquitoes to Combat Cryptic Larval Habitats after Source Reduction in Kaohsiung in Southern Taiwan
Insects 2020, 11(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040251 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The policy regarding mosquito control strategies in Taiwan is based on integrated vector management (IVM). The major approach is source reduction via collaboration by both residents and governments. However, small and cryptic habitats of dengue vectors are hard to find and eliminate in [...] Read more.
The policy regarding mosquito control strategies in Taiwan is based on integrated vector management (IVM). The major approach is source reduction via collaboration by both residents and governments. However, small and cryptic habitats of dengue vectors are hard to find and eliminate in urban communities. Therefore, this study evaluated a complementary approach that targeted cryptic habitats by utilizing mosquitoes themselves as vehicles to transfer an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to their breeding sites; the amount of PPF in breeding water was determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). A bioassay conducted by introducing ten late-instar larvae into PPF solution was performed to assess emergence inhibition (EI). PPF was found at 0.56 ± 0.04 ng in 25 mL of water by dissemination via ten Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to 0.01% PPF, leading to 100% EI. After the community-level source reduction, a field trial in Kaohsiung in Southern Taiwan showed that 30.8–31.5% of cryptic ovitraps reached EI ≥ 50% one month after spraying 0.01% PPF in microhabitats favored by mosquitoes. IVM in parallel with residual spraying of PPF on resting surfaces of mosquitoes could serve as a simple and complementary approach to reduce cryptic larval sources in urban communities in Southern Taiwan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microbial Diversity Associated with the Pollen Stores of Captive-Bred Bumble Bee Colonies
Insects 2020, 11(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040250 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The pollen stores of bumble bees host diverse microbiota that influence overall colony fitness. Yet, the taxonomic identity of these symbiotic microbes is relatively unknown. In this descriptive study, we characterized the microbial community of pollen provisions within captive-bred bumble bee hives obtained [...] Read more.
The pollen stores of bumble bees host diverse microbiota that influence overall colony fitness. Yet, the taxonomic identity of these symbiotic microbes is relatively unknown. In this descriptive study, we characterized the microbial community of pollen provisions within captive-bred bumble bee hives obtained from two commercial suppliers located in North America. Findings from 16S rRNA and ITS gene-based analyses revealed that pollen provisions from the captive-bred hives shared several microbial taxa that have been previously detected among wild populations. While diverse microbes across phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota were detected in all commercial hives, significant differences were detected at finer-scale taxonomic resolution based on the supplier source. The causative agent of chalkbrood disease in honey bees, Ascosphaera apis, was detected in all hives obtained from one supplier source, although none of the hives showed symptoms of infection. The shared core microbiota across both commercial supplier sources consisted of two ubiquitous bee-associated groups, Lactobacillus and Wickerhamiella/Starmerella clade yeasts that potentially contribute to the beneficial function of the microbiome of bumble bee pollen provisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bees and Their Symbionts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Competing Vegetation Structure Indices for Estimating Spatial Constrains in Carabid Abundance Patterns in Chinese Grasslands Reveal Complex Scale and Habitat Patterns
Insects 2020, 11(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040249 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Carabid communities are influenced by landscape features. Chinese steppes are subject to increasing desertification processes that are changing land-cover characteristics with negative impacts on insect communities. Despite those warnings, how land-cover characteristics influence carabid communities in steppe ecosystems remains unknown. The aim of [...] Read more.
Carabid communities are influenced by landscape features. Chinese steppes are subject to increasing desertification processes that are changing land-cover characteristics with negative impacts on insect communities. Despite those warnings, how land-cover characteristics influence carabid communities in steppe ecosystems remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate how landscape characteristics drive carabid abundance in different steppes (desert, typical, and meadow steppes) at different spatial scales. Carabid abundances were estimated using pitfall traps. Various landscape indices were derived from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. Indices expressing moisture and productivity were, in general, those with the highest correlations. Different indices capture landscape aspects that influence carabid abundance at different scales, in which the patchiness of desert vegetation plays a major role. Carabid abundance correlations with landscape characteristics rely on the type of grassland, on the vegetation index, and on the scale considered. Proper scales and indices are steppe type-specific, highlighting the need of considering various scales and indices to explain species abundances from remotely sensed data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Where Have All the Spiders Gone? Observations of a Dramatic Population Density Decline in the Once Very Abundant Garden Spider, Araneus diadematus (Araneae: Araneidae), in the Swiss Midland
Insects 2020, 11(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040248 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Aerial web-spinning spiders (including large orb-weavers), as a group, depend almost entirely on flying insects as a food source. The recent widespread loss of flying insects across large parts of western Europe, in terms of both diversity and biomass, can therefore be anticipated [...] Read more.
Aerial web-spinning spiders (including large orb-weavers), as a group, depend almost entirely on flying insects as a food source. The recent widespread loss of flying insects across large parts of western Europe, in terms of both diversity and biomass, can therefore be anticipated to have a drastic negative impact on the survival and abundance of this type of spider. To test the putative importance of such a hitherto neglected trophic cascade, a survey of population densities of the European garden spider Araneus diadematus—a large orb-weaving species—was conducted in the late summer of 2019 at twenty sites in the Swiss midland. The data from this survey were compared with published population densities for this species from the previous century. The study verified the above-mentioned hypothesis that this spider’s present-day overall mean population density has declined alarmingly to densities much lower than can be expected from normal population fluctuations (0.7% of the historical values). Review of other available records suggested that this pattern is widespread and not restricted to this region. In conclusion, the decline of this once so abundant spider in the Swiss midland is evidently revealing a bottom-up trophic cascade in response to the widespread loss of flying insect prey in recent decades. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Adding Amino Acids to a Sucrose Diet Is Not Sufficient to Support Longevity of Adult Bumble Bees
Insects 2020, 11(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040247 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Dietary macro-nutrients (i.e., carbohydrates, protein, and fat) are important for bee larval development and, thus, colony health and fitness. To which extent different diets (varying in macro-nutrient composition) affect adult bees and whether they can thrive on nectar as the sole amino acid [...] Read more.
Dietary macro-nutrients (i.e., carbohydrates, protein, and fat) are important for bee larval development and, thus, colony health and fitness. To which extent different diets (varying in macro-nutrient composition) affect adult bees and whether they can thrive on nectar as the sole amino acid source has, however, been little investigated. We investigated how diets varying in protein concentration and overall nutrient composition affected consumption, longevity, and breeding behavior of the buff-tailed bumble bee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Queenless micro-colonies were fed either natural nutrient sources (pollen), nearly pure protein (i.e., the milk protein casein), or sucrose solutions with low and with high essential amino acid content in concentrations as can be found in nectar. We observed micro-colonies for 110 days. We found that longevity was highest for pure pollen and lowest for pure sucrose solution and sucrose solution supplemented with amino acids in concentrations as found in the nectar of several plant species. Adding higher concentrations of amino acids to sucrose solution did only slightly increase longevity compared to sucrose alone. Consequently, sucrose solution with the applied concentrations and proportions of amino acids or other protein sources (e.g., casein) alone did not meet the nutritional needs of healthy adult bumble bees. In fact, longevity was highest and reproduction only successful in micro-colonies fed pollen. These results indicate that, in addition to carbohydrates and protein, adult bumble bees, like larvae, need further nutrients (e.g., lipids and micro-nutrients) for their well-being. An appropriate nutritional composition seemed to be best provided by floral pollen, suggesting that pollen is an essential dietary component not only for larvae but also for adult bees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Nutritional Resource Exploitation by Insects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Larvicidal, Ovicidal, Synergistic, and Repellent Activities of Sophora alopecuroides and Its Dominant Constituents Against Aedes albopictus
Insects 2020, 11(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040246 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
In the current study, to combat insecticide resistance, we explored larvicidal, ovicidal, synergistic, and repellent activities of Sophora alopecuroides extract and its dominant constituents against Aedes albopictus. The results of the toxicity bioassays demonstrated that the extract of S. alopecuroides exerted significant [...] Read more.
In the current study, to combat insecticide resistance, we explored larvicidal, ovicidal, synergistic, and repellent activities of Sophora alopecuroides extract and its dominant constituents against Aedes albopictus. The results of the toxicity bioassays demonstrated that the extract of S. alopecuroides exerted significant larvicidal activity (16.66–86.66%) against the third-instar larvae of Ae. albopictus at different concentrations (5–50 ug/mL) and low hatchability of eggs (2.32–75%) at 5–50 ug/mL. The constituents of S. alopecuroides showed a synergistic effect when applied as a mixture (LC30 + LC30) against larvae, while no synergistic effect was observed against the eggs of Ae. albopictus. S. alopecuroides extract provided 93.11% repellency in the first 90 min and gradually decreased to 53.14% after 240 min, while the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) showed 94.18% in the first 90 min and 55.33% after 240 min. All of the results exhibited a concentration-dependent effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a study has identified a highly effective extract of S. alopecuroides, which could be used as an alternative agent to control larvae and eggs and to repel adults of Ae. albopictus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances against Insect Pests: Assets and Liabilities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cloning, Expression Analysis, 20-Hydroxyecdysone Induction, and RNA Interference Study of Autophagy-Related Gene 8 from Heortia vitessoides Moore
Insects 2020, 11(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040245 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated process in eukaryotic cells and remodels cytoplasm, recovers essential nutrients, and disposes of unwanted cytoplasmic components. Autophagy-related gene (ATG) 8, identified in Heortia vitessoides Moore, which is an oligophagous pest of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.), was characterized [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated process in eukaryotic cells and remodels cytoplasm, recovers essential nutrients, and disposes of unwanted cytoplasmic components. Autophagy-related gene (ATG) 8, identified in Heortia vitessoides Moore, which is an oligophagous pest of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.), was characterized (HvATG8). Multiple sequence alignment showed that HvATG8 possesses highly conserved domain structures. Stage- and tissue-specific expressions indicated that HvATG8 is highly expressed in prepupal, pupal, and adult stages and in the midgut of larvae and abdomen of adults. Lack of function of HvATG8 by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in survival rate and an increase in abnormal or nonviable phenotypes in H. vitessoides. Transition rate from larval to pupal stages was 33.0% and from pupal to adult stages was 15.0% after injection. Reduction of ATG8 expression reduced survival of H. vitessoides. Therefore, HvATG8 possibly plays a key role in normal growth stage of H. vitessoides. HvATG8 suppression downregulates HvATG3 expression, suggesting that the two genes are interconnected. Further, HvATG8 expression increased by 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment, starvation, and extreme temperature exposure. Starvation also altered expression of other ATGs in H. vitessoide. This study may be used to guide research on molecular mechanisms of autophagy in insects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Detecting Soil Microarthropods with a Camera-Supported Trap
Insects 2020, 11(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040244 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 347
Abstract
There is an increasing need to monitor activity and population growth of arthropods; however, this is a time-consuming and financially demanding process. Using sensors to detect arthropods in the field can help to follow their dynamics in time. Improving our earlier device, we [...] Read more.
There is an increasing need to monitor activity and population growth of arthropods; however, this is a time-consuming and financially demanding process. Using sensors to detect arthropods in the field can help to follow their dynamics in time. Improving our earlier device, we developed a new camera-supported probe to detect soil microarthropods. An opto-electronic sensor ring detects the caught microarthropod individuals what activates a camera. The camera takes pictures of a specimen when it arrives in the camera chamber. A vacuum device was built into the probe which pumps up the specimen from the probe to a sample container. Here, we describe the construction and operation of the probe. We investigated the precision of the process in a laboratory experiment using living microarthropods and evaluated the accuracy of the probes in a semi-natural investigation when environmental noise was present. Under semi-natural conditions, the percentages of success, i.e., the photographed specimens compared to the caught ones, were between 60% and 70% at the investigated taxa. The automatic camera shooting helped in distinguishing insects from irrelevant detections while collecting the trapped insects allowed species-level determination. This information together serves as a basis for the automatic visual recognition of microarthropod species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elucidating the Role of Soil Arthropods in Soil Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Concanavalin A Toxicity Towards Potato Psyllid and Apoptosis Induction in Midgut Cells
Insects 2020, 11(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040243 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Concanavalin A (ConA), a legume lectin, has been drawing increasing attention in recent years concerning its toxicity against insects and its potential application in pest management. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of ConA on potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), an [...] Read more.
Concanavalin A (ConA), a legume lectin, has been drawing increasing attention in recent years concerning its toxicity against insects and its potential application in pest management. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of ConA on potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli), an economically important pest of solanaceous crops, the effect of ConA on potato psyllid survival, psyllid gut nuclear morphology, and expression of psyllid caspase genes were evaluated. Our results determined that artificial diet-feeding assays using ConA had deleterious effects on potato psyllids, resulting in significant psyllid mortality following ingestion. We also found that an apoptotic response was induced by ConA in psyllid midgut cells, which was demonstrated by the DNA fragmentation and abnormal nuclear architecture in the midgut cells. Following ConA ingestion, there was also upregulation of caspase genes in the psyllid midguts. Therefore, a key mechanism behind ConA toxicity towards potato psyllid probably involves the induction of apoptosis in midgut cells. This study could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ConA toxicity in insects and be a stepping stone towards the development of new psyllid control strategies based on plant lectins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Vectors of Plant Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Do Development and Diet Determine the Degree of Cannibalism in Insects? To Eat or Not to Eat Conspecifics
Insects 2020, 11(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040242 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Cannibalism in insects plays an important role in ecological relationships. Nonetheless, it has not been studied as extensively as in other arthropods groups (e.g., Arachnida). From a theoretical point of view, cannibalism has an impact on the development of more realistic stage-structure mathematical [...] Read more.
Cannibalism in insects plays an important role in ecological relationships. Nonetheless, it has not been studied as extensively as in other arthropods groups (e.g., Arachnida). From a theoretical point of view, cannibalism has an impact on the development of more realistic stage-structure mathematical models. Additionally, it has a practical application for biological pest control, both in mass-rearing and out in the field through inoculative releases. In this paper, the cannibalistic behavior of two species of predatory bugs was studied under laboratory conditions—one of them a generalist predator (strictly carnivorous), Nabis pseudoferus, and the other a true omnivore (zoophytophagous), Nesidiocoris tenuis—and compared with the intraguild predation (IGP) behavior. The results showed that cannibalism in N. pseudoferus was prevalent in all the developmental stages studied, whereas in N. tenuis, cannibalism was rarely observed, and it was restricted mainly to the first three nymphal stages. Cannibalism and intraguild predation had no linear relationship with the different cannibal–prey size ratios, as evaluated by the mortality rates and survival times, although there were variations in cannibalism between stages, especially for N. pseudoferus. The mathematical model’s implications are presented and discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Cytotoxic Effect of Genistein, a Soybean Isoflavone, against Cultured Tribolium Cells
Insects 2020, 11(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040241 - 12 Apr 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a known pest of various grains and stored-products such as wheat flours; however, T. castaneum feeds on and infests soybean and soy products. For more than 60 years, soy flour has been suggested to be unstable [...] Read more.
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a known pest of various grains and stored-products such as wheat flours; however, T. castaneum feeds on and infests soybean and soy products. For more than 60 years, soy flour has been suggested to be unstable food for Tribolium spp. because it causes larval development failure. However, it remains unknown whether soy flour affects adult beetles. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of soy flour and its related isoflavones against T. castaneum using an artificial dietary intake assay. Beetles were fed gypsum (a non-digestible compound) mixed with either water (control) or soy flour. Significantly fewer beetles survived after being fed the soy flour treatment. Although the soy isoflavone genistein, a defensive agent and secondary metabolite, decreased the T. castaneum adult survival, it required a long time to have a lethal effect. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of soy flour, i.e., the rapid biological responses following isoflavone addition, were also examined using a cultured cell line derived from T. castaneum. Both genistin and genistein significantly affected the survival of the cultured cells, although genistein had a stronger lethal effect. This study demonstrated the toxicity of genistein found in soybean against T. castaneum cultured cells within 24 h period. Genistein may be used as an oral toxin biopesticide against T. castaneum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Efficacy of Alternative, Environmentally Friendly Plant Protection Measures for Control of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera Frugiperda, in Maize
Insects 2020, 11(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040240 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 697
Abstract
The invasive fall armyworm (FAW) is threatening maize production and the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers in the newly invaded areas in Africa and Asia. To control this new key pest and to overcome health, environmental, and resistance problems related to the [...] Read more.
The invasive fall armyworm (FAW) is threatening maize production and the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers in the newly invaded areas in Africa and Asia. To control this new key pest and to overcome health, environmental, and resistance problems related to the indiscriminate use of insecticides, effective and sustainable alternative pest control approaches are needed. Here, we report on field trials that tested maltodextrin, neem-based products, ash, and soil, as well as the locally produced alata samina soap, in the Upper West and Greater Accra regions, Ghana. Significant reductions of larval numbers and crop damage, together with increased yields, were mostly achieved by applying the insecticide emamectin benzoate, which was considered the positive control in this set of trials. However, high efficiency and cost–benefit ratios were also achieved with two neem-based products. Maltodextrin was only efficient at one of the two sites, with a clear dose-dependent effect, while the higher dosage was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate. Due to its relatively high product cost, maltodextrin is generally less cost-efficient. Ash and soil, as well as alata samina soap treatments, did not efficiently reduce FAW larval numbers or crop damage at the dosages tested; thus, they also did not significantly increase maize yields. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Diversity and Global Distribution of Viruses of the Western Honey Bee, Apis mellifera
Insects 2020, 11(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040239 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
In the past centuries, viruses have benefited from globalization to spread across the globe, infecting new host species and populations. A growing number of viruses have been documented in the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Several of these contribute significantly to honey [...] Read more.
In the past centuries, viruses have benefited from globalization to spread across the globe, infecting new host species and populations. A growing number of viruses have been documented in the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Several of these contribute significantly to honey bee colony losses. This review synthetizes the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of honey-bee-infecting viruses, including recent data from high-throughput sequencing (HTS). After presenting the diversity of viruses and their corresponding symptoms, we surveyed the scientific literature for the prevalence of these pathogens across the globe. The geographical distribution shows that the most prevalent viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus, black queen cell virus and acute paralysis complex) are also the most widely distributed. We discuss the ecological drivers that influence the distribution of these pathogens in worldwide honey bee populations. Besides the natural transmission routes and the resulting temporal dynamics, global trade contributes to their dissemination. As recent evidence shows that these viruses are often multihost pathogens, their spread is a risk for both the beekeeping industry and the pollination services provided by managed and wild pollinators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bees and Their Symbionts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Behavioral and Electrophysiological Responses of the Fringed Larder Beetle Dermestes frischii to the Smell of a Cadaver at Different Decomposition Stages
Insects 2020, 11(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040238 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 438
Abstract
A cadaver is colonized by a wide diversity of necrophagous insects. It is well documented that Dipterans are attracted by the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by a corpse during the first minutes following death. Coleopterans are known to be attracted by highly [...] Read more.
A cadaver is colonized by a wide diversity of necrophagous insects. It is well documented that Dipterans are attracted by the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by a corpse during the first minutes following death. Coleopterans are known to be attracted by highly decomposed cadavers, but have received less attention regarding the olfaction-based mechanisms underlying these interactions. In the present study, we impregnated gauzes with VOCs collected from each decomposition stage of dead rats: fresh, bloated, active, and advanced decay. We collected the VOCs released by the gauze and confirmed what was previously know from the literature: the decomposition stages are associated with contrasting chemical profiles. We exposed Dermestes frischii Kugelann (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) male and female antennae to the same gauzes and found that stronger electrical responses were recorded when using the smell of the advanced decay stage. Finally, we performed two choices behavioral assays. Females showed no preference for the four decomposition stages, while males were attracted by the smell associated with active and advanced decay stages. These results suggest that specific VOCs released by a decaying body guide necrophagous coleopterans to their feeding site. Whether D. frischii males release pheromones to attract females remains to be tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Entomology: 2020 and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Increasing Topsoil Disturbance on Surface-Active Invertebrate Composition and Abundance under Grazing and Cropping Regimes on Vertisols in North-West New South Wales, Australia
Insects 2020, 11(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040237 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Agricultural intensification practices involve varying degrees of disturbance to the soil ecosystem. This study evaluated six agricultural management regimes with increasing levels of topsoil disturbance, on the composition and abundance of surface-active invertebrates on Vertisols at a sub-catchment scale. Two grazing (native and [...] Read more.
Agricultural intensification practices involve varying degrees of disturbance to the soil ecosystem. This study evaluated six agricultural management regimes with increasing levels of topsoil disturbance, on the composition and abundance of surface-active invertebrates on Vertisols at a sub-catchment scale. Two grazing (native and introduced pastures), and four cropping (combining short and long fallow, with zero and conventional tillage) management regimes were examined. Surface-active invertebrates were collected seasonally with pitfall traps over 2 years (8 seasons), and identified to order, while ants (Formicidae) that comprised 47% of total invertebrates collected, were identified to genera. Season had a significant effect on ant abundance and number of genera recorded with higher abundance and twice the number of genera in summer than all other seasons. Ants, particularly Iridomyrmex, were mainly active in summer, while other invertebrates especially Coleoptera, were more active in winter. Surface-active invertebrates were 30% more abundant in grazing than cropping land use types. Native pasture, with little surface soil disturbance, recorded the highest number of invertebrates, mainly ants, compared to other agricultural management regimes. Coleoptera and Dermaptera were higher in abundance under conventional tillage compared with those agricultural management regimes that disturb the topsoil less. Optimizing surface-active invertebrate activity on Vertisols for most taxa will require reducing topsoil disturbance. However, the research findings also suggest that the impact of agricultural management regimes on invertebrate activity was difficult to predict with any certainty as the three main ant genera, and most abundant invertebrate collected, did not respond in a consistent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elucidating the Role of Soil Arthropods in Soil Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessOpinion
Open Data for Open Questions in Comparative Nutrition
Insects 2020, 11(4), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040236 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Achieving a better understanding of the consequences of nutrition to animal fitness and human health is a major challenge of our century. Nutritional ecology studies increasingly use nutritional landscapes to map the complex interacting effects of nutrient intake on animal performances, in a [...] Read more.
Achieving a better understanding of the consequences of nutrition to animal fitness and human health is a major challenge of our century. Nutritional ecology studies increasingly use nutritional landscapes to map the complex interacting effects of nutrient intake on animal performances, in a wide range of species and ecological contexts. Here, we argue that opening access to these hard-to-obtain, yet considerably insightful, data is fundamental to develop a comparative framework for nutrition research and offer new quantitative means to address open questions about the ecology and evolution of nutritional processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Nutritional Resource Exploitation by Insects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Detection of the Lychee Erinose Mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in Florida, USA: A Comparison with Other Alien Populations
Insects 2020, 11(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040235 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The lychee erinose mite (LEM), Aceria litchii (Keifer) is a serious pest of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). LEM causes a type of gall called ‘erineum’ (abnormal felty growth of trichomes from the epidermis), where it feeds, reproduces and protects itself from biotic [...] Read more.
The lychee erinose mite (LEM), Aceria litchii (Keifer) is a serious pest of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). LEM causes a type of gall called ‘erineum’ (abnormal felty growth of trichomes from the epidermis), where it feeds, reproduces and protects itself from biotic and abiotic adversities. In February of 2018, LEM was found in a commercial lychee orchard on Pine Island, Florida. Infestations were recorded on young leaves, stems, and inflorescences of approximately 30 young trees (1.5–3.0 yrs.) of three lychee varieties presenting abundant new growth. Although LEM is present in Hawaii, this mite is a prioritized quarantine pest in the continental USA and its territories. Florida LEM specimens showed small morphological differences from the original taxonomic descriptions of Keifer (1943) and Huang (2008). The observed differences are probably an artifact of the drawings in the original descriptions. Molecular comparisons were conducted on the DNA of LEM specimens from India, Hawaii, Brazil, Taiwan, Australia and Florida. The amplified COI fragment showed very low nucleotide variation among the locations and thus, could be used for accurate LEM identification. The ITS1 sequences and partial 5.8S fragments displayed no nucleotide differences for specimens from any of the locations except Australia. Consistent differences were observed in the ITS2 and 28S fragments. The ITS1-ITS2 concatenated phylogeny yielded two lineages, with Australia in one group and Hawaii, India, Brazil, Florida and Taiwan in another. Specimens from Taiwan and Florida present identical ITS and rDNA segments, suggesting a common origin; however, analysis of additional sequences is needed to confirm the origin of the Florida population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Arthropod Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Induced Systemic Resistance by a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Impacts Development and Feeding Behavior of Aphids
Insects 2020, 11(4), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040234 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
The effects of microorganisms on plant-insect interactions have usually been underestimated. While plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to induce plant defenses, endosymbiotic bacteria hosted by herbivorous insects are often beneficial to the host. Here, we aimed to assess whether PGPR-induced defenses in [...] Read more.
The effects of microorganisms on plant-insect interactions have usually been underestimated. While plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to induce plant defenses, endosymbiotic bacteria hosted by herbivorous insects are often beneficial to the host. Here, we aimed to assess whether PGPR-induced defenses in broad bean plants impact the pea aphid, depending on its genotype and the presence of endosymbionts. We estimated aphid reproduction, quantified defense- and growth-related phytohormones by GC-MS, and measured different plant growth and physiology parameters, after PGPR treatment. In addition, we recorded the feeding behavior of aphids by electropenetrography. We found that the PGPR treatment of broad bean plants reduced the reproduction of one of the pea aphid clones. We highlighted a phenomenon of PGPR-induced plant defense priming, but no noticeable plant growth promotion. The main changes in aphid probing behavior were related to salivation events into phloem sieve elements. We suggest that the endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa played a key role in plant-insect interactions, possibly helping aphids to counteract plant-induced resistance and allowing them to develop normally on PGPR-treated plants. Our results imply that plant- and aphid-associated microorganisms add greater complexity to the outcomes of aphid-plant interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopesticide Development in Multitrophic Era)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Injury to Southern Highbush Blueberries by Southern Red Mites and Management Using Various Miticides
Insects 2020, 11(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040233 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Reports of severe infestations caused by southern red mites (SRM), Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), have increased in recent years in southern highbush blueberries (SHB). Currently, there is little known about the management of tetranychids in SHB, and only two miticides (fenazaquin and [...] Read more.
Reports of severe infestations caused by southern red mites (SRM), Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), have increased in recent years in southern highbush blueberries (SHB). Currently, there is little known about the management of tetranychids in SHB, and only two miticides (fenazaquin and fenpyroximate) have recently been labeled for use in SHB. Oligonychus ilicis has caused up to 80%–100% losses in some blueberry plantings, and growers are looking for management tools for this new pest of blueberries. We report on injury to SHB from O. ilicis and the performance of seven miticides used to manage SRM populations, including spiromesifen, spiromesifen plus surfactant, vegetable oil concentrate, fenazaquin, “proprietary miticide” (referred to as Pro1), bifenazate, and fenpyroximate. Miticide efficacy was rated based on the number of SRM recorded on collected leaves and plant damage ratings using an arbitrary index (from 0 = no bronzing to 4 = 100% bronzing). Characteristic symptoms of leaf injury included purple or bronzed leaf color, leaf dryness and roughening. Fenpyroximate significantly reduced mite numbers three days after application. Additionally, plants treated with fenpyroximate or fenazaquin showed significantly less bronzing compared with the control plants. Overall, fenpyroximate and fenazaquin showed the best performance for the management of O. ilicis on SHB. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Complete Mitogenomic Structure and Phylogenetic Implications of the Genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Insects 2020, 11(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040232 - 07 Apr 2020
Viewed by 305
Abstract
To understand mitogenome characteristics and reveal phylogenetic relationships of the genus Ostrinia, including several notorious pests of great importance for crops, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of four species: Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, 1854), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796), Ostrinia scapulalis (Walker, 1859) and Ostrinia [...] Read more.
To understand mitogenome characteristics and reveal phylogenetic relationships of the genus Ostrinia, including several notorious pests of great importance for crops, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of four species: Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, 1854), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796), Ostrinia scapulalis (Walker, 1859) and Ostrinia zealis (Guenée, 1854). Results indicate that the four mitogenomes—O. furnacalis, O. nubilalis, O. scapulalis, and O. zealis—are 15,245, 15,248, 15,311, and 15,208 bp in size, respectively. All four mitogenomes are comprised of 37 encoded genes and a control region. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATN and terminate with TAN, with the exception of cox1 that starts with CGA, and cox1, cox2, and nad5 that terminate with an incomplete codon T. All transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) present the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except for the trnS1 (AGN) gene. There are some conserved structural elements in the control region. Our analyses indicate that nad6 and atp6 exhibit higher evolution rates compared to other PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomes using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods revealed the relationship (O. palustralis + (O. penitalis + (O. zealis + (O. furnacalis + (O. nubilalis + O. scapulalis))))) within Ostrinia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop