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Diversity and Global Distribution of Viruses of the Western Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

1
Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3003 Bern, Switzerland
2
Agroscope, Swiss Bee Research Center, 3003 Bern, Switzerland
3
UR Abeilles et Environnement, INRAE, 84914 Avignon, France
4
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, 86069 Ulm, Germany
6
Department of Microbiology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo 11600, Uruguay
7
Centre for Genome Enabled Biology and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK
8
Environmental Science Research Center (ESRC), Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
9
Bee Protection Laboratory (BeeP), Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
10
Entomology Department, Institute of Plant Protection, The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Tel Aviv 5025001, Israel
11
Laboratory of Bee Diseases, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
12
Bee Research Lab, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
13
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
14
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
15
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750-07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040239
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bees and Their Symbionts)
In the past centuries, viruses have benefited from globalization to spread across the globe, infecting new host species and populations. A growing number of viruses have been documented in the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Several of these contribute significantly to honey bee colony losses. This review synthetizes the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of honey-bee-infecting viruses, including recent data from high-throughput sequencing (HTS). After presenting the diversity of viruses and their corresponding symptoms, we surveyed the scientific literature for the prevalence of these pathogens across the globe. The geographical distribution shows that the most prevalent viruses (deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus, black queen cell virus and acute paralysis complex) are also the most widely distributed. We discuss the ecological drivers that influence the distribution of these pathogens in worldwide honey bee populations. Besides the natural transmission routes and the resulting temporal dynamics, global trade contributes to their dissemination. As recent evidence shows that these viruses are often multihost pathogens, their spread is a risk for both the beekeeping industry and the pollination services provided by managed and wild pollinators. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; emerging infectious diseases; pathogens; invasive species; social insects; viruses; honey bee health epidemiology; emerging infectious diseases; pathogens; invasive species; social insects; viruses; honey bee health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beaurepaire, A.; Piot, N.; Doublet, V.; Antunez, K.; Campbell, E.; Chantawannakul, P.; Chejanovsky, N.; Gajda, A.; Heerman, M.; Panziera, D.; Smagghe, G.; Yañez, O.; de Miranda, J.R.; Dalmon, A. Diversity and Global Distribution of Viruses of the Western Honey Bee, Apis mellifera. Insects 2020, 11, 239.

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