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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Temperature on the Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, IPM program, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(4), 228;
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a pest of tropical origin which recently invaded Africa, the Far East and Australia. Temperature, therefore, plays an important role in its invasion biology, since this pest does not go into diapause. The aim of this study was to determine the development rate of S. frugiperda at different temperatures and to calculate the number of degree-days (°D) required for each stage to complete its development. This study was conducted at five different temperatures—18, 22, 26, 30 and 32 ± 1 °C. Larvae were reared individually in Petri dishes with sweetcorn kernels provided as food. The development rate of S. frugiperda increased linearly with increasing temperatures between 18 and 30 °C and larval survival was the highest between 26 and 30 °C. The optimal range for egg, larval and egg-to-adult development was between 26 and 30 °C. The optimum temperature with the fastest larval development rate and lowest mortality was at 30 °C. The pupal development period ranged between 7.82 and 30.68 days (32–18 °C). The minimum temperature threshold for egg and larva development was 13.01 and 12.12 °C, respectively, 13.06 °C for pupae and 12.57 °C for egg-to-adult development. Degree-day requirements for the development of the respective life cycle stages of S. frugiperda were 35.68 ± 0.22 for eggs, 204.60 ± 1.23 °D for larvae, 150.54 ± 0.93 °D for pupae and 391.61 ± 1.42 °D for egg-to-adult development. View Full-Text
Keywords: degree-days; development; fall armyworm; maize; pest management degree-days; development; fall armyworm; maize; pest management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Du Plessis, H.; Schlemmer, M.-L.; Van den Berg, J. The Effect of Temperature on the Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Insects 2020, 11, 228.

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