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Open AccessArticle

Insight into the Functional Diversification of Lipases in the Endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) by Genome-scale Annotation and Expression Analysis

1
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11040227
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 5 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Parasites: A Focus on Wasps and Nematodes)
Lipases play essential roles in digestion, transport, and processing of dietary lipids in insects. For parasitoid wasps with a unique life cycle, lipase functions could be multitudinous in particular. Pteromalus puparum is a pupal endoparasitoid of butterflies. The female adult deposits eggs into its host, along with multifunctional venom, and the developing larvae consume host as its main nutrition source. Parasitoid lipases are known to participate in the food digestion process, but the mechanism remains unclear. P. puparum genome and transcriptome data were interrogated. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees were constructed. We annotated a total of 64 predicted lipase genes belonging to five lipase families and suggested that eight venom and four salivary lipases could determine host nutrition environment post-parasitization. Many putative venom lipases were found with incomplete catalytic triads, relatively long β9 loops, and short lids. Data analysis reveals the loss of catalytic activities and weak triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolytic activities of lipases in venom. Phylogenetic trees indicate various predicted functions of lipases in P. puparum. Our information enriches the database of parasitoid lipases and the knowledge of their functional diversification, providing novel insight into how parasitoid wasps manipulate host lipid storage by using venom lipases. View Full-Text
Keywords: triacylglycerol acylhydrolase; parasitoid wasp; annotation; venom; salivary; lipid triacylglycerol acylhydrolase; parasitoid wasp; annotation; venom; salivary; lipid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Song, J.; Fang, Q.; Yao, H.; Wang, F.; Song, Q.; Ye, G. Insight into the Functional Diversification of Lipases in the Endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) by Genome-scale Annotation and Expression Analysis. Insects 2020, 11, 227.

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