Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 167604

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of the Ampère Laboratory, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: characterization; modeling; reliability; aging and diagnosis of electric energy storage system (batteries, supercapacitors, capacitors)
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Concordia University, Montréal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada
Interests: electrochemistry; rechargeable batteries; electrochromic; carbon
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; post-lithium (magnesium-ion, lithium-sulfur, aqueous) batteries; control and mechanistic studies of SEI stabilization and electrode-electrolyte interface processes; electrochemistry; solid-state chemistry; surface chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our great pleasure to announce that Batteries (ISSN: 2313-0105) has received its first impact factor of 5.938, as published in the 2021 edition of the Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate), released in June 2022.

To celebrate this wonderful achievement, we are launching this Special Issue to publish top-quality papers from Editorial Board Members and leading researchers invited by the editorial team. Papers could be both long research papers and review papers describing the current state of the art in one of the areas covered by the journal. All of the papers will be published in open access.

This Special Issue covers all topics related to batteries and electrical energy storage systems.

All electrochemical systems, such as lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, metal-air, and next-generation batteries or supercapacitors, are of interest. Papers can be related to applications, for example, portable, electric vehicles, stationary or photovoltaic, or they can be independent of an application.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • fundamental electrochemistry aspects
  • active and passive materials and components
  • in situ and ex situ material analysis
  • cell design, module, and pack technology
  • processing and manufacturing
  • battery applications
  • modeling and control
  • battery performance and testing
  • charging technologies
  • battery management system, monitoring, diagnostics, and prognosis
  • thermal management
  • hybrid battery systems
  • safety and reliability
  • mechanisms and modes of ageing, lifetime
  • costs and market

If you are interested in publishing your work in the Special Issue, please contact us or the Editorial Office at <[email protected]>.

Prof. Dr. Pascal Venet
Prof. Dr. Karim Zaghib
Prof. Dr. Seung-Wan Song
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (45 papers)

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23 pages, 5747 KiB  
Article
Tracking Flows of End-of-Life Battery Materials and Manufacturing Scrap
by Linda Gaines, Jingyi Zhang, Xin He, Jessey Bouchard and Hans Eric Melin
Batteries 2023, 9(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9070360 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6019
Abstract
This paper defines terms such as “recycling rate” that enable the characterization of flows of battery materials and expands the terminology to accommodate the description of complex product recycling. It also estimates the maximum percentage of U.S. demand for critical elements that could [...] Read more.
This paper defines terms such as “recycling rate” that enable the characterization of flows of battery materials and expands the terminology to accommodate the description of complex product recycling. It also estimates the maximum percentage of U.S. demand for critical elements that could be satisfied by recycling as demand continues to grow, and it defines and estimates the recycling rate for lithium-ion batteries. Finally, it clarifies the role of manufacturing scrap as the domestic U.S. supply chain is built up. It concludes that recycling will be important in the long term, but growth still requires that new material be extracted to supply additional material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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31 pages, 10064 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Thickness Change of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with Blend Positive Electrode
by David Schmider and Wolfgang G. Bessler
Batteries 2023, 9(7), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9070354 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Lithium-ion battery cells exhibit a complex and nonlinear coupling of thermal, electrochemical, and mechanical behavior. In order to increase insight into these processes, we report the development of a pseudo-three-dimensional (P3D) thermo-electro-mechanical model of a commercial lithium-ion pouch cell with graphite negative electrode [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion battery cells exhibit a complex and nonlinear coupling of thermal, electrochemical, and mechanical behavior. In order to increase insight into these processes, we report the development of a pseudo-three-dimensional (P3D) thermo-electro-mechanical model of a commercial lithium-ion pouch cell with graphite negative electrode and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide/lithium cobalt oxide blend positive electrode. Nonlinear molar volumes of the active materials as function of lithium stoichiometry are taken from literature and implemented into the open-source software Cantera for convenient coupling to battery simulation codes. The model is parameterized and validated using electrical, thermal and thickness measurements over a wide range of C-rates from 0.05 C to 10 C. The combined experimental and simulated analyses show that thickness change during cycling is dominated by intercalation-induced swelling of graphite, while swelling of the two blend components partially cancel each other. At C-rates above 2 C, electrochemistry-induced temperature increase significantly contributes to cell swelling due to thermal expansion. The thickness changes are nonlinearly distributed over the thickness of the electrode pair due to gradients in the local lithiation, which may accelerate local degradation. Remaining discrepancies between simulation and experiment at high C-rates might be attributed to lithium plating, which is not considered in the model at present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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17 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
High-Energy and High-Power Primary Li-CFx Batteries Enabled by the Combined Effects of the Binder and the Electrolyte
by Haobin Huo, Sivaviswa Radhakrishnan, Leon L. Shaw and Károly Németh
Batteries 2023, 9(5), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9050268 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Several effective methods have been developed recently to demonstrate simultaneous high energy and high power density in Lithium - carbon fluoride (Li-CFx) batteries. These methods can achieve as high as a 1000 Wh/kg energy density at a 60–70 kW/kg power density [...] Read more.
Several effective methods have been developed recently to demonstrate simultaneous high energy and high power density in Lithium - carbon fluoride (Li-CFx) batteries. These methods can achieve as high as a 1000 Wh/kg energy density at a 60–70 kW/kg power density (40–50 C rate) in coin cells and a 750 Wh/kg energy density at a 12.5 kW/kg power density (20 C rate) in pouch cells. This performance is made possible by an ingenious nano-architecture design, controlled porosity, boron doping, and electrolyte additives. In the present study, we show that a similarly great performance, a 931 Wh/kg energy density at a 59 kW/kg power density, can be achieved by using a polyacrylonitrile binder and a LiBF4 electrolyte in Li-graphite fluoride coin cells. We also demonstrate that the observed effect is the result of the right combination of the binder and the electrolyte. We propose that the mechanistic origin of the observed phenomena is an electro-catalytic effect of the polyacrylonitrile binder. While our proposed method has a competitive performance, it also offers a simple implementation and a scalable production of high-energy and high-power primary Li-CFx cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 3622 KiB  
Article
Online High-Resolution EIS of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Means of Compact and Low Power ASIC
by Andrea Ria, Giuseppe Manfredini, Francesco Gagliardi, Michele Vitelli, Paolo Bruschi and Massimo Piotto
Batteries 2023, 9(5), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9050239 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
A compact electronic circuit capable of performing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on either single Lithium-ion cells or modules formed by the series of two cells is presented. The proposed device, named Double Cell Management Unit (DCMU), constitutes an important improvement to a recently [...] Read more.
A compact electronic circuit capable of performing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on either single Lithium-ion cells or modules formed by the series of two cells is presented. The proposed device, named Double Cell Management Unit (DCMU), constitutes an important improvement to a recently proposed cell management unit, which combined EIS acquisition functions with a multichannel sensor interface compatible with thermistors, strain-gauges and moisture detectors. The proposed circuit maintains the versatility of the previous version and significantly extends the EIS frequency range, allowing vector impedance measurements from 0.1 Hz to about 15 kHz. The capability of handling both single Lithium-ion cells or series of two cells is obtained by adding a few external components to the previous version. This also allowed increasing the stimulation current to a maximum amplitude of 200 mA, resulting in improved resolution. Experiments consisting in EIS acquisition performed on batteries of different capacity at different temperatures and states of charge are described. Estimated impedance resolution (standard deviation) is 20 μΩ obtained at 1 kHz with a stimulation current of 100 mA amplitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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19 pages, 6987 KiB  
Article
Thermal Modelling and Simulation Studies of Containerised Vanadium Flow Battery Systems
by Bing Shu, Logan S. Weber, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Jie Bao and Ke Meng
Batteries 2023, 9(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9040196 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
With increasing commercial applications of vanadium flow batteries (VFB), containerised VFB systems are gaining attention as they can be mass produced and easily transported and configured for different energy storage applications. However, there are limited studies on the thermodynamic modelling of containerised vanadium [...] Read more.
With increasing commercial applications of vanadium flow batteries (VFB), containerised VFB systems are gaining attention as they can be mass produced and easily transported and configured for different energy storage applications. However, there are limited studies on the thermodynamic modelling of containerised vanadium redox flow battery systems, and thermal control designs. In this paper, a dynamic thermal model is developed for containerised VFB systems, based on which thermal design options are evaluated using simulation studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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19 pages, 5376 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Precursor on the Electrochemical Performance of N,S Co-Doped Graphene Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolytes
by Rodrigo Braga, Diana M. Fernandes, Alberto Adán-Más, Teresa M. Silva and M. F. Montemor
Batteries 2023, 9(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9030168 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
The introduction of pillared agents or dopants to the graphene used as the electroactive material in supercapacitor electrodes can be an efficient way to facilitate ion transfer, mitigate re-stacking, and improve electrochemical performance. We evaluated the effect of different precursors containing nitrogen (N) [...] Read more.
The introduction of pillared agents or dopants to the graphene used as the electroactive material in supercapacitor electrodes can be an efficient way to facilitate ion transfer, mitigate re-stacking, and improve electrochemical performance. We evaluated the effect of different precursors containing nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) atoms to dope graphene flake (GF) lattices. The electrochemical performance of the doped GF was assessed in 1 M KOH and 1 M Na2SO4 electrolytes. N- and S-doped GF flakes were synthesized via mechanochemical synthesis, also known as ball milling. After being ground, the materials were calcined under N2. The physicochemical characterization of the materials evidenced the co-doping of both S and N into the graphene backbone, as corroborated by the results of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As shown by the results, the nature of the precursors influences the ratio of S and N in the doped graphene flakes and, consequently, the response of the electroactive electrode material. The co-doping obtained using 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole revealed a specific capacitance of 48 F.g−1 at 1.0 A∙g−1 and over 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 10.0 A∙g−1 in Na2SO4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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21 pages, 4144 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of a Thermal Management System Using Phase-Change Materials and Forced-Air Cooling for High-Power Li-Ion Battery Packs
by Yulong Zhang, Shupeng Zhao, Tingbo Zhou, Huizhi Wang, Shen Li, Yongwei Yuan, Zhikai Ma, Jiameng Wei and Xu Zhao
Batteries 2023, 9(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9030153 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3121
Abstract
The thermal management system of a power battery is crucial to the safety of battery operation; however, for the phase-change material (PCM) thermal management system of a battery, the thermal cycling of phase-change material under large discharge rate conditions will lead to thermal [...] Read more.
The thermal management system of a power battery is crucial to the safety of battery operation; however, for the phase-change material (PCM) thermal management system of a battery, the thermal cycling of phase-change material under large discharge rate conditions will lead to thermal conductivity degradation and thermal stress problems. A method of manufacturing PCM containers with metal fins to package pure phase-change material is put forward to solve the problem. The system temperature under different conditions is studied using numerical and experimental methods. A thermal resistance model is built to analyze the thermal transfer performance of PCM containers with fins. The results show that the PCM container structure can effectively control the battery temperature within the suitable temperature range under the low discharge rate, but the maximum temperature of the battery pack at the high discharge rate of 3 C will exceed the optimum operating temperature range. Adding fins can reduce the maximum temperature and improve the system temperature uniformity. By combining fins with forced-air cooling, the maximum temperature and maximum temperature difference of the battery pack at a high discharge rate can be effectively reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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21 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Introducing the Loewner Method as a Data-Driven and Regularization-Free Approach for the Distribution of Relaxation Times Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Tom Rüther, Ion Victor Gosea, Leonard Jahn, Athanasios C. Antoulas and Michael A. Danzer
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020132 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
For the identification of processes in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency data is often transferred into the time domain using the method of distribution of relaxation times (DRT). As this requires regularization due to the ill-conditioned optimization problem, the investigation [...] Read more.
For the identification of processes in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency data is often transferred into the time domain using the method of distribution of relaxation times (DRT). As this requires regularization due to the ill-conditioned optimization problem, the investigation of data-driven methods becomes of interest. One promising approach is the Loewner method (LM), which has already had a number of applications in different fields of science but has not been applied to batteries yet. In this work, it is first deployed on synthetic data with predefined time constants and gains. The results are analyzed concerning the choice of model order, the type of processes , i.e., distributed and discrete, and the signal-to-noise ratio. Afterwards, the LM is used to identify and analyze the processes of a cylindrical LIB. To verify the results of this assessment a comparison is made with the generalized DRT at two different states of health of the LIB. It is shown that both methods lead to the same qualitative results. For the assignment of processes as well as for the interpretation of minor gains, the LM shows advantageous behavior, whereas the generalized DRT shows better results for the determination of lumped elements and resistive–inductive processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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21 pages, 1566 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Experimental Design and Input Data Variation of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Model
by Robert Weber, Christina Schubert, Barbara Poisl and Karl-Heinz Pettinger
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020122 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) are a fertile energy storage technology especially for customized storage applications with special energy and power requirements. The dimensioning and control of these storages is mostly calculated beforehand using battery models in embedded simulation structures. To cover various [...] Read more.
Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) are a fertile energy storage technology especially for customized storage applications with special energy and power requirements. The dimensioning and control of these storages is mostly calculated beforehand using battery models in embedded simulation structures. To cover various stack designs, chemistries, application strategies and system architectures, battery simulation models should be validated with different experimental input data and thus show universal functionality. In this study the functionality of a grey box VRFB model using current, voltage and state of charge (SOC) of a 10 kW/100 kWh VRFB as input data are validated for an adapted input data set using of a 5 kW/10 kWh VRFB. This model is designed for stationary applications of VRFB only. The contribution of this study is (i) to apply a suitable SOC conversion method to the raw data from the used 5 kW VRFB system, (ii) to adapt the modeling code for broader use and integration of the SOC conversion, (iii) to validate the functionality and (iv) to investigate the influence of constant current and constant voltage phases in the raw data on the accuracy of the model. A comparison of experimental data between different redox flow batteries shows that most VRFB measure the open circuit voltage (OCV) to calculate the SOC of the battery. Using the calculated SOC as an input data the proposed simulation model need to be adapted and a method is applied to use OCV input data for model validation. Although simulation models in general often assume linearity between SOC and OCV, the study showed sufficient accuracy using polynomic fitting of second order. Applying a parametrization process the results of the simulation model are compared to the raw data and the scope of application of the grey box VRFB model is defined. While using the dominant constant current phase for the charging and discharging cycle, the grey box simulation model has been sufficiently parametrized and validated for adapted input data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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21 pages, 5145 KiB  
Article
Lithium-Ion Battery State of Health Estimation with Multi-Feature Collaborative Analysis and Deep Learning Method
by Xianbin Yang, Bin Ma, Haicheng Xie, Wentao Wang, Bosong Zou, Fengwei Liang, Xiao Hua, Xinhua Liu and Siyan Chen
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020120 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3970
Abstract
The accurate estimation of the battery state of health (SOH) is crucial for the dependability and safety of battery management systems (BMS). The generality of existing SOH estimation methods is limited as they tend to primarily consider information from single-source features. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of the battery state of health (SOH) is crucial for the dependability and safety of battery management systems (BMS). The generality of existing SOH estimation methods is limited as they tend to primarily consider information from single-source features. Therefore, a novel method for integrating multi-feature collaborative analysis with deep learning-based approaches is proposed in this research. First, several battery degradation features are obtained through differential thermal voltammetry (DTV) analysis, singular value decomposition (SVD), incremental capacity analysis (ICA), and terminal voltage characteristic (TVC) analysis. The features highly related to SOH are selected as inputs for the deep learning model based on the results of a Pearson correlation analysis. The SOH estimation is achieved by developing a deep learning framework cored by long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network (NN), which integrates multi-source features as an input. A suggested method is validated using NASA and Oxford Battery Degradation datasets. The results demonstrate that the presented model provides great SOH estimation accuracy and generality, where the maximum root mean square error (RMSE) is less than 1%. Based on a cloud computing platform, the proposed method can be applied to provide a real-time prediction of battery health, with the potential to enhance battery full lifespan management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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16 pages, 3596 KiB  
Article
Coating Defects of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes and Their Inline Detection and Tracking
by Alexander Schoo, Robin Moschner, Jens Hülsmann and Arno Kwade
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020111 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 11190
Abstract
In order to reduce the cost of lithium-ion batteries, production scrap has to be minimized. The reliable detection of electrode defects allows for a quality control and fast operator reaction in ideal closed control loops and a well-founded decision regarding whether a piece [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the cost of lithium-ion batteries, production scrap has to be minimized. The reliable detection of electrode defects allows for a quality control and fast operator reaction in ideal closed control loops and a well-founded decision regarding whether a piece of electrode is scrap. A widely used inline system for defect detection is an optical detection system based on line scan cameras and specialized lighting. The cameras scan the electrode, and brightness differences on the surface are detected and processed inline. The characteristics of the defect image are used for automated classification of the defects based on image features. Furthermore, the detailed detection of defects allows for the identification of causes. This paper describes the working principle of such an inline detection system, the catalog of typical defects, and the image features used to classify them automatically. Furthermore, we propose and discuss causes and effects of the different defect types on the basis of the literature and expert experience. In combination with tracking and tracing, this enables the manufacturer to reduce scrap by detecting defects early in the production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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14 pages, 1562 KiB  
Article
Limiting Factors Affecting the Ionic Conductivities of LATP/Polymer Hybrid Electrolytes
by Adrien Méry, Steeve Rousselot, David Lepage, David Aymé-Perrot and Mickael Dollé
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020087 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries (ASSLB) are promising candidates for next generation lithium battery systems due to their increased safety, stability, and energy density. Ceramic and solid composite electrolytes (SCE), which consist of dispersed ceramic particles within a polymeric host, are among the preferred technologies [...] Read more.
All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries (ASSLB) are promising candidates for next generation lithium battery systems due to their increased safety, stability, and energy density. Ceramic and solid composite electrolytes (SCE), which consist of dispersed ceramic particles within a polymeric host, are among the preferred technologies for use as electrolytes in ASSLB systems. Synergetic effects between ceramic and polymer electrolyte components are usually reported in SCE. Herein, we report a case study on the lithium conductivity of ceramic and SCE comprised of Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 (LATP), a NASICON-type ceramic. An evaluation of the impact of the processing and sintering of the ceramic on the conductive properties of the electrolyte is addressed. The study is then extended to Poly(Ethylene) Oxide (PEO)-LATP SCE. The presence of the ceramic particles conferred limited benefits to the SCE. These findings somewhat contradict commonly held assumptions on the role of ceramic additives in SCE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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19 pages, 64794 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Effect of Particle Size on Li-Ion Battery Recycling via Flotation and Perspectives on Selective Flocculation
by Tommi Rinne, Natalia Araya-Gómez and Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020068 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
The recycling of active materials from Li-ion batteries (LIBs) via froth flotation has gained interest recently. To date, recycled graphite has not been pure enough for direct reuse in LIB manufacturing. The present work studied the effect of particle sizes on the grade [...] Read more.
The recycling of active materials from Li-ion batteries (LIBs) via froth flotation has gained interest recently. To date, recycled graphite has not been pure enough for direct reuse in LIB manufacturing. The present work studied the effect of particle sizes on the grade of recycled graphite. Furthermore, selective flocculation is proposed as a novel approach to control particle sizes and thus improve graphite grade by preventing the entrainment of cathode components. Zeta potential and particle size measurements were performed to find an optimal pH for electrically selective flocculation and to study the interaction of flocculants, respectively. Batch flotation experiments were performed to investigate the effect of particle size on the purity of the recovered graphite. Results suggested that, in the absence of ultrafine fine particles, battery-grade graphite of 99.4% purity could be recovered. In the presence of ultrafine particles, a grade of 98.2% was observed. Flocculating the ultrafine feed increased the grade to 98.4%, although a drop in recovery was observed. By applying a dispersant in addition to a flocculant, the recovery could be increased while maintaining a 98.4% grade. Branched flocculants provided improved selectivity over linear flocculants. The results suggest that particle size needs to be controlled for battery-grade graphite to be recovered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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13 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Tailored Pre-Lithiation Using Melt-Deposited Lithium Thin Films
by Kay Schönherr, Markus Pöthe, Benjamin Schumm, Holger Althues, Christoph Leyens and Stefan Kaskel
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010053 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3271
Abstract
The user demands lithium-ion batteries in mobile applications, and electric vehicles request steady improvement in terms of capacity and cycle life. This study shows one way to compensate for capacity losses due to SEI formation during the first cycles. A fast and simple [...] Read more.
The user demands lithium-ion batteries in mobile applications, and electric vehicles request steady improvement in terms of capacity and cycle life. This study shows one way to compensate for capacity losses due to SEI formation during the first cycles. A fast and simple approach of electrolyte-free direct-contact pre-lithiation leads to targeted degrees of pre-lithiation for graphite electrodes. It uses tailor-made lithium thin films with 1–5 µm lithium films produced by lithium melt deposition as a lithium source. These pre-lithiated graphite electrodes show 6.5% capacity increase after the first cycles in NCM full cells. In this study, the influence of the pre-lithiation parameters—applied pressure, temperature and pressing time—on the pre-lithiation process is examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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13 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Electrocatalytic and Conductive Vanadium Oxide on Carbonized Bacterial Cellulose Aerogel for the Sulfur Cathode in Li-S Batteries
by Xueyan Lin, Wenyue Li, Xuan Pan, Shu Wang and Zhaoyang Fan
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010014 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Many transition-metal-oxide-based catalysts have been investigated to chemically bind soluble lithium polysulfides and accelerate their redox kinetics in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery chemistry. However, the intrinsic poor electrical conductivities of these oxides restrict their catalytic performance, consequently limiting the sulfur utilization and the rate [...] Read more.
Many transition-metal-oxide-based catalysts have been investigated to chemically bind soluble lithium polysulfides and accelerate their redox kinetics in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery chemistry. However, the intrinsic poor electrical conductivities of these oxides restrict their catalytic performance, consequently limiting the sulfur utilization and the rate performance of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report a freestanding electrocatalytic sulfur host consisting of hydrogen-treated VO2 nanoparticles (H-VO2) anchored on nitrogen-doped carbonized bacterial cellulose aerogels (N-CBC). The hydrogen treatment enables the formation and stabilization of the rutile VO2(R) phase with metallic conductivity at room temperature, significantly enhancing its catalytic capability compared to the as-synthesized insulative VO2(M) phase. Several measurements characterize the electrocatalytic performance of this unique H-VO2@N-CBC structure. In particular, the two kinetic barriers between S8, polysulfides, and Li2S are largely reduced by 28.2 and 43.3 kJ/mol, respectively. Accordingly, the Li-S battery performance, in terms of sulfur utilization and charge/discharge rate, is greatly improved. This work suggests an effective strategy to develop conductive catalysts based on a typical transition metal oxide (VO2) for Li-S batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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14 pages, 4187 KiB  
Article
Robust Parameter Identification Strategy for Lead Acid Battery Model
by Hegazy Rezk, Seydali Ferahtia, Rania M. Ghoniem, Ahmed Fathy, Mohamed M. Ghoniem and Reem Alkanhel
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120283 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
The most popular approach for smoothing renewable power generation fluctuations is to use a battery energy storage system. The lead-acid battery is one of the most used types, due to several advantages, such as its low cost. However, the precision of the model [...] Read more.
The most popular approach for smoothing renewable power generation fluctuations is to use a battery energy storage system. The lead-acid battery is one of the most used types, due to several advantages, such as its low cost. However, the precision of the model parameters is crucial to a reliable and accurate model. Therefore, determining actual battery storage model parameters is required. This paper proposes an optimal identification strategy for extracting the parameters of a lead-acid battery. The proposed identification strategy-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm is applied to a Shepherd model. The bald eagle search algorithm (BES) based identification strategy provided excellent performance in extracting the battery’s unknown parameters. As a result, the proposed identification strategy’s total voltage error has been reduced to 2.182 × 10−3, where the root mean square error (RMSE) between the model and the data is 6.26 × 10−5. In addition, the optimization efficiency achieved 85.32% using the BES algorithm, which approved its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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9 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of Parameters in the Generalized Peukert Equation Used to Estimate the Residual Capacity of Traction Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Nikolay E. Galushkin, Nataliya N. Yazvinskaya and Dmitriy N. Galushkin
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120280 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
The Peukert equation is widely used in various analytical models of lithium-ion batteries. However, the classical Peukert equation is applicable to lithium-ion batteries only in a limited range of discharge currents. Additionally, it does not take into account the temperature impact on a [...] Read more.
The Peukert equation is widely used in various analytical models of lithium-ion batteries. However, the classical Peukert equation is applicable to lithium-ion batteries only in a limited range of discharge currents. Additionally, it does not take into account the temperature impact on a battery’s released capacity. In this paper, the applicability of the generalized Peukert equation C = Cm/(1 + (i/i0)n) is investigated for the residual capacity determination of lithium-ion batteries based on the Hausmann model. It is proved that all the parameters (Cm, i0, and n) of this equation depend on a battery’s temperature. That is why, for a battery-released capacity calculation, it is necessary to take into account the battery’s temperature. The equations are found to describe the temperature dependence of all the parameters of the generalized Peukert equation. The physical meaning of all the parameters is established and it is shown that the generalized Peukert equation obtained with temperature consideration is applicable to any current and temperature of a battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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22 pages, 6046 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Behind-the-Meter Battery Storage in Wind Farms Operating on Small Islands
by Pantelis A. Dratsas, Georgios N. Psarros and Stavros A. Papathanassiou
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120275 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
This paper investigates the anticipated benefits from the introduction of a battery energy storage system (BESS) behind-the-meter (BtM) of a wind farm (WF) located in a small non-interconnected island (NII) system. Contrary to the standard storage deployment applications for NII, where storage is [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the anticipated benefits from the introduction of a battery energy storage system (BESS) behind-the-meter (BtM) of a wind farm (WF) located in a small non-interconnected island (NII) system. Contrary to the standard storage deployment applications for NII, where storage is either installed in front of the meter as a system asset or integrated into a virtual power plant with renewable energy sources, the BESS of this paper is utilized to manage the power injection constraints imposed on the WF, aiming to minimize wind energy curtailments and improve WF’s yield. A mixed integer linear programming generation scheduling model is used to simulate the operation of the system and determine the permissible wind energy absorption margin. Then, a self-dispatch algorithm is employed for the operation of the WF–BESS facility, using the BESS to manage excess wind generation that cannot be directly delivered to the grid. Additionally, the contribution of BESS to the capacity adequacy of the NII system is investigated using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic model, amended appropriately to incorporate storage. Finally, an economic feasibility analysis is carried out, considering the possible revenue streams. By examining several BESS configurations, it has been shown that BtM BESS reduces energy curtailments and contributes substantially to resource adequacy as its energy capacity increases. However, the investment feasibility is only ensured if the capacity value of the BtM storage is properly monetized or additional dependability of wind production is claimed on the ground that the inherent intermittency of the wind production is mitigated owing to storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
An Experimentally Parameterized Equivalent Circuit Model of a Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery
by Timothy Cleary, Zahra Nozarijouybari, Daiwei Wang, Donghai Wang, Christopher Rahn and Hosam K. Fathy
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120269 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
This paper presents and parameterizes an equivalent circuit model of an all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery cell, filling a gap in the literature associated with low computational intensity models suitable for embedded battery management applications. The paper addresses this gap by parameterizing a three-state equivalent [...] Read more.
This paper presents and parameterizes an equivalent circuit model of an all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery cell, filling a gap in the literature associated with low computational intensity models suitable for embedded battery management applications. The paper addresses this gap by parameterizing a three-state equivalent circuit model using experimental pulse power characterization data from a laboratory-fabricated lithium-sulfur cell. The cell is mechanically loaded during electrical cycling to achieve maximum ionic conductivity and consistent capacity. A nested combination of linear and nonlinear least squares regression is used to estimate the model parameters. The model captures slow cycling and fast pulse charge/discharge dynamics within 34 mV RMS error. The series resistance changes significantly at high/low states of charge and low C-rates. A sensitivity analysis determines that accurately modeling the dependence of resistance on C-rate and state of charge is important for model fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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16 pages, 9729 KiB  
Article
Nanostructured Manganese Dioxide for Hybrid Supercapacitor Electrodes
by Jon Rodriguez-Romero, Idoia Ruiz de Larramendi and Eider Goikolea
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120263 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
Hybrid supercapacitors, as emerging energy storage devices, have gained much attention in recent years due to their high energy density, fast charge/discharge and long cyclabilities. Among the wide range of systems covered by this topic, low cost, environmental friendliness and high power provide [...] Read more.
Hybrid supercapacitors, as emerging energy storage devices, have gained much attention in recent years due to their high energy density, fast charge/discharge and long cyclabilities. Among the wide range of systems covered by this topic, low cost, environmental friendliness and high power provide MnO2 with great characteristics to be a competitive candidate. The present work reports a hybrid aqueous supercapacitor system using a commercial activated carbon as the negative electrode and a synthesized manganese dioxide as the positive electrode. Two manganese dioxide polymorphs (α-MnO2 and δ-MnO2) were tested in different neutral and basic aqueous electrolytes. In this way, full cell systems that reached an energy density of 15.6 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 1 kW kg−1 were achieved. The electrode–electrolyte combination explored in this study exhibits excellent performance without losing capacity after 5000 charge/discharge cycles, leading to a promising approach towards more sustainable, high-performance energy storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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15 pages, 3911 KiB  
Article
Online Identification of VLRA Battery Model Parameters Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
by Javier Olarte, Jaione Martinez de Ilarduya, Ekaitz Zulueta, Raquel Ferret, Joseba Garcia-Ortega and Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110238 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
This paper introduces the use of a new low-computation cost algorithm combining neural networks with the Nelder–Mead simplex method to monitor the variations of the parameters of a previously selected equivalent circuit calculated from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) corresponding to a series of [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the use of a new low-computation cost algorithm combining neural networks with the Nelder–Mead simplex method to monitor the variations of the parameters of a previously selected equivalent circuit calculated from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) corresponding to a series of battery aging experiments. These variations could be correlated with variations in the battery state over time and, therefore, identify or predict battery degradation patterns or failure modes. The authors have benchmarked four different Electrical Equivalent Circuit (EEC) parameter identification algorithms: plain neural network mapping EIS raw data to EEC parameters, Particle Swarm Optimization, Zview, and the proposed new one. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the neural network, a data augmentation method has been proposed to improve the neural network training error. The proposed parameter identification algorithms have been compared and validated through real data obtained from a six-month aging test experiment carried out with a set of six commercial 80 Ah VLRA batteries under different cycling and temperature operation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 4225 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Discrimination in 18650 Li-ion Batteries Using Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Bragg Gratings
by Lucca Matuck, João Lemos Pinto, Carlos Marques and Micael Nascimento
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110233 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
In this work, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network inscribed in a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber is proposed to proceed with a multipoint simultaneous temperature and strain discrimination in different locations (positive and negative terminals, and middle) on a cylindrical Li-ion battery. The [...] Read more.
In this work, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network inscribed in a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber is proposed to proceed with a multipoint simultaneous temperature and strain discrimination in different locations (positive and negative terminals, and middle) on a cylindrical Li-ion battery. The birefringence property of the PM fibers, together with FBG sensors, allowed such an application using only one fiber line fixed to the edges of the battery. The battery was subjected to two different charge/discharge cycles, one with nominal charging and discharging conditions (1.00 C and 1.13 C, respectively) and another with abusive conditions (1.88 C for charge and 2.39 C for discharge). The PM-FBG sensors registered maximum temperature and strain variations at the end of the abusive discharge process of the battery; the positive terminal achieved a 28.7 ± 0.3 °C temperature variation, while the center achieved 221 ± 10 με strain variation. The results indicate a different strain variation behavior in the middle location when compared to the negative and positive terminals, as well as a higher temperature variation in both terminals when compared to the middle location. The use of PM-FBG sensors successfully demonstrates their feasibility in locally tracking and discriminating strain and temperature shifts in a battery surface. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the application of PM-FBG sensors to monitor and discriminate critical safety parameters in Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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16 pages, 5470 KiB  
Article
Reliable Online Internal Short Circuit Diagnosis on Lithium-Ion Battery Packs via Voltage Anomaly Detection Based on the Mean-Difference Model and the Adaptive Prediction Algorithm
by Rui Cao, Zhengjie Zhang, Jiayuan Lin, Jiayi Lu, Lisheng Zhang, Lingyun Xiao, Xinhua Liu and Shichun Yang
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110224 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
The safety issue of lithium-ion batteries is a great challenge for the applications of EVs. The internal short circuit (ISC) of lithium-ion batteries is regarded as one of the main reasons for the lithium-ion batteries failure. However, the online ISC diagnosis algorithm for [...] Read more.
The safety issue of lithium-ion batteries is a great challenge for the applications of EVs. The internal short circuit (ISC) of lithium-ion batteries is regarded as one of the main reasons for the lithium-ion batteries failure. However, the online ISC diagnosis algorithm for real vehicle data remains highly imperfect at present. Based on the onboard data from the cloud battery management system (BMS), this work proposes an ISC diagnosis algorithm for battery packs with high accuracy and high robustness via voltage anomaly detection. The mean-difference model (MDM) is applied to characterize large battery packs. A diagram of the adaptive integrated prediction algorithm combining MDM and a bi-directional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) neural network is firstly proposed to approach the voltage prediction of each cell. The diagnosis of an ISC is realized based on the residual analysis between the predicted and the actual state. The experimental data in DST conditions evaluate the proposed algorithm by comparing it with the solo equivalent circuit-based prediction algorithm and the Bi-LSTM based prediction algorithm. Finally, through the practical vehicle data from the cloud BMS, the diagnosis and pre-warn ability of the proposed algorithm for an ISC and thermal runaway (TR) in batteries are verified. The ISC diagnosis algorithm that is proposed in this paper can effectively identify the gradual ISC process in advance of it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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11 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Nanostructured Lead Electrodes with Reduced Graphene Oxide for High-Performance Lead–Acid Batteries
by Matteo Rossini, Fabrizio Ganci, Claudio Zanca, Bernardo Patella, Giuseppe Aiello and Rosalinda Inguanta
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110211 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Nanostructured Pb electrodes consisting of nanowire arrays were obtained by electrodeposition, to be used as negative electrodes for lead–acid batteries. Reduced graphene oxide was added to improve their performances. This was achieved via the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide directly on the surface [...] Read more.
Nanostructured Pb electrodes consisting of nanowire arrays were obtained by electrodeposition, to be used as negative electrodes for lead–acid batteries. Reduced graphene oxide was added to improve their performances. This was achieved via the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide directly on the surface of nanowire arrays. The electrodes with and without reduced graphene oxide were tested in a 5 M sulfuric acid solution using a commercial pasted positive plate and an absorbed glass mat separator in a zero-gap configuration. The electrodes were tested in deep cycling conditions with a very low cut-off potential. Charge–discharge tests were performed at 5C. The electrode with reduced graphene oxide outperformed the electrode without reduced graphene oxide, as it was able to work with a very high utilization of active mass and efficiency. A specific capacity of 258 mAhg−1–very close to the theoretical one–was achieved, and the electrode lasted for more than 1000 cycles. On the other hand, the electrode without reduced graphene oxide achieved a capacity close to 230 mAhg−1, which corresponds to a 90% of utilization of active mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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17 pages, 2930 KiB  
Article
Effects of Excessive Prelithiation on Full-Cell Performance of Li-Ion Batteries with a Hard-Carbon/Nanosized-Si Composite Anode
by Yusuke Abe, Ippei Saito, Masahiro Tomioka, Mahmudul Kabir and Seiji Kumagai
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110210 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
The effects of excessive prelithiation on the full-cell performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with a hard-carbon/nanosized-Si (HC/N-Si) composite anode were investigated; HC and N-Si simply mixed at mass ratios of 9:1 and 8:2 were analyzed. CR2032-type half- and full-cells were assembled to evaluate [...] Read more.
The effects of excessive prelithiation on the full-cell performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with a hard-carbon/nanosized-Si (HC/N-Si) composite anode were investigated; HC and N-Si simply mixed at mass ratios of 9:1 and 8:2 were analyzed. CR2032-type half- and full-cells were assembled to evaluate the electrochemical LIB anode behavior. The galvanostatic measurements of half-cell configurations revealed that the composite anode with an 8:2 HC/N-Si mass ratio exhibited a high capacity (531 mAh g−1) at 0.1 C and superior current-rate dependence (rate performance) at 0.1–10 C. To evaluate the practical LIB anode performance, the optimally performing composite anode was used in the full cell. Prior to full-cell assembly, the composite anodes were prelithiated via electrochemical Li doping at different cutoff anodic specific capacities (200–600 mAh g−1). The composite anode was paired with a LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode to construct full-cells, the performance of which was evaluated by conducting sequential rate and cycling performance tests. Prelithiation affected only the cycling performance, without affecting the rate performance. Excellent capacity retention was observed in the full-cells with prelithiation conducted at cutoff anodic specific capacities greater than or equal to 500 mAh g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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13 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Experimental Benchmarking of Redox Flow Cells
by Adam H. Whitehead, Alasdair Robertson, Benjamin Martin, Elisha Martin and Emma Wilson
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110207 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
There are increasing numbers of scientific articles dedicated to developments in the field of redox flow batteries. To date it is most common to provide efficiency values as a measure of performance. However, there are no agreed standard experimental conditions for these measurements, [...] Read more.
There are increasing numbers of scientific articles dedicated to developments in the field of redox flow batteries. To date it is most common to provide efficiency values as a measure of performance. However, there are no agreed standard experimental conditions for these measurements, and so their merit as a tool for comparing different innovations among research groups is put into question. In the following manuscript, various experimental precautions are outlined to reduce experimental artefacts. Original experimental measurements on vanadium flow cells, together with data from the literature, are examined to explore efficiencies and two alternative benchmarking metrics: resistivity and self-discharge current density. The sensitivity of these parameters to current density, temperature, flow rate and state-of-charge range are examined, from which it is concluded that resistivity and self-discharge current density exhibit superior properties to efficiencies for quantifying flow battery improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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13 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
Repurposing Face Masks after Use: From Wastes to Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries
by Silvia Porporato, Mattia Bartoli, Alessandro Piovano, Nicolò Pianta, Alberto Tagliaferro, Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Riccardo Ruffo and Claudio Gerbaldi
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100183 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
Nowadays, face masks play an essential role in limiting coronavirus diffusion. However, their disposable nature represents a relevant environmental issue. In this work, we propose the utilization of two types of disposed (waste) face masks to prepare hard carbons (biochar) by pyrolytic conversion [...] Read more.
Nowadays, face masks play an essential role in limiting coronavirus diffusion. However, their disposable nature represents a relevant environmental issue. In this work, we propose the utilization of two types of disposed (waste) face masks to prepare hard carbons (biochar) by pyrolytic conversion in mild conditions. Moreover, we evaluated the application of the produced hard carbons as anode materials in Na-ion batteries. Pristine face masks were firstly analyzed through infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of both mask types resulted in highly disordered carbons, as revealed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, with a very low specific surface area. Anodes prepared with these carbons were tested in laboratory-scale Na-metal cells through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling, displaying an acceptable specific capacity along a wide range of current regimes, with a good coulombic efficiency (>98% over at least 750 cycles). As a proof of concept, the anodes were also used to assemble a Na-ion cell in combination with a Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF) cathode and tested towards galvanostatic cycling, with an initial capacity of almost 120 mAhg−1 (decreasing at about 47 mAhg−1 after 50 cycles). Even though further optimization is required for a real application, the achieved electrochemical performances represent a preliminary confirmation of the possibility of repurposing disposable face masks into higher-value materials for Na-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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14 pages, 4592 KiB  
Article
Crest Factor Optimization for Multisine Excitation Signals with Logarithmic Frequency Distribution Based on a Hybrid Stochastic-Deterministic Optimization Algorithm
by Ahmed Yahia Kallel and Olfa Kanoun
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100176 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
For diagnosis of batteries and fuel cells based on impedance spectroscopy, excitation signals are required, including low frequencies down to the mHz range. This leads to a long measurement time and compromises the stability condition for impedance spectroscopy. Multisine excitation signals with logarithmic [...] Read more.
For diagnosis of batteries and fuel cells based on impedance spectroscopy, excitation signals are required, including low frequencies down to the mHz range. This leads to a long measurement time and compromises the stability condition for impedance spectroscopy. Multisine excitation signals with logarithmic frequency distribution can significantly reduce the measurement time but need optimization of the crest factor to realize a high signal-to-noise ratio at all excitation frequencies and maintain at the same time the linearity and stability conditions of impedance spectroscopy. Crest factor optimization is challenging, as the obtained results strongly depend on the initial phase values and many trials are necessary. It takes a very long time and can not be easily performed automatically up to now. In this paper, we propose a time-efficient hybrid stochastic-deterministic crest factor optimization method for multisine signals with logarithmic frequency distribution. A sigmoid transform on the multisine signal gradually transforms the multi-frequency signal into a binary-alike signal. The crest factor is significantly decreased, but the phases of the singular frequency signals remain sub-optimal. Further optimization based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm can determine the final phases, realizing a lower crest factor. The proposed method is less sensitive to initial phase values and provides more reasonable results in a reasonable time. The validation on a Samsung INR-18650-25R Lithium-ion battery cell shows that the crest factor of the optimized multisine signals has a median of 3.62 ± 0.7 within 6 min of run time, which is significantly better than the best previous work in the state-of-the-art of 3.85 ± 0.11 for the same run time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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23 pages, 4250 KiB  
Article
Li-Ion Battery Short-Circuit Protection by Voltage-Driven Switchable Resistance Polymer Layer
by Evgenii V. Beletskii, Elena V. Alekseeva, Dmitrii V. Anishchenko and Oleg V. Levin
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100171 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
Safety issues with lithium-ion batteries prevent their widespread use in critical areas of technology. Various types of protective systems have been proposed to prevent thermal runaway and subsequent battery combustion. Among them, thermoresistive systems, representing polymer composites that sharply increase their resistance when [...] Read more.
Safety issues with lithium-ion batteries prevent their widespread use in critical areas of technology. Various types of protective systems have been proposed to prevent thermal runaway and subsequent battery combustion. Among them, thermoresistive systems, representing polymer composites that sharply increase their resistance when the temperature rises, have been actively investigated. However, they are triggered only when the heating of the battery has already occurred, i.e., the system undergoes irreversible changes. This paper describes a new type of protective polymer layer based on the intrinsically conducting polymer poly[Ni(CH3OSalen)]. The response mechanism of this layer is based on an increase in resistance both when heated and when the cell voltage exceeds the permissible range. This makes it possible to stop undesirable processes at an earlier stage. The properties of the polymer itself and of the lithium-ion batteries modified by the protective layer have been studied. It is shown that the introduction of the polymer protective layer into the battery design leads to a rapid increase of the internal resistance at short circuit, which reduces the discharge current and sharply reduces the heat release. The effectiveness of the protection is confirmed by analysis of the battery components before the short circuit and after it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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18 pages, 3098 KiB  
Article
On the Specific Capacity and Cycle Stability of Si@void@C Anodes: Effects of Particle Size and Charge/Discharge Protocol
by Bingyu Liu, Mei Luo, Ziyong Wang, Christopher Passolano and Leon Shaw
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100154 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Silicon has the potential to be a high-performance anode material, but its practical application is impeded by huge volume expansion during lithiation. Many studies have revealed that the huge volume expansion problem can be mitigated by introducing engineered voids into Si/C core–shell structures. [...] Read more.
Silicon has the potential to be a high-performance anode material, but its practical application is impeded by huge volume expansion during lithiation. Many studies have revealed that the huge volume expansion problem can be mitigated by introducing engineered voids into Si/C core–shell structures. In this study, a Si/C core/shell structure with engineered voids, termed Si@void@C, is investigated for its specific capacity and cycle stability as a function of particle size and charge/discharge protocol. The study shows that finer Si@void@C particles result in higher specific capacities, but with little impact on the cycle stability. Further, lower and upper cutoff voltages in charge/discharge have a profound impact on the specific capacity and cycle stability. Importantly, cutoff voltages in formation cycles have long-lasting effects on the cycle stability, indicating the critical role of forming a robust solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during formation cycles. Using a constant current charge followed by potentiostatic hold charge can further improve the cycle stability and minimize the sharp capacity decay in the first 20–40 cycles. With proper choices of charge/discharge protocols, the specific capacities of Si@void@C anodes at the electrode level are 66.8%, 38.2% and 22.7% higher than those of graphite anodes at the 1st, 300th and 500th cycles, respectively, proving that Si@void@C has promising potential to replace graphite anodes for practical applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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18 pages, 4838 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Performance of Li2TiO3//LiCoO2 Li-Ion Aqueous Cell with Nanocrystalline Electrodes
by Ambadi Lakshmi-Narayana, Kapu Sivajee-Ganesh, Merum Dhananjaya, Arghya Narayan-Banerjee, Christian M. Julien and San-Woo Joo
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100149 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
A challenge in developing high-performance lithium batteries requires a safe technology without flammable liquid electrolytes. Nowadays, two options can satisfy this claim: all-solid-state batteries and aqueous-electrolyte batteries. Commercially available Li-ion batteries utilize non-aqueous electrolytes (NAE) owing to a wide potential window (>3 V) [...] Read more.
A challenge in developing high-performance lithium batteries requires a safe technology without flammable liquid electrolytes. Nowadays, two options can satisfy this claim: all-solid-state batteries and aqueous-electrolyte batteries. Commercially available Li-ion batteries utilize non-aqueous electrolytes (NAE) owing to a wide potential window (>3 V) that achieves high energy density but pose serious safety issues due to the high volatility, flammability, and toxicity of NAE. On the contrary, aqueous electrolytes are non-flammable, low-toxic, and have a low installation cost for humidity control in the production line. In this scenario, we develop a new aqueous rechargeable Li-ion full-cell composed of high-voltage cathode material as LiCoO2 (LCO) and a safe nanostructured anode material as Li2TiO3 (LTO). Both pure-phase LTO and LCO nanopowders are prepared by hydrothermal route and their structural and electrochemical properties are studied in detail. Simultaneously, the electrochemical performances of these electrodes are tested in both half- and full-cell configurations in presence of saturated 1 mole L−1 Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte medium. Pt//LCO and Pt//LTO half-cells deliver high discharge capacities of 142 and 133 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C rate with capacity retention of ~95% and 94% after 50 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 98.25% and 99.89%, respectively. The electrochemical performance of a LTO//LCO full cell is investigated for the first time. It reveals a discharge capacity of 135 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C rate (50th cycle) with a capacity retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 99.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 1950 KiB  
Article
Electrode Kinetic Data: Geometric vs. Real Surface Area
by Xuan Xie and Rudolf Holze
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100146 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3591
Abstract
Kinetic data reporting the rate of electron transfer across an electrified interface are of fundamental as well as practical importance. They report the electric current caused by coupling the flow of electrons inside the electronically conducting electrode and the flow of ions in [...] Read more.
Kinetic data reporting the rate of electron transfer across an electrified interface are of fundamental as well as practical importance. They report the electric current caused by coupling the flow of electrons inside the electronically conducting electrode and the flow of ions in the adjacent ionically conducting phase. At equilibrium or rest, potential currents in both directions at the established dynamic equilibrium have the same absolute value: the net current is zero. This current describes the electrocatalytic activity of an electrode and is called the exchange current; with respect to the surface area, it is called the exchange current density. This study inspected the actually used surface areas because the reported activities may depend critically on the selection of this area. Charge transfer resistances corresponding to exchange currents I0 were determined for a simple redox system using a platinum disc electrode with constant geometric surface area but variable roughness. At all studied degrees of roughness, changes in I0 were found. With an electrochemically active surface area, exchange current densities j0 could be calculated, but the obtained values showed a dependency on roughness that could not be accounted for by using this surface area instead of the geometric one. It is suggested that j0 may be reported with respect to geometric surface area, but at least roughness data of the studied electrode should be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Peukert Generalized Equations Use for Estimation of Remaining Capacity of Automotive-Grade Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Nataliya N. Yazvinskaya, Mikhail S. Lipkin, Nikolay E. Galushkin and Dmitriy N. Galushkin
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090118 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
In this paper, it is shown that the Peukert generalized equations C = Cm/(1 + (i/i0)n), C = 0.522Cmtanh((i/i0)n/0.522)/(i/i0) [...] Read more.
In this paper, it is shown that the Peukert generalized equations C = Cm/(1 + (i/i0)n), C = 0.522Cmtanh((i/i0)n/0.522)/(i/i0)n and C = Cmerfc((i/ik − 1)/(1/n))/erfc(−n) are applicable for capacity estimation of the automotive-grade lithium-ion batteries within the discharge current range, from 0 to 10 Cn. Additionally, it is shown here that all the parameters (Cm, n, i0 and ik) in the Peukert generalized equations under study have a clear physical meaning, unlike in the classical Peukert equation, in which all the parameters are just empirical constants. In addition, it is shown that, in the case of lithium-ion batteries, the dependence of their released capacity on the discharge current reflects the phase transition statistical pattern in the electrodes’ active substance, which follows the normal distribution law. As the Peukert equation is used in many analytical models, the better electrochemical and physical meaning and understanding of this equation and its clarification are of great practical importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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16 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Rechargeable Magnesium Ion Batteries Based on Nanostructured Tungsten Disulfide Cathodes
by Wuqi Guo, Dorian A. H. Hanaor, Delf Kober, Jun Wang, Maged F. Bekheet and Aleksander Gurlo
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090116 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
Finding effective cathode materials is currently one of the key barriers to the development of magnesium batteries, which offer enticing prospects of larger capacities alongside improved safety relative to Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of several types of WS2 [...] Read more.
Finding effective cathode materials is currently one of the key barriers to the development of magnesium batteries, which offer enticing prospects of larger capacities alongside improved safety relative to Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of several types of WS2 nanostructures and their performance as magnesium battery cathodes. The morphology of WS2 materials was controlled through the use of sodium oxalate as a complexing agent and different templating agents, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). A high capacity of 142.7 mAh/g was achieved after 100 cycles at a high current density of 500 mA/g for cathodes based on a nanostructured flower-like WS2. A solution consisting of magnesium (II) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MgTFSI2) and magnesium (II) chloride (MgCl2) in dimethoxyethane (DME) was used as an effective electrolyte, which contributes to favorable Mg2+ mobility. Weaker ionic bonds and van der Waals forces of WS2 compared with other transition metal oxides/sulfides lay the foundation for fast discharge/charge rate. The enhanced surface area of the nanostructured materials plays a key role in enhancing both the capacity and discharge/charge rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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9 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Zinc as a Promising Anodic Material for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Kishore Singh, Yuchen Yao, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain and Rini Singh
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090113 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
Electrochemical energy storage is considered a remarkable way to bridge the gap between demand and supply due to intermittent renewable energy production. All-solid-state batteries are an excellent alternative and are known to be the safest class of batteries. In the present scenario to [...] Read more.
Electrochemical energy storage is considered a remarkable way to bridge the gap between demand and supply due to intermittent renewable energy production. All-solid-state batteries are an excellent alternative and are known to be the safest class of batteries. In the present scenario to accomplish the energy demands, high-capacity and stable anodes are warranted and can play a vital role in technology upgradation. Among the variety of anodes, alloying-type anodes are superior due to their high gravimetric capacity and stability. In the present work, zinc metal was implemented as electrode material in an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery. This anode material was tested with two different solid-state electrolytes, i.e., lithium borohydride (LiBH4) and halide-stabilized LiBH4 (i.e., LiBH4.LiI). In a coin cell, Li foil was placed as a counter electrode. The establishment of a reaction mechanism during the charging and discharging was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Systematic studies using the temperature dependence performance were also conducted. The volumetric density with both electrolytes was found at more than 3000 mAh/cm3. The coulombic efficiency for the electrode material was also observed at ~94%. These impressive numbers present zinc electrodes as a promising material for future electrode material for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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17 pages, 4738 KiB  
Article
Scalable Silicone Composites for Thermal Management in Flexible Stretchable Electronics
by George-Theodor Stiubianu, Adrian Bele, Marian Grigoras, Codrin Tugui, Bianca-Iulia Ciubotaru, Mirela-Fernanda Zaltariov, Firuța Borza, Leandru-Gheorghe Bujoreanu and Maria Cazacu
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080095 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been incorporated, as an active filler, in a customized silicone matrix to obtain high thermal conductivity composites, maintaining high flexibility and low dielectric permittivity, which are of interest for heat dissipation in energy storage systems (e.g., [...] Read more.
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been incorporated, as an active filler, in a customized silicone matrix to obtain high thermal conductivity composites, maintaining high flexibility and low dielectric permittivity, which are of interest for heat dissipation in energy storage systems (e.g., batteries or supercapacitors) and electronics. By the proper processing of the filler (i.e., hydrophobization with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and ultrasonic exfoliation) and its optimal loading (i.e., 10 wt%), composites with thermal conductivity up to 3.543 W·m−1·K−1 were obtained. Conductive heat flow (−280.04 W), measured in real heating–cooling conditions, proved to be superior to that of a commercial heatsink paste (−161.92 W), which has a much higher density (2.5 g/cm3 compared to 1.05 g/cm3 of these composites). The mechanical and electrical properties are also affected in a favorable way (increased modulus and elongation, low dielectric losses, and electrical conductivity) for applications as thermal management materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

37 pages, 3234 KiB  
Review
Multiscale Modelling Methodologies of Lithium-Ion Battery Aging: A Review of Most Recent Developments
by Mir A. Ali, Carlos M. Da Silva and Cristina H. Amon
Batteries 2023, 9(9), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9090434 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4029
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are leading the energy storage market. Significant efforts are being made to widely adopt LIBs due to their inherent performance benefits and reduced environmental impact for transportation electrification. However, achieving this widespread adoption still requires overcoming critical technological constraints impacting [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are leading the energy storage market. Significant efforts are being made to widely adopt LIBs due to their inherent performance benefits and reduced environmental impact for transportation electrification. However, achieving this widespread adoption still requires overcoming critical technological constraints impacting battery aging and safety. Battery aging, an inevitable consequence of battery function, might lead to premature performance losses and exacerbated safety concerns if effective thermo-electrical battery management strategies are not implemented. Battery aging effects must be better understood and mitigated, leveraging the predictive power of aging modelling methods. This review paper presents a comprehensive overview of the most recent aging modelling methods. Furthermore, a multiscale approach is adopted, reviewing these methods at the particle, cell, and battery pack scales, along with corresponding opportunities for future research in LIB aging modelling across these scales. Battery testing strategies are also reviewed to illustrate how current numerical aging models are validated, thereby providing a holistic aging modelling strategy. Finally, this paper proposes a combined multiphysics- and data-based modelling framework to achieve accurate and computationally efficient LIB aging simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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37 pages, 3133 KiB  
Review
Lithium–Ion Battery Data: From Production to Prediction
by Marwan Hassini, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias and Pascal Venet
Batteries 2023, 9(7), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9070385 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7842
Abstract
In our increasingly electrified society, lithium–ion batteries are a key element. To design, monitor or optimise these systems, data play a central role and are gaining increasing interest. This article is a review of data in the battery field. The authors are experimentalists [...] Read more.
In our increasingly electrified society, lithium–ion batteries are a key element. To design, monitor or optimise these systems, data play a central role and are gaining increasing interest. This article is a review of data in the battery field. The authors are experimentalists who aim to provide a comprehensive overview of battery data. From data generation to the most advanced analysis techniques, this article addresses the concepts, tools and challenges related to battery informatics with a holistic approach. The different types of data production techniques are described and the most commonly used analysis methods are presented. The cost of data production and the heterogeneity of data production and analysis methods are presented as major challenges for the development of data-driven methods in this field. By providing an understandable description of battery data and their limitations, the authors aim to bridge the gap between battery experimentalists, modellers and data scientists. As a perspective, open science practices are presented as a key approach to reduce the impact of data heterogeneity and to facilitate the collaboration between battery scientists from different institutions and different branches of science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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31 pages, 5611 KiB  
Review
Survey on Battery Technologies and Modeling Methods for Electric Vehicles
by Mehroze Iqbal, Amel Benmouna, Mohamed Becherif and Saad Mekhilef
Batteries 2023, 9(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9030185 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5557
Abstract
The systematic transition of conventional automobiles to their electrified counterparts is an imperative step toward successful decarbonization. Crucial advances in battery storage systems (BSS) and related technologies will enable this transition to proceed smoothly. This requires equivalent developments in several interconnected areas, such [...] Read more.
The systematic transition of conventional automobiles to their electrified counterparts is an imperative step toward successful decarbonization. Crucial advances in battery storage systems (BSS) and related technologies will enable this transition to proceed smoothly. This requires equivalent developments in several interconnected areas, such as complete battery cycles and battery management systems (BMS). In this context, this article critically examines state-of-the-art battery technologies from the perspective of automakers, provides insightful discussions, and poses open questions with possible answers. The generations of BSS (traditional, current, and futuristic) are first reviewed and analyzed via two distinct qualitative factors (DQFs): key design markers and performance indicators. Based on the introduced DQFs, major development trends and probable evolutions are forecasted. Thereafter, recent modeling and state estimation methods are comprehensively reviewed in relation to high-performance BMS. Accordingly, promising modeling methods are identified as futuristic solutions, leading to an accurate and timely decision for reliable and safer user experience. This article is concluded by presenting a techno-economic assessment of what to expect, as well as highlighting future challenges and opportunities for industry, academia, and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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22 pages, 4151 KiB  
Review
Challenges and Future Prospects of the MXene-Based Materials for Energy Storage Applications
by Svitlana Nahirniak, Apurba Ray and Bilge Saruhan
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020126 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6940
Abstract
In the past decade, MXenes, a new class of advanced functional 2D nanomaterials, have emerged among numerous types of electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage devices. MXene and their composites have opened up an interesting new opportunity in the field of functional materials, [...] Read more.
In the past decade, MXenes, a new class of advanced functional 2D nanomaterials, have emerged among numerous types of electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage devices. MXene and their composites have opened up an interesting new opportunity in the field of functional materials, owing to their transition metal nitrides/carbides/carbonitride-based unique layered structures, higher electrical and thermal conductivity, higher charge carrier mobility, high negative zeta-potential, high mechanical properties, tunable bandgap, superior hydrophilicity, metallic nature and rich surface chemistry, which enhance the number of metal active redox sites on the surface and short ion diffusion path. However, in the case of electrochemical energy storage applications, the unavoidable problem of aggregation and nanosheet restacking significantly reduces the accessibility of the active surface sites of MXene materials for electrolyte ions. Currently, there is a number of research efforts devoted to solutions in order to avoid these deficits. This Review complies extensively with the recent advances in the application of MXene-based materials in the energy storage devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. Particular attention is paid to the understanding of the relation of MXenes chemical composition, and morphology with their electrochemical performances. Moreover, the challenges of MXenes and MXene-based composited for the commercial application are considered and the ways to overcome their drawbacks are provided. Finally, opportunities given with MXenes for future research on novel energy storage materials are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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19 pages, 4960 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress in Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Li-Ion and Na-Ion Batteries—A Review
by Palanivel Molaiyan, Glaydson Simões Dos Reis, Diwakar Karuppiah, Chandrasekar M. Subramaniyam, Flaviano García-Alvarado and Ulla Lassi
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020116 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6657
Abstract
Batteries are the backbones of the sustainable energy transition for stationary off-grid, portable electronic devices, and plug-in electric vehicle applications. Both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), most commonly rely on carbon-based anode materials and are usually derived from non-renewable sources such [...] Read more.
Batteries are the backbones of the sustainable energy transition for stationary off-grid, portable electronic devices, and plug-in electric vehicle applications. Both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), most commonly rely on carbon-based anode materials and are usually derived from non-renewable sources such as fossil deposits. Biomass-derived carbon materials are extensively researched as efficient and sustainable anode candidates for LIBs and NIBs. The main purpose of this perspective is to brief the use of biomass residues for the preparation of carbon anodes for LIBs and NIBs annexed to the biomass-derived carbon physicochemical structures and their aligned electrochemical properties. In addition, an outlook and some challenges faced in this promising area of research is presented. This review enlightens the readers with valuable insights and a reasonable understanding of issues and challenges faced in the preparation, physicochemical properties, and application of biomass-derived carbon materials as anode candidates for LIBs and NIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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18 pages, 5314 KiB  
Review
Overview and Comparative Study of Energy Management Strategies for Residential PV Systems with Battery Storage
by Xiangqiang Wu, Zhongting Tang, Daniel-Ioan Stroe and Tamas Kerekes
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120279 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
PV and battery systems have been widely deployed in residential applications due to increasing environmental concerns and fossil energy prices. Energy management strategies play an important role in reducing energy bills and maximize profits. This paper first reviews the state of energy management [...] Read more.
PV and battery systems have been widely deployed in residential applications due to increasing environmental concerns and fossil energy prices. Energy management strategies play an important role in reducing energy bills and maximize profits. This paper first reviews the state of energy management problems, including commonly used objectives, constraints, and solutions for PV and battery applications. Then, a comparative study of different energy management strategies is conducted based on a real applied product and household profile. Moreover, results are discussed, and suggestions are given for different scenarios. Finally, conclusions and insights into future directions are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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46 pages, 975 KiB  
Review
Modelling and Estimation of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: A Review
by Thomas Puleston, Alejandro Clemente, Ramon Costa-Castelló and Maria Serra
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090121 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 10274
Abstract
Redox flow batteries are one of the most promising technologies for large-scale energy storage, especially in applications based on renewable energies. In this context, considerable efforts have been made in the last few years to overcome the limitations and optimise the performance of [...] Read more.
Redox flow batteries are one of the most promising technologies for large-scale energy storage, especially in applications based on renewable energies. In this context, considerable efforts have been made in the last few years to overcome the limitations and optimise the performance of this technology, aiming to make it commercially competitive. From the monitoring point of view, one of the biggest challenges is the estimation of the system internal states, such as the state of charge and the state of health, given the complexity of obtaining such information directly from experimental measures. Therefore, many proposals have been recently developed to get rid of such inconvenient measurements and, instead, utilise an algorithm that makes use of a mathematical model in order to rely only on easily measurable variables such as the system’s voltage and current. This review provides a comprehensive study of the different types of dynamic models available in the literature, together with an analysis of the existing model-based estimation strategies. Finally, a discussion about the remaining challenges and possible future research lines on this field is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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14 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Degradation Implementation for the Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems
by Pedro Luis Camuñas García-Miguel, Jaime Alonso-Martínez, Santiago Arnaltes Gómez, Manuel García Plaza and Andrés Peña Asensio
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090110 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4102
Abstract
A naive battery operation optimization attempts to maximize short-term profits. However, it has been shown that this approach does not optimize long-term profitability, as it neglects battery degradation. Since a battery can perform a limited number of cycles during its lifetime, it may [...] Read more.
A naive battery operation optimization attempts to maximize short-term profits. However, it has been shown that this approach does not optimize long-term profitability, as it neglects battery degradation. Since a battery can perform a limited number of cycles during its lifetime, it may be better to operate the battery only when profits are on the high side. Researchers have dealt with this issue using various strategies to restrain battery usage, reducing short-term benefits in exchange for an increase in long-term profits. Determining this operation restraint is a topic scarcely developed in the literature. It is common to arbitrarily quantify degradation impact into short-term operation, which has proven to have an extensive impact on long-term results. This paper carries out a critical review of different methods of degradation control for short-time operation. A classification of different practices found in the literature is presented. Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are pointed out, and future possible contributions to this topic are remarked upon. The most common methodology is implemented in a simulation for demonstration purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

19 pages, 2303 KiB  
Perspective
Biofuel Cells and Biobatteries: Misconceptions, Opportunities, and Challenges
by Seokheun Choi
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020119 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5548
Abstract
Biofuel cells have been in the spotlight for the past century because of their potential and promise as a unique platform for sustainable energy harvesting from the human body and the environment. Because biofuel cells are typically developed in a small platform serving [...] Read more.
Biofuel cells have been in the spotlight for the past century because of their potential and promise as a unique platform for sustainable energy harvesting from the human body and the environment. Because biofuel cells are typically developed in a small platform serving as a primary battery with limited fuel or as a rechargeable battery with repeated refueling, they have been interchangeably named biobatteries. Despite continuous advancements and creative proof-of-concept, however, the technique has been mired in its infancy for the past 100 years, which has provoked increasing doubts about its commercial viability. Low performance, instability, difficulties in operation, and unreliable and inconsistent power generation question the sustainable development of biofuel cells. However, the advancement in bioelectrocatalysis revolutionizes the electricity-producing capability of biofuel cells, promising an attractive, practical technique for specific applications. This perspective article will identify the misconceptions about biofuel cells that have led us in the wrong development direction and revisit their potential applications that can be realizable soon. Then, it will discuss the critical challenges that need to be immediately addressed for the commercialization of the selected applications. Finally, potential solutions will be provided. The article is intended to inspire the community so that fruitful commercial products can be developed soon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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