Special Issue "Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging"

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pascal Venet

Univ. Lyon, Université Claude Bernard, Ecole Centrale Lyon, INSA de Lyon, CNRS, Ampère UMR 5005, 69100 Lyon, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: characterization; modeling; reliability; aging and diagnosis of electric energy storage system (batteries, supercapacitors, capacitors)
Guest Editor
Dr. Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias

Univ Lyon, IFSTTAR/AME/LTE, 69500 Bron, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; battery aging; battery characterization and modeling; electric vehicles; energy storage systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, or renewable energy. Energy storage systems (ESS) considered here are batteries, supercapacitors or hybrid components such lithium-ion capacitors. The durability of ESS determines the total cost of ownership and the global impacts (life cycle) on a large portion of these applications and thus their viability. Understanding of ESS aging is a key issue to optimize their design and usage towards their applications. Knowledge of the ESS aging is also essential to improve their dependability (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety).

In this Special Issue, we are looking for contributions helping to understand aging mechanisms, modes and factors, to perform ESS diagnosis and prognosis and innovative solutions to prolong their lifespans.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • innovative measurement techniques of ESS aging
  • ESS aging modeling
  • ESS state-of-health (SOH) estimation
  • ESS prognostic and health management
  • balancing circuits with consideration of the lifetime of ESS
  • energy management laws taking into account aging
  • influence of aging on cost and environmental analyses of ESS
  • multi-objective optimization strategies of ESS including aging consideration
  • optimal sizing and design of ESS

Prof. Dr. Pascal Venet
Dr. Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging mechanisms
  • Aging modeling
  • Component reliability
  • Lifecycle assessment
  • Lifetime prediction
  • State of health
  • Battery
  • Supercapacitor
  • Hybrid Capacitor

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Post-Mortem Study of Stacked 16 Ah Graphite//LiFePO4 Pouch Cells Cycled at 5 °C
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions [...] Read more.
Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions in the electrodes, is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Also, the recovered electrodes are used to reassemble half-cells for further cycle tests. The combination of the several techniques detects an inhomogeneous ageing of the electrodes along the stack and from the center to the edge of the electrode, most probably due to differences in the pressure experienced by the electrodes. Interestingly, XPS reveals that more electrolyte decomposition took place at the edge of the electrodes and at the outer part of the cell stack independently of the ageing conditions. Finally, the use of high cycling currents buffers the low temperature detrimental effects, resulting in longer cycle life and less inhomogeneities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthetic vs. Real Driving Cycles: A Comparison of Electric Vehicle Battery Degradation
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
PDF Full-text (4500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration [...] Read more.
Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration is path-dependent, the representability of synthetic cycles must be questioned. Hence, this work compared three different synthetic driving cycles to real driving data in terms of mimicking actual EV battery degradation. It was found that the average current and charge capacity during discharge were important parameters in determining the appropriate synthetic profile, and traffic conditions have a significant impact on cell lifetimes. In addition, a stage of accelerated capacity fade was observed and shown to be induced by an increased loss of lithium inventory (LLI) resulting from irreversible Li plating. New metrics, the ratio of the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE) to the LLI and the plating threshold, were proposed as possible predictors for a stage of accelerated degradation. The results presented here demonstrated tracking properties, such as capacity loss and resistance increase, were insufficient in predicting cell lifetimes, supporting the adoption of metrics based on the analysis of degradation modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative Incremental Capacity Analysis Implementation for C/LiFePO4 Cell State-of-Health Estimation in Electrical Vehicles
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a fully embedded state of health (SoH) estimator for widely used C/LiFePO4 batteries. The SoH estimation study was intended for applications in electric vehicles (EV). C/LiFePO4 cells were aged using pure electric vehicle cycles and were monitored with [...] Read more.
This paper presents a fully embedded state of health (SoH) estimator for widely used C/LiFePO4 batteries. The SoH estimation study was intended for applications in electric vehicles (EV). C/LiFePO4 cells were aged using pure electric vehicle cycles and were monitored with an automotive battery management system (BMS). An online capacity estimator based on incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is developed. The proposed estimator is robust to depth of discharge (DoD), charging current and temperature variations to satisfy real vehicle requirements. Finally, the SoH estimator tuned on C/LiFePO4 cells from one manufacturer was tested on C/LiFePO4 cells from another LFP (lithium iron phosphate) manufacturer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining a Fatigue Model and an Incremental Capacity Analysis on a Commercial NMC/Graphite Cell under Constant Current Cycling with and without Calendar Aging
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
Reliable development of LIBs requires that they be correlated with accurate aging studies. The present project focuses on the implementation of a weighted ampere-hour throughput model, taking into account the operating parameters, and modulating the impact of an exchanged ampere-hour by the well-established [...] Read more.
Reliable development of LIBs requires that they be correlated with accurate aging studies. The present project focuses on the implementation of a weighted ampere-hour throughput model, taking into account the operating parameters, and modulating the impact of an exchanged ampere-hour by the well-established three major stress factors: temperature, current intensity (rated), and state of charge (SoC). This model can drift with time due to repeated solicitation, so its parameters need to be updated by on-field measurements, in order to remain accurate. These on-field measurements are submitted to the so-called Incremental Capacity Analysis method (ICA), consisting in the analysis of dQ/dV as a function of V. It is a direct indicator of the state of health of the cell, as the experimental peaks are related to the active material chemical/structural evolution, such as phase transitions and recorded potential plateaus during charging/discharging. It is here applied to NMC/graphite based commercial cells. These peaks’ evolution can be correlated with the here-defined Ah-kinetic and t -kinetic aging, which are chemistry-dependent, and therefore, has to be adjusted to the different types of cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Electrical Characterizations of High-Energy Second Life Lithium-Ion Batteries for Embedded and Stationary Applications
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the fast characterization of automotive second life lithium-ion batteries that have been recently re-used in many projects to create battery storages for stationary applications and sporadically for embedded applications. Specific criteria dedicated to the second life are first discussed. [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the fast characterization of automotive second life lithium-ion batteries that have been recently re-used in many projects to create battery storages for stationary applications and sporadically for embedded applications. Specific criteria dedicated to the second life are first discussed. After a short review of the available state of health indicators and their associated determination techniques, some electrical characterization tests are explored through an experimental campaign. This offline identification aims to estimate the remaining ability of the battery to store energy. Twenty-four modules from six different commercial electric vehicles are analyzed. Well-known methodologies like incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and constant voltage phase analysis during CC-CV charge highlight the difficulty—and sometimes the impossibility—to apply traditional tools on a battery pack or on individual modules, in the context of real second life applications. Indeed, the diversity of the available second life batteries induces a combination of aging mechanisms that leads to a complete heterogeneity from a cell to another. Moreover, due to the unknown first life of the battery, typical state of health determination methodologies are difficult to use. A new generic technique based on a partial coulometric counter is proposed and compared to other techniques. In the present case study, the partial coulometric counter allows a fast determination of the capacity aging. In conclusion, future improvements and working tracks are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
A Suggested Improvement for Small Autonomous Energy System Reliability by Reducing Heat and Excess Charges
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Devices operating in complete energy autonomy are multiplying: small fixed signaling applications or sensors often operating in a network. To ensure operation for a substantial period, for applications with difficult physical access, a means of storing electrical energy must be included in the [...] Read more.
Devices operating in complete energy autonomy are multiplying: small fixed signaling applications or sensors often operating in a network. To ensure operation for a substantial period, for applications with difficult physical access, a means of storing electrical energy must be included in the system. The battery remains the most deployed solution. Lead-acid batteries still have a significant share of this market due to the maturity of their technology. However, even by sizing all the system elements according to the needs and the available renewable energy, some failure occurs. The battery is the weak element. It can be quickly discharged when the renewable energy source is no longer present for a while. It can also be overloaded or subjected to high temperatures, which affects its longevity. This paper presents a suggested improvement for these systems, systematically adding extra devices to reduce excess charges and heat and allowing the battery use at lower charges. The interest of this strategy is presented by comparing the number of days of system failure and the consequences for battery aging. To demonstrate the interest of the proposed improvement track, a colored Petri net is deployed to model the battery degradation parameters evolution, in order to compare them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Lifetime Prediction of Lithium-Ion Capacitors Based on Accelerated Aging Tests
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Lithium-ion Capacitors (LiCs) that have intermediate properties between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are still considered as a new technology whose aging is not well studied in the literature. This paper presents the results of accelerated aging tests applied on 12 samples of LiCs. [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion Capacitors (LiCs) that have intermediate properties between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are still considered as a new technology whose aging is not well studied in the literature. This paper presents the results of accelerated aging tests applied on 12 samples of LiCs. Two high temperatures (60 °C and 70 °C) and two voltage values were used for aging acceleration for 20 months. The maximum and the minimum voltages (3.8 V and 2.2 V respectively) had different effects on capacitance fade. Cells aging at 2.2 V encountered extreme decrease of the capacitance. After storing them for only one month at 60 °C, they lost around 22% of their initial capacitance. For this reason, an aging model was developed for cells aging at the lowest voltage value to emphasize the huge decrease of the lifetime at this voltage condition. Moreover, two measurement tools of the capacitance were compared to find the optimal method for following the evolution of the aging process. It was proved that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is the most accurate measurement technique that can reveal the actual level of degradation inside a LiC cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
State-of-Charge Monitoring by Impedance Spectroscopy during Long-Term Self-Discharge of Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Batteries
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of [...] Read more.
Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of several commercially available supercapacitors. It is found that the kinetics of the self-discharge of supercapacitors comprises at least two characteristic time constants in the range of days and months. The curvature of the Nyquist curve at frequencies above 10 Hz (charge transfer resistance) depends on the available electric charge as well, but it is of little use for applications. Lithium-ion batteries demonstrate a linear correlation between voltage and capacitance as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Battery Architecture Dependability
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents various solutions for organizing an accumulator battery. It examines three different architectures: series-parallel, parallel-series and C3C architecture, which spread the cell output current flux to three other cells. Alternatively, to improve a several cell system reliability, it is possible to [...] Read more.
This paper presents various solutions for organizing an accumulator battery. It examines three different architectures: series-parallel, parallel-series and C3C architecture, which spread the cell output current flux to three other cells. Alternatively, to improve a several cell system reliability, it is possible to insert more cells than necessary and soliciting them less. Classical RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) solutions can be deployed by adding redundant cells or by tolerating some cell failures. With more cells than necessary, it is also possible to choose active cells by a selection algorithm and place the others at rest. Each variant is simulated for the three architectures in order to determine the impact on battery-operative dependability, that is to say the duration of how long the battery complies specifications. To justify that the conventional RAMS solutions are not deployed to date, this article examines the influence on operative dependability. If the conventional variants allow to extend the moment before the battery stops to be operational, using an algorithm with a suitable optimization criterion further extend the battery mission time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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