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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 50 articles

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Open AccessCase Report
Prostatic Localization of a Migrating Grass Awn Foreign Body in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040192 - 29 Nov 2020
Abstract
A 13-year-old male mixed-breed dog was examined because of hematuria and pyrexia. Ultrasonographic examination of the genitourinary tract showed the presence of a migrating grass awn in the right prostatic lobe. Laparotomy allowed, under ultrasonographic guidance, to remove entirely the migrating grass awn [...] Read more.
A 13-year-old male mixed-breed dog was examined because of hematuria and pyrexia. Ultrasonographic examination of the genitourinary tract showed the presence of a migrating grass awn in the right prostatic lobe. Laparotomy allowed, under ultrasonographic guidance, to remove entirely the migrating grass awn from the prostatic parenchyma. The recovery was uneventful and four months after the surgery the owner reported that the dog showed the complete resolution of the clinical signs and full return to normal activity. To our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time the clinical presentation, imaging findings, management and outcome for a dog with prostatic localization of a migrating grass awn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Nitrite—Nitric Oxide Derivative—In Horses with Intestinal Colic by ESR Spectroscopy
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040191 - 29 Nov 2020
Abstract
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of horses are caused by many factors and have a complex pathogenesis. Developing effective methods of differential diagnostics is of high fundamental and applied importance. The pathogenesis of diseases of the digestive tract of horses accompanied by the [...] Read more.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of horses are caused by many factors and have a complex pathogenesis. Developing effective methods of differential diagnostics is of high fundamental and applied importance. The pathogenesis of diseases of the digestive tract of horses accompanied by the development of inflammation and oxidative stress, can be associated with a lack of the nitrogen monoxide which controls many signaling pathways in the body. The level of the nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of the immune and nervous systems, the tone of all the blood vessels, and the courses of many pathological processes. The nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase (sGC) and leads to vascular relaxation. The aim of this investigation was to study the metabolites of nitric oxide in horses suffered from intestinal diseases. The levels of nitric oxide in the blood serum of horses depending on their age and health state was studied. The concentration of nitrites in the blood serum of horses aged 6–25 years was 3.4 ± 4.2 μM, and in the young horses (1–5 years) the level of this indicator was 8.2 ± 5.4 μM. A sharp decrease in nitrite was observed in all the horses with intestinal diseases of 2 ± 0.9 μM, especially with tympanitic caecun of 0.6 ± 0.4 μM and with spasmodic colic of 1.8 ± 0.5 μM. The level of nitrosylhemoglobin HbNO in the blood of the diseased animals was higher than that in clinically healthy horses, regardless of age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Diagnosis of Australian Canine and Feline Urinary Bladder Disease Based on Histologic Features
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040190 - 27 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly [...] Read more.
Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly being applied in medicine for predicting disease probability based on medical and patient variables. Our aims were to evaluate histologic features of canine and feline bladder diseases and explore the utility of logistic regression modeling in identifying associations in veterinary histopathology, then formulate a predictive disease model using urinary bladder as a pilot tissue. The histologic features of 267 canine and 71 feline bladder samples were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between the bladder disease diagnosed, and both patient and histologic variables. There were 102 cases of cystitis, 84 neoplasia, 42 urolithiasis and 63 normal bladders. Logistic regression modeling identified six variables that were significantly associated with disease outcome: species, urothelial ulceration, urothelial inflammation, submucosal lymphoid aggregates, neutrophilic submucosal inflammation, and moderate submucosal hemorrhage. This study demonstrated that logistic regression modeling could provide a more objective approach to veterinary histopathology and has opened the door toward predictive disease modeling based on histologic variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
A Century of Swine Influenza: Is It Really Just about the Pigs?
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040189 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Influenza viruses (IV) are one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide due to the variety of species they affect. Pigs play an important role in IV ecology as the “mixing vessel,” since they can be infected by swine, avian [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses (IV) are one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide due to the variety of species they affect. Pigs play an important role in IV ecology as the “mixing vessel,” since they can be infected by swine, avian and human IV, allowing the appearance of new subtypes. Human viruses originated in swine are known as IV of swine origin or swine influenza virus (SwIV) variants. In this study, we identified knowledge tendencies of SwIV and assessed potential bias in the literature caused by these variants. We identified the most mentioned SwIV variants and manually reviewed the literature to determine the number of publications applying the whole influenza nomenclature, a partial nomenclature, only the subtype or mixed terminology, along with the proportion of articles in which the GenBank ID number was available. We observed that the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic created an important bias in SwIV research driven by an increase in human publications on the IV of swine origin. H1N1 is the most studied subtype for swine and humans, followed by H3N2. We found differences between the nomenclatures applied, where partial classifications were slightly more common. Finally, from all the publications, only 25% stated the GenBank ID of the sequence studied. This review represents the most complete exploration of trends in SwIV knowledge to date and will serve as a guidance for future search strategies in SwIV research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Food Safety Considerations Related to the Consumption and Handling of Game Meat in North America
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040188 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Emerging foodborne pathogens present a threat to public health. It is now recognized that several foodborne pathogens originate from wildlife as demonstrated by recent global disease outbreaks. Zoonotic spillover events are closely related to the ubiquity of parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens present [...] Read more.
Emerging foodborne pathogens present a threat to public health. It is now recognized that several foodborne pathogens originate from wildlife as demonstrated by recent global disease outbreaks. Zoonotic spillover events are closely related to the ubiquity of parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens present within human and animal populations and their surrounding environment. Foodborne diseases have economic and international trade impacts, incentivizing effective wildlife disease management. In North America, there are no food safety standards for handling and consumption of free-ranging game meat. Game meat consumption continues to rise in North America; however, this growing practice could place recreational hunters and game meat consumers at increased risk of foodborne diseases. Recreational hunters should follow effective game meat food hygiene practices from harvest to storage and consumption. Here, we provide a synthesis review that evaluates the ecological and epidemiological drivers of foodborne disease risk in North American hunter populations that are associated with the harvest and consumption of terrestrial mammal game meat. We anticipate this work could serve as a foundation of preventive measures that mitigate foodborne disease transmission between free-ranging mammalian and human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Zoonoses at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Avian Metapneumovirus in Backyard and Commercial Chickens in Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040187 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the [...] Read more.
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the knowledge of their epidemiology and impact is extremely limited. In the present work, a cross-sectional study based on 500 tracheal swabs collected from 50 intensive and backyard unvaccinated flocks of the Jimma Zone was performed to investigate the circulation of these viruses and molecularly characterize them. IBV and aMPV presence was tested by molecular assays, and genotyping was carried out on positive samples. Accordingly, 6% (95% CI 2.06% to 16.22%) and 8% (95% CI 3.15% to 18.84%) of flocks tested IBV and aMPV positive, respectively. Particularly, IBV 793B (GI-13) strains were detected in backyard flocks only, and identical or closely related sequences (p-distance <2%) were detected in distantly spaced flocks, suggesting relevant viral circulation. On the contrary, both backyard and intensive flocks were affected by aMPV subtype B. Potential epidemiological links associated to the importation of parental birds from foreign countries could be established. These results highlight non-negligible circulation of these viruses, warranting further epidemiological studies and the evaluation of control measure implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Open AccessCase Report
Hepatogenous Photosensitivity Outbreak after Coccidiosis in Grazing Holstein Steers
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040186 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Clinical signs of photosensitivity in cattle can occur sporadically and unpredictably. It is believed that cases of photosensitivity may be underreported, causing inaccurate and inflated reports of mortality. Additionally, because secondary photosensitization in grazing cattle occurs with liver damage or dysfunction, photosensitivity can [...] Read more.
Clinical signs of photosensitivity in cattle can occur sporadically and unpredictably. It is believed that cases of photosensitivity may be underreported, causing inaccurate and inflated reports of mortality. Additionally, because secondary photosensitization in grazing cattle occurs with liver damage or dysfunction, photosensitivity can have many potential or associated causes. This case links a previous occurrence of coccidiosis to an outbreak of photosensitivity in grazing Holstein steers. Grazing management staff first observed clinical signs of photosensitivity 17 days after an outbreak of coccidiosis and subsequent turnout to spring pastures. Clinical signs were observed in 25% of the population. The severity of photosensitivity was variable and ranged from blistered skin on the muzzle to sloughing of unpigmented epidermis and thinly haired regions. Severely affected cattle were removed from pasture, housed under shade, monitored for infection, and recovered without treatment. Mild cases remained on pasture and recovered without treatment. Photosensitivity did not reoccur in the cattle that remained on pasture or in mildly affected cattle returned to pasture. Photosensitivity did not appear to be associated with pasture weeds, a specific forage species, or variable or extreme weather conditions that could have resulted in mycotoxin production. The occurrence appears to have been a result of a previous and concurrent coccidiosis outbreak that caused secondary photosensitization through hepatic lipidosis caused by anorexia and dehydration associated with the severe coccidiosis. Although clinical signs appeared suddenly, cattle recovered quickly and without treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in a Rat Model of Male Hypogonadism
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040185 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Objectives: The present study examined the effect DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone remodeling in orchidectomized male rats. Material and Methods: A total of 32 male rats were divided equally into four groups [...] Read more.
Objectives: The present study examined the effect DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone remodeling in orchidectomized male rats. Material and Methods: A total of 32 male rats were divided equally into four groups (n = 8): (i) control group (C), (ii) control treated with DHEA (Control + DHEA), (iii) orchidectomized (ORCH) group that underwent bilateral orchidectomy and (iv) orchidectomized (ORCH) rats treated with DHEA (ORCH+DHEA). DHEA treatment started 4 weeks after orchidectomy and continued for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assayed in the tibia and femur of the right hind limb of each rat. We also measured the serum levels of the bone turnover markers deoxypyridinoline (Dpd), N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b) and osteocalcin (OC) as well as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Results: Orchidectomy in rats caused significant reduction in BMD, BMC, serum levels of testosterone, PTH (parathyroid hormone), OPG, OC and ALP with significant rise in serum levels of TRAP-5B, RANK, Dpd and NTx1 (p < 0.05). On the other hand, DHEA therapy for 12 weeks caused significant improvement in all studied parameters except NTx1 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: DHEA corrected hypogonadism-induced osteoporosis in male rats probably via inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, stimulating the activity of osteoblasts and stimulating the secretion of PTH and testosterone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Escherichia coli: Physiological Clues Which Turn On the Synthesis of Antimicrobial Molecules
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040184 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Zoonotic pathogens, like Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a food safety and health risk. To battle the increasing emergence of virulent microbes, novel mitigation strategies are needed. One strategy being considered to combat pathogens is antimicrobial compounds produced by microbes, coined microcins. [...] Read more.
Zoonotic pathogens, like Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a food safety and health risk. To battle the increasing emergence of virulent microbes, novel mitigation strategies are needed. One strategy being considered to combat pathogens is antimicrobial compounds produced by microbes, coined microcins. However, effectors for microcin production are poorly understood, particularly in the context of complex physiological responses along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Previously, we identified an E. coli competitor capable of producing a strong diffusible antimicrobial with microcin-associated characteristics. Our objective was to examine how molecule production of this competitor is affected by physiological properties associated with the GIT, namely the effects of carbon source, bile salt concentration and growth phase. Using previously described liquid- and agar-based assays determined that carbon sources do not affect antimicrobial production of E. coli O103F. However, bile salt concentrations affected production significantly, suggesting that E. coli O103F uses cues along the GIT to modulate the expression of antimicrobial production. Furthermore, E. coli O103F produces the molecule during the exponential phase, contrary to most microcins identified to date. The results underscored the importance of experimental design to identify producers of antimicrobials. To detect antimicrobials, conventional microbiological methods can be a starting point, but not the gold standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrocardiographic Findings in Bitches Affected by Closed Cervix Pyometra
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040183 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Pyometra is considered the most common disease in intact bitches, being associated with potentially life-threatening disorders. Myocardial damage is a potentially life-threatening consequence of pyometra. The aim of this study was to describe the electrocardiographic patterns in bitches affected by closed cervix pyometra, [...] Read more.
Pyometra is considered the most common disease in intact bitches, being associated with potentially life-threatening disorders. Myocardial damage is a potentially life-threatening consequence of pyometra. The aim of this study was to describe the electrocardiographic patterns in bitches affected by closed cervix pyometra, to assess the clinical relevance of electrocardiographic changes with the occurrence of pyometra, and to relate their severity with laboratory and clinical findings. A total of 39 bitches with closed cervix pyometra and 10 healthy female dogs were included in this study. During the hospitalization, bitches underwent a complete physical examination. An electrocardiographic examination before the ovariohysterectomy was performed. Blood samples for biochemical and hematological analysis were also evaluated. Bitches suffering pyometra at least one arrhythmia 31/39 (79.4%), sinus tachycardia (22/39, 56.4%), ventricular premature complexes (9/39, 23%), increased amplitude of T wave (7/39, 17.9%), ST depression (4/39, 10.2%), second-degree atrioventricular block (2/39, 5.1%), increase of QT interval (2/39, 5.1%), sinus bradycardia (2/39, 5.1%), and first-degree atrioventricular block (1/39, 2.5%). Some bitches were also detected with low wave amplitude (17/39, 43.5%). Cardiac arrhythmias associated with canine pyometra are frequent events. These data suggest that arrhythmias may be the consequence of one or more factors that can occur during pyometra, such as myocardial damage, electrolyte/metabolic disorders, and/or sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Skull Shape Diversity in Pet Rabbits and the Applicability of Anatomical Reference Lines for Objective Interpretation of Dental Disease
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040182 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Acquired dental problems are among the most frequently encountered diseases in pet rabbits. However, early symptoms are often overlooked because the affected animals first appear completely asymptomatic. Alterations from anatomical reference lines according to Böhmer and Crossley applied to standard skull X-ray images, [...] Read more.
Acquired dental problems are among the most frequently encountered diseases in pet rabbits. However, early symptoms are often overlooked because the affected animals first appear completely asymptomatic. Alterations from anatomical reference lines according to Böhmer and Crossley applied to standard skull X-ray images, have been shown to be indicative of tooth health problems in pet rabbits. Despite its proven usefulness, there are exceptions in which the anatomical reference lines appear not to be suitable for application. We addressed this issue by quantifying the cranial morphology of a large data set of pet rabbit patients (N = 80). The results of the morphometric analyses revealed considerable diversity in skull shape among the typical pet rabbits, but variance in only a few parameters influences the applicability of the anatomical reference lines. The most substantial parameter is the palatal angle. Specimens in which the anatomical reference lines could not be applied, have a rather large angle between the skull base and the palatal bone. We recommend to measure the palatal angle before applying the anatomical reference lines for objective interpretation of dental disease. Pet rabbits with a palatal angle larger than 18.8° are not strictly suitable for the successful application of the anatomical reference lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Honey Samples from Ukraine
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040181 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The employment of natural substances such as beehive products with a preventive and therapeutic purpose has been a widespread custom since ancient times. In this investigation, the antibacterial activity of 41 honey samples from different Ukraine regions has been evaluated. For each honey, [...] Read more.
The employment of natural substances such as beehive products with a preventive and therapeutic purpose has been a widespread custom since ancient times. In this investigation, the antibacterial activity of 41 honey samples from different Ukraine regions has been evaluated. For each honey, melissopalynological and physico-chemical analysis were performed in order to determine botanical origin, pH, glucose and fructose contents and free acidity. So, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcusaureus CCM 4223, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium CCM 3807 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was assessed through the determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) values by the microdilutions method. The results show that the most susceptible bacterial strain was L. monocytogenes. Its growth was inhibited at a honey concentration ranging from 0.094 to 0.188 g/mL. The most resistant bacterial strain was S. aureus. As concerns MBC values, L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible bacteria, while S. aureus was the most resistant. Helianthus spp. honeys was the most effective against all tested bacterial strains, followed by Robinia spp. and multifloral honeys. Promising results for MIC tests have been found for Brassica spp. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonographic Monitoring in 38 Dogs with Clinically Suspected Acute Pancreatitis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040180 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Abdominal ultrasound examinations (AUEs) are commonly used in the diagnostic evaluation of canine acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and monitor the ultrasonographic changes observed in dogs with clinically suspected AP on consecutive AUEs. The study population [...] Read more.
Abdominal ultrasound examinations (AUEs) are commonly used in the diagnostic evaluation of canine acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and monitor the ultrasonographic changes observed in dogs with clinically suspected AP on consecutive AUEs. The study population was constituted by 38 client-owned dogs hospitalized for no less than 48 h from January 2016 to December 2019. Dogs included in this study were suspected of AP based on the clinical examination and abnormal rapid specific canine pancreatic lipase test performed at admission. Dogs were submitted to two AUEs, the first on the first day of hospitalization, and the second between 40–52 h after the first one. Twelve dogs had both AUEs suggestive of AP. Fourteen dogs received an ultrasonographic diagnosis of AP exclusively on the second AUE. Twelve dogs remained negative on both the first and the second AUE. In 26 out of 38 patients the second AUE was suggestive of AP. If a patient is suspected of AP, it is advisable to carry out ultrasonographic monitoring at least within the first 52 h after admission, since ultrasonographic signs of AP may only become observable later after hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) and TLR Agonists Alone or as Polyplex Nanoparticles against Leishmania infantum Promastigotes and Amastigotes
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040179 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, manifesting from a subclinical to a fatal disease. Limited treatments are available, although new antiparasitics and immunomodulators are pursued. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, including antiparasitic activity. Here, we evaluated the potential [...] Read more.
Dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, manifesting from a subclinical to a fatal disease. Limited treatments are available, although new antiparasitics and immunomodulators are pursued. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, including antiparasitic activity. Here, we evaluated the potential for Toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) and PHMB alone, and as polyplex nanoparticles containing PHMB and TLR4 or TLR9 agonists, to selectively kill L. infantum. Susceptibility of L. infantum promastigotes to PHMB, miltefosine, and allopurinol was performed, and the half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined. Then, DH-82 cells were infected and treated with PHMB alone or combined with TLR4a (MPLA-SM) or TLR9a (CpG ODNs) and allopurinol alone. The IC50 values of L. infantum promastigotes were PHMB (1.495 µM), miltefosine (9.455 µM), and allopurinol (0.124 µM). After infection, treated DH-82 cells displayed a lower percentage (p = 0.0316), intensity (p = 0.0002), and index of infection (p = 0.0022) when compared to non-treated cells. PHMB induced lower percentage of infection alone (p = 0.043), in combination with TLR9a (p = 0.043), and with TLR4a (p = 0.0213). Supernatants were collected and used to measure TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Increased TNF-α was observed after PHMB plus TLR4a, relative to uninfected and infected untreated macrophages (p = 0.043). PHMB combined with TLR4a shows promise as a potential anti-L. infantum drug combination, as well as inducer of proinflammatory response, as demonstrated by decreased infection and increased TNF-α production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Sarcolipin Exhibits Abundant RNA Transcription and Minimal Protein Expression in Horse Gluteal Muscle
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040178 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Ca2+ regulation in equine muscle is important for horse performance, yet little is known about this species-specific regulation. We reported recently that horse encode unique gene and protein sequences for the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-transporting ATPase (SERCA) and the regulatory [...] Read more.
Ca2+ regulation in equine muscle is important for horse performance, yet little is known about this species-specific regulation. We reported recently that horse encode unique gene and protein sequences for the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-transporting ATPase (SERCA) and the regulatory subunit sarcolipin (SLN). Here we quantified gene transcription and protein expression of SERCA and its inhibitory peptides in horse gluteus, as compared to commonly-studied rabbit skeletal muscle. RNA sequencing and protein immunoblotting determined that horse gluteus expresses the ATP2A1 gene (SERCA1) as the predominant SR Ca2+-ATPase isoform and the SLN gene as the most-abundant SERCA inhibitory peptide, as also found in rabbit skeletal muscle. Equine muscle expresses an insignificant level of phospholamban (PLN), another key SERCA inhibitory peptide expressed commonly in a variety of mammalian striated muscles. Surprisingly in horse, the RNA transcript ratio of SLN-to-ATP2A1 is an order of magnitude higher than in rabbit, while the corresponding protein expression ratio is an order of magnitude lower than in rabbit. Thus, SLN is not efficiently translated or maintained as a stable protein in horse muscle, suggesting a non-coding role for supra-abundant SLN mRNA. We propose that the lack of SLN and PLN inhibition of SERCA activity in equine muscle is an evolutionary adaptation that potentiates Ca2+ cycling and muscle contractility in a prey species domestically selected for speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) in Hunter-Harvested Wild Elk (Cervus canadensis) from Pennsylvania, USA (2017–2018)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040177 - 12 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) are an aggressive one-host tick that infest a wide-diversity of ungulates. Infestations can result in anemia, alopecia, emaciation, and death. Most notably, the winter tick has caused negative impacts to moose (Alces alces) populations in [...] Read more.
Winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) are an aggressive one-host tick that infest a wide-diversity of ungulates. Infestations can result in anemia, alopecia, emaciation, and death. Most notably, the winter tick has caused negative impacts to moose (Alces alces) populations in the northeast United States and Canada. Winter ticks have been identified on other cervid species, including deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis), which generally results in low tick burdens and mild or no disease. Recently, however, a wild yearling bull elk in Pennsylvania was found dead as a result of severe winter tick infestation. To obtain baseline data on winter ticks in wild elk in Pennsylvania, we collected 1453 ticks from 190 hunter-harvested wild elk between 2017–2018. Of the 204 harvested elk, 94.3% (190/204) had ticks collected for this study and none of the sampled elk had evidence of winter-tick associated disease. The average tick burden was 7.7 ticks/elk and average winter tick load on all elk was 0.5. Results of this study indicate that winter ticks do infest wild elk in Pennsylvania. However, during the fall months, the tick burden is low and rarely associated with lesions. These data herein serve as a baseline to monitor winter tick populations over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Tickborne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Donkey Milk Collected in Northern Italy
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040176 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a well-known mycotoxin that can be found in the milk of animals that have ingested feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In Italy, the development of donkey farms is mainly due to growing [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a well-known mycotoxin that can be found in the milk of animals that have ingested feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In Italy, the development of donkey farms is mainly due to growing request of donkey milk, which is considered an incomparable substitute for human mother’s milk for its chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of AFM1 in donkey milk produced in a farm in Northern Italy, also in view of the few data available about the presence of this mycotoxin in this type of milk. Therefore, 63 milk samples were collected and analyzed using a fast and sensitive HPLC and fluorescence detection (FLD) method previously optimized and validated. None of the milk samples collected were found to be contaminated at a level above the limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.0125 ng/mL), while only one sample showed traces of the mycotoxin at a concentration between the limit of detection (LOD) and LOQ (0.0044 ng/mL), well below the legal limit established for infant milk and follow-on milk (0.025 ng/mL). These results are in line with those of the few similar surveys carried out on donkey milk and seem to indicate a low risk of AFM1 contamination for this food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Genus-Specific Brucella Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting the 16S-23S rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer from Different Specimen Types
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040175 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a 16S-23S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (ITS) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the early diagnosis and rapid screening of brucellosis. Blood, milk, and tissue samples were spiked with B. abortus biovar [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a 16S-23S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (ITS) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the early diagnosis and rapid screening of brucellosis. Blood, milk, and tissue samples were spiked with B. abortus biovar 1 (B01988-18 strain) to determine the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The 95% limit of detection of the ITS qPCR assay was highest in tissue, followed by blood, then milk, i.e., 0.48, 4.43, and 15.18 bacteria/PCR reaction, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the assay was compared to the Brucella cell surface protein (BCSP) 31 qPCR assay and bacterial culture. Out of 56 aborted foetal tissue samples from bovine, ovine, and caprine, 33% (19/56) were positive for Brucella spp. The sensitivity and specificity of the ITS qPCR assay was 87% and 95% respectively, compared to 92% and 89% for the BCSP31 qPCR assay and 47% and 55% for bacterial culture, respectively. The assay was efficient, sensitive, and specific, making it a valuable tool in the early detection of the Brucella pathogen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serotyping, Genotyping and Virulence Genes Characterization of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica Isolates Recovered from Pneumonic Cattle Calves in North Upper Egypt
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040174 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Pasteurella (P.) multocida and Mannheimia (M.) haemolytica are the most two common pathogenic bacterial agents causing pneumonia in calves. Both bacteria are associated with significant economic losses in the cattle industry due to high morbidity and mortality rates, especially [...] Read more.
Pasteurella (P.) multocida and Mannheimia (M.) haemolytica are the most two common pathogenic bacterial agents causing pneumonia in calves. Both bacteria are associated with significant economic losses in the cattle industry due to high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in the case of severe infections. The objectives of the present study were to perform serotyping and genotyping, as well as characterization of the virulence-associated genes in 48 bacterial isolates; 33 P. multocida and 15 M. haemolytica. All strains were isolated from pneumonic cattle calves showing respiratory manifestations such as fever, nasal discharges, and rapid breathing in North Upper Egypt governorates (Beni-Suef and El-Fayoum). PCR was applied as a confirmatory test using a specific universal gene, kmt1, and rpt2 for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. The results show that 29 (87.9%) P. multocida and 15 (100%) M. haemolytica isolates were positive for the corresponding universal gene. The results of serotyping indicate that 86.2% of P. multocida isolates belonged to serotype B:2, while 13.8% were untyped. Meanwhile, 60% and 40% of M. haemolytica isolates belonged to serotype 2 and serotype 1, respectively. Investigation of virulence-associated genes showed that all the tested P. multocida isolates harbored nanB, omp87, and toxA genes. Four M. haemolytica isolates harbored both gcp and lktC genes and of these, three isolates harbored the ssa gene. Sequencing of toxA gene of P. multocida and lktC gene of M. haemolytica in the current strains indicated a great homology with strains uploaded in gene banks from different hosts and localities worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacterial Isolates from Dogs and Cats in a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Colombia from 2016–2019
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040173 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The susceptibility to antimicrobials of bacterial isolates from dogs (n = 1256) and cats (n = 94) was retrospectively evaluated in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory over a 4-year period (2016–2019). Out of 1316 isolates in dogs, 771 were Staphylococcus spp. distributed [...] Read more.
The susceptibility to antimicrobials of bacterial isolates from dogs (n = 1256) and cats (n = 94) was retrospectively evaluated in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory over a 4-year period (2016–2019). Out of 1316 isolates in dogs, 771 were Staphylococcus spp. distributed as follows: Staph. pseudointermedius (n = 406), Staph. intermedius (n = 160), Staph. aureus (n = 104), and Staph. coagulase-negative (n = 101). In common, all Staphylococcus spp. showed a high prevalence (20–50%) of resistance to ampicillin, cephalosporin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamide, but a low prevalence (1–10%) of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate. With regards to the other families of bacteria, the number of antimicrobials for which resistance was high (>20%) in dogs was: Enterobacteriaceae (7/12), Enterococcus spp. (10/16), E. coli (11/15), Pseudomonas spp. (10/13), and Streptococcus spp. (4/9). For urinary tract infections caused by E. coli or Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp.), amikacin and florfenicol were the only drugs that demonstrated 100% in vitro efficacy. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 18.7% (246/1316) and 22% (21/97) of the isolates from dogs and cats, respectively. Except for Pseudomonas spp., known for intrinsic resistance, resistance in other bacteria was likely attributed to high selection pressure. In conclusion, empirical antimicrobial use cannot be recommended to treat most common infections, and selection should be based on results from susceptibility testing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Histopathological Changes Associated with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Lymph Nodes Condemned at a Bovine Slaughterhouse
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040172 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Background: non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infect humans and animals and have a critical confounding effect on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. The Official Mexican Standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-ZOO-031-1995) for food safety regulates Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, but not the NTM species. The [...] Read more.
Background: non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infect humans and animals and have a critical confounding effect on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. The Official Mexican Standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-ZOO-031-1995) for food safety regulates Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, but not the NTM species. The study’s objective was to isolate and identify the NTM present in condemned bovine lymph nodes in a slaughterhouse, characterize the histological lesions, and correlate bacteriological and microscopic findings with the antemortem tuberculin skin test. Methods: from 528 cattle, one or two pooled samples of lymph nodes from each animal were cultured for Mycobacteria spp. and processed for histopathology. Results: mycobacteria were isolated from 54/528 (10.2%) of the condemned lymph nodes; 25/54 (46.2%) of these isolates were NTM; 4 bacteriological cultures with fungal contamination were discarded. Granulomatous and pyogranulomatous inflammation were present in 6/21 (28.6%) and 7/21 (33.3%) of the NTM-positive lymph nodes, respectively. The species of NTM associated with granulomatous lymphadenitis were M. scrofulaceum, M. triviale, M. terrae, and M. szulgai, while those causing pyogranulomatous lesions were M. szulgai, M. kansasii, M. phlei, and M. scrofulaceum. Conclusions: the NTM infections can cause false-positive results in the tuberculin test because of cross immune reactivity and interference with the postmortem identification of M. bovis in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
Open AccessArticle
Hematological and Serum Biochemistry Values in Free-Ranging Crested Porcupine
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040171 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The crested porcupine is a widespread naturalized Italian rodent of African origin; nevertheless, very little information on the population abundance and its health status is available. In this study, the hematological and serum chemistry profile of 10 free-ranging captured crested porcupines was established [...] Read more.
The crested porcupine is a widespread naturalized Italian rodent of African origin; nevertheless, very little information on the population abundance and its health status is available. In this study, the hematological and serum chemistry profile of 10 free-ranging captured crested porcupines was established for the first time. The mean hematological values resulted: 5.7 SD 0.4 M/μL for red blood cells; 13.6 SD 0.8 g/dL for hemoglobin; 77.3 SD 5.7 fL for mean corpuscular volume and 30.1 SD 4.7 g/dL for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; 14.4 SD 7.2 K/μL for white blood cells; and 557.0 SD 469.9 K/μL for platelets. The mean urea and creatinine values resulted with 19.8 SD 8.3 mg/dL and 1.6 SD 3.0 mg/dL, respectively. The mean value of total protein was 6.7 SD 1.0 g/dL, with values of albumin higher than globulins. The mean activity of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase was 927.3 SD 607.6 U/L, 199.2 SD 70.8 U/L, 16.9 SD 13.7 U/L, and 256 SD 75.8 U/L, respectively. Highest values of alkaline phosphatase were recorded in two porcupines presenting severe injuries with clear signs of infection. These preliminary results may be a helpful tool in order to assess porcupine health status. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterization, Cure Rates and Associated Risks of Clinical Mastitis in Northern Germany
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040170 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 376
Abstract
The control of clinical mastitis on dairy farms is an essential part of animal health management. Knowledge of the causative microorganisms, the cure rates achievable in the field and essential associated factors are crucial for proper control. The objectives of the present study [...] Read more.
The control of clinical mastitis on dairy farms is an essential part of animal health management. Knowledge of the causative microorganisms, the cure rates achievable in the field and essential associated factors are crucial for proper control. The objectives of the present study were to characterize clinical mastitis cases in Germany and to analyze factors influencing cure rates and the recurrence rate. Milk samples of every clinical mastitis case occurring on 12 participating farms were examined cytomicrobiologically. Post-treatment quarter samples were taken after 14 and 21 days. Treatments were performed according to existing farm protocols. Of 2883 clinical mastitis cases, the most prevalent pathogens were Streptococcus (S.) uberis (20.2%) and coliforms (11.6%). In 35% of the milk samples, no bacteriological growth was detected. The overall bacteriological cure rate was 73.3%, while the cytological cure rate was 22.3%, the full cure rate 21.4% and the recurrence rate 18.8%. Regarding the pathogen distribution of severe mastitis, coliform bacteria were detected in 30.5% of the cases, whereas S. uberis was detected in 26.5% thereof. The results show that severe mastitis is caused almost as frequently by Gram-positive as by Gram-negative microorganisms. The low cytological cure rates show that the therapy needs to be further developed with regard to calming the inflammation. The obtained data can be very helpful in assessing internal mastitis scenarios and the effect of measures and therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessCommunication
Deciphering the Role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Non-Structural NS4B Protein in Viral Pathogenesis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040169 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a (+) ssRNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is a significant animal pathogen causing substantial economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide through respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and abortion or birth of persistently [...] Read more.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a (+) ssRNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is a significant animal pathogen causing substantial economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide through respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and abortion or birth of persistently infected calves. While the immunogenic profile of some of the BVDV proteins (i.e., Erns, E2 and NS3) is well established during viral pathogenesis, very little information is available about most of BVDV’s non-structural proteins in this regard. In recent times, the NS4B protein has emerged as an interesting target of diagnostic, vaccination and therapeutic value in viral infections of other members of the family Flaviviridae due to its key scaffold-like contribution in the viral replication complex. Although, BVDV-NS4B has a membrane topology alongside its role in induction of autophagosomes in vitro. However, information on its immunogenicity during BVDV pathogenesis and vaccination is scarce. To characterize the immunogenic profile of the NS4B, five cows were vaccinated with the live attenuated BVDV vaccine Bovela® and blood samples were taken pre- and post-immunization for serum isolation. Virus neutralization assay (VNA) confirmed the presence of anti-BVDV antibodies in the sera of vaccinated cows. VNA also revealed pre-existing antibodies against BVDV in the pre-immunization sera of two cows. To identify BVDV-NS4B specific antibodies, the NS4B protein was expressed in mammalian cells by using the pCI-neo vector system. The sera from BVDV vaccinated cows were evaluated for the presence of BVDV-NS4B specific antibodies through western blot and indirect ELISA. Interestingly, t sera from cows with pre-existing immunity against BVDV were able to detect NS4B in western blot and ELISA, suggesting the presence of NS4B-specific antibodies. The obtained results provide the first indication of the immunogenic nature of BVDV-NS4B protein in sero-converted animals. These findings are consistent with the observation made for NS4B in other Flaviviridae members and confirm this protein as an interesting target with diagnostic, vaccination and therapeutic value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Importance of the Sound Emitted by Honey Bee Hives
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040168 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Recent years have seen a worsening in the decline of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. This phenomenon has sparked a great amount of attention regarding the need for intense bee hive monitoring, in order to identify possible causes, and design corresponding [...] Read more.
Recent years have seen a worsening in the decline of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. This phenomenon has sparked a great amount of attention regarding the need for intense bee hive monitoring, in order to identify possible causes, and design corresponding countermeasures. Honey bees have a key role in pollination services of both cultivated and spontaneous flora, and the increase in bee mortality could lead to an ecological and economical damage. Despite many smart monitoring systems for honey bees and bee hives, relying on different sensors and measured quantities, have been proposed over the years, the most promising ones are based on sound analysis. Sounds are used by the bees to communicate within the hive, and their analysis can reveal useful information to understand the colony health status and to detect sudden variations, just by using a simple microphone and an acquisition system. The work here presented aims to provide a review of the most interesting approaches proposed over the years for honey bees sound analysis and the type of knowledge about bees that can be extracted from sounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Shigatoxigenic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes in Healthy Young Dairy Calves in Belgium by Recto-Anal Mucosal Swabbing
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040167 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) are carried by healthy adult cattle and even more frequently by young calves in their intestinal tract, especially at the height of the recto-anal junction. The purpose of the present [...] Read more.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) are carried by healthy adult cattle and even more frequently by young calves in their intestinal tract, especially at the height of the recto-anal junction. The purpose of the present study was to assess the presence of ten EHEC, EPEC, and/or STEC O serotypes (O5, O26, O80, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145, O157, and O165) in calves sampled via recto-anal mucosal swabs (RAMS) at three dairy farms in Belgium. A total of 233 RAMS were collected on three consecutive occasions from healthy <6-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves and submitted to a PCR targeting the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes after non-selective overnight enrichment growth. The 148 RAMS testing positive were streaked on four (semi-)selective agar media; of the 2146 colonies tested, 294 from 69 RAMS were PCR-confirmed as EHEC, EPEC, or STEC. The most frequent virulotype was eae+ EPEC and the second one was stx1+ stx2+ STEC, while the eae+ stx1+ and eae+ stx1+ stx2+ virulotypes were the most frequent among EHEC. The majority of EHEC (73%) tested positive for one of the five O serotypes detected (O26, O103, O111, O145, or O157) vs. 23% of EPEC and 45% of STEC. Similarly, more RAMS (73%) harbored EHEC isolates positive for those five serotypes compared to EPEC (53%) or STEC (52%). This survey confirms that (i) healthy young dairy calves are asymptomatic carriers of EHEC and EPEC in Belgium; (ii) the carrier state rates, the virulotypes, and the identified O serotypes differ between farms and in time; and (iii) a majority of EPEC belong to so far unidentified O serotypes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Factors Associated with Honey Bee Colony Losses: A Mini-Review
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040166 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a species of crucial economic, agricultural and environmental importance. In the last ten years, some regions of the world have suffered from a significant reduction of honey bee colonies. In fact, honey [...] Read more.
The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a species of crucial economic, agricultural and environmental importance. In the last ten years, some regions of the world have suffered from a significant reduction of honey bee colonies. In fact, honey bee losses are not an unusual phenomenon, but in many countries worldwide there has been a notable decrease in honey bee colonies. The cases in the USA, in many European countries, and in the Middle East have received considerable attention, mostly due to the absence of an easily identifiable cause. It has been difficult to determine the main factors leading to colony losses because of honey bees’ diverse social behavior. Moreover, in their daily routine, they make contact with many agents of the environment and are exposed to a plethora of human activities and their consequences. Nevertheless, various factors have been considered to be contributing to honey bee losses, and recent investigations have established some of the most important ones, in particular, pests and diseases, bee management, including bee keeping practices and breeding, the change in climatic conditions, agricultural practices, and the use of pesticides. The global picture highlights the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor as a major factor in colony loss. Last but not least, microsporidian parasites, mainly Nosema ceranae, also contribute to the problem. Thus, it is obvious that there are many factors affecting honey bee colony losses globally. Increased monitoring and scientific research should throw new light on the factors involved in recent honey bee colony losses. The present review focuses on the main factors which have been found to have an impact on the increase in honey bee colony losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
Open AccessCommunication
Geographic Distribution of Ehrlichia canis TRP Genotypes in Brazil
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040165 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Tandem repeat proteins (TRPs) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. TRP19 is preserved among different E. canis isolates expressed on both reticulate and dense-core cells and observed [...] Read more.
Tandem repeat proteins (TRPs) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. TRP19 is preserved among different E. canis isolates expressed on both reticulate and dense-core cells and observed in the extracellular matrix or associated with the morula membrane. TRP36 is differentially expressed only on the surface of the dense-core form of the bacterium and exhibits more divergence among isolates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 814 dogs from 49 municipalities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Dogs that reacted to at least one of the synthetic peptides (TRP19 and TRP36) were 456 (56%). A few dogs (n = 5; 0.6%) reactive to the E. canis TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We concluded that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence rates. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Tickborne Diseases)
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Open AccessCommunication
Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Bangladesh
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040164 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. To detect WNV and other flavivirus infections in wild resident and migratory birds, we tested 184 samples from 19 identified species within nine families [...] Read more.
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. To detect WNV and other flavivirus infections in wild resident and migratory birds, we tested 184 samples from 19 identified species within nine families collected during 2012–2016 from four districts in Bangladesh. We tested serum samples for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against WNV using competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA), whereas tracheal and cloacal swabs were subjected to consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (c-PCR) for the detection of the flavivirus RNA. Overall, we detected 11.9% (n = 22; 95% CI: 0.07–0.16) samples were seropositive, including 15.9% in the migratory wild birds and 10.7% in the resident wild birds. The migratory wild Tufted duck showed 28.5% seropositivity, whereas the resident wild house crows showed 12.5% seropositivity. None of the swab samples was positive for flavivirus RNA infection (0%, n = 184; 95% CI: 0–0.019). These study findings recommend continued surveillance for early detection and to better understand the epidemiology of WNV and other flavivirus circulation in both birds and mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Novel ELISA for the Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Dairy Cattle from Thailand Using a Bayesian Approach
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040163 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The objective of this study was to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (using a coating antigen from Pasteurella multocida M-1404 via heat extraction) and an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test for detection of Hemorrhagic septicemia [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (using a coating antigen from Pasteurella multocida M-1404 via heat extraction) and an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test for detection of Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in dairy cows, under Thai conditions, using a Bayesian approach. Dairy cow sera with a total of 1236 samples from 44 farms were tested with the two tests to detect immune responses against the HS. Percentages of positive samples for the ELISA and IHA tests were 73% (901/1236) and 70% (860/1236), respectively. Estimated sensitivity and estimated specificity of the ELISA test were 90.5% (95% posterior probability interval (PPI) = 83.2–95.4%) and 70.8% (95% PPI = 60.8–79.8%), respectively. Additionally, estimates for the Se and Sp values of the IHA test were 77.0% (95% PPI = 70.8–84.1%) and 51.1% (PPI = 36.8–66.3%), respectively. The estimated prevalence of the disease was 71.7% (95% PPI = 62.7–82.6%). These results demonstrate that the ELISA test can be a useful tool for the detection of the presence of an antibody against the HS in dairy cows. Notably, the cows in this area indicated a high percentage of exposure to Pasteurella multocida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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