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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 67 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Influenza viruses (IV) are a major threat to human and animal health due to the variety of species they affect. Pigs can be infected by swine, avian, and human IV, making them the “mixing vessel” for the appearance of new subtypes. In this study, we identified knowledge trends and bias caused by research on IV originating in swine, known as IV of swine origin or swine influenza virus (SwIV) variants. We determined the proportion of publications using whole, partial, mixed or subtype-only IV nomenclature, and the number of articles with an available GenBank ID. We found an important bias on SwIV research driven by the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic, with H1N1 as the most studied subtype for swine and humans. Partial nomenclatures were slightly more common. Finally, from all the publications, only 25% stated the ID of the sequence studied. View this paper.
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Communication
Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Khartoum State, Sudan
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040209 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic wasting disease mainly of domestic and wild ruminants. It occurs worldwide, causing significant economic losses through decreased productivity, low fertility, increased cull rates and mortality. It is listed by the OIE (World [...] Read more.
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic wasting disease mainly of domestic and wild ruminants. It occurs worldwide, causing significant economic losses through decreased productivity, low fertility, increased cull rates and mortality. It is listed by the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) as a disease of concern to trade in animals. Prevalence of this disease can be studied by detecting anti-MAP antibodies by Enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The aim of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of MAP infection in cattle in Khartoum State. The overall apparent prevalence of MAP infection was found to be 6.3% and 18.9% at animal and herd levels, respectively. All seropositive animals were cross-bred females of good body condition; most of them (>90%) were >3 years old and >50% were from medium-sized herds in Omdurman. No significant association (p > 0.05) was found between seropositivity and animal herd size. The prevalence of MAP infection in Khartoum State is still low to medium compared to other parts of the world, but it is comparable to those reported from other African countries. Further studies with the view of designing nationwide surveys in domestic ruminants and camels in other states of the country are needed for establishing control programmes. Full article
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Article
Risk Factors and Severity of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Selected Small Ruminants from Malaysia
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040208 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
The productivity of smallholder sheep and goat flocks is constrained by high morbidity and mortality of young stock due to helminthosis and coccidiosis. We hypothesized that gastrointestinal parasites are prevalent and may cause severe infections amongst small ruminants in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
The productivity of smallholder sheep and goat flocks is constrained by high morbidity and mortality of young stock due to helminthosis and coccidiosis. We hypothesized that gastrointestinal parasites are prevalent and may cause severe infections amongst small ruminants in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and December 2019 to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and levels of infection with gastrointestinal strongyle and coccidia in selected smallholder goat flocks in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. A total of 257 blood and fecal samples and management data were collected from four farms in Negeri Sembilan. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected by routine sodium chloride floatation, and the McMaster technique was used to quantify the fecal eggs/oocysts per gram outputs (EPG/OPG). The severity of infection was classified as mild (50–799), moderate (800–1200), or severe (>1200). The packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by microhematocrit centrifugation and classified as anemic or non-anemic. Coprological examination revealed an overall prevalence of 78.6% (CI = 72.74–83.44) and 100% flock level prevalence of strongyle and coccidia infection among goats from Negeri Sembilan with a higher infection in flock A-Lenggeng (95.6%) than B-Senawang (87.3%), D-Mendom (80.6%), or C-Seremban (60.0%). The co-infections of strongyle + Eimeria (50.6; CI = 44.50 to 56.64) were more common than single infections of either strongyle (16.7%; CI = 12.66 to 21.78) or Eimeria (4.3%; CI = 2.41 to 7.50). Quantitative analysis has revealed different (p < 0.05) patterns of EPG/OPG in various categories of goats. In total, there were 49.8% mild, 8.6% moderate, and 13.6% severe infections of strongyle and 40.1% mild, 6.6% moderate, and 19.8% severe infections of coccidia among goats. The mean PCV of goats with severe strongyle infection (24.60 ± 0.85) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the moderate (26.90 ± 1.15), or mild (28.23 ± 0.50) infections and the uninfected (30.4 ± 0.71). There were increased odds of infection with strongyle and coccidia among female (OR = 3.2) and adult (OR = 11.0) goats from smallholder flocks in Negeri Sembilan. In conclusion, gastrointestinal strongyles and coccidia occur at high frequency among smallholder goats, and there is a higher risk of infection amongst the adult and female stock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Tickborne Diseases)
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Article
Evaluation of the Worldwide Occurrence of Rabies in Dogs and Cats Using a Simple and Homogenous Framework for Quantitative Risk Assessments of Rabies Reintroduction in Disease-Free Areas through Pet Movements
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040207 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
Dog and cat rabies cases imported from rabies enzootic countries represent a major threat for areas that have acquired rabies-free status and quantitative risk analyses (QRAs) are developed in order to assess this risk of rabies reintroduction through dog and cat movements. Herein [...] Read more.
Dog and cat rabies cases imported from rabies enzootic countries represent a major threat for areas that have acquired rabies-free status and quantitative risk analyses (QRAs) are developed in order to assess this risk of rabies reintroduction through dog and cat movements. Herein we describe a framework to evaluate dog and cat rabies incidence levels in exporting countries along with the associated uncertainty for such QRAs. For enzootic dog rabies areas (EDRAs), we extended and adapted a previously published method to specify the relationship between dog rabies vaccination coverage and canine rabies incidence; the relationship between dog and cat rabies incidences; and then to predict annual dog and cat rabies incidences. In non-enzootic dog rabies areas (nEDRAs), we provided annual incidence based on declared dog and cat rabies cases. For EDRAs, we predicted an annual incidence potentially greater than 1.5% in dogs and about ten times lower in cats with a high burden in Africa and Asia but much lower in Latin America. In nEDRAs, the occurrence of rabies was lower and of similar magnitude in dogs and cats. However, wildlife could still potentially infect dogs and cats through spillover events. This framework can directly be incorporated in QRAs of rabies reintroduction. Full article
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Review
Antimicrobial Peptides in Farm Animals: An Updated Review on Its Diversity, Function, Modes of Action and Therapeutic Prospects
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040206 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the arsenals of the innate host defense system, exhibiting evolutionarily conserved characteristics that are present in practically all forms of life. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria compounded with a slow discovery rate for new antibiotics [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the arsenals of the innate host defense system, exhibiting evolutionarily conserved characteristics that are present in practically all forms of life. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria compounded with a slow discovery rate for new antibiotics that have necessitated scientific efforts to search for alternatives to antibiotics. Research on the identification of AMPs has generated very encouraging evidence that they curb infectious pathologies and are also useful as novel biologics to function as immunotherapeutic agents. Being innate, they exhibit the least cytotoxicity to the host and exerts a wide spectrum of biological activity including low resistance among microbes and increased wound healing actions. Notably, in veterinary science, the constant practice of massive doses of antibiotics with inappropriate withdrawal programs led to a high risk of livestock-associated antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the world faces tremendous pressure for designing and devising strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics in animals and keep it safe for posterity. In this review, we illustrate the diversity of farm animal-specific AMPs, and their biochemical foundations, mode of action, and prospective application in clinics. Subsequently, we present the data for their systematic classification under the major and minor groups, antipathogenic action, and allied bioactivities in the host. Finally, we address the limitations of their clinical implementation and envision areas for further advancement. Full article
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Article
Acute Cytauxzoon felis Cases in Domestic Cats from Eastern Kansas, a Retrospective Case-Control Study (2006–2019)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040205 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne hemoprotozoal pathogen of felids, causes an acute, often-fatal disease in domestic cats. While public awareness of the disease has increased, few studies have evaluated the incidence of acute cytauxzoonosis cases and their associated risk factors. The objective of [...] Read more.
Cytauxzoon felis, a tick-borne hemoprotozoal pathogen of felids, causes an acute, often-fatal disease in domestic cats. While public awareness of the disease has increased, few studies have evaluated the incidence of acute cytauxzoonosis cases and their associated risk factors. The objective of this study was to retrospectively review records of cats diagnosed with acute cytauxzoonosis in eastern Kansas from 2006–2019 using clinic records and determine: (i) feline cytauxzoonosis risk factors; and (ii) if cytauxzoonosis case incidence is increasing. Although inter-annual variation of acute cytauxzoonosis diagnosis was observed in the eastern Kansas domestic cat population, the overall incidence trend remained largely unchanged over the 14-year case review period. In comparison to ill (C. felis-unrelated) control cases, more acute cytauxzoonosis cases were diagnosed in spring and summer, suggesting a seasonal fluctuation of infection, with samples most commonly submitted from ≥1 year old, owned, male cats. Although cytauxzoonosis case submissions remained consistent over the broad study period, increasing tick vector and domestic cat reservoir populations may contribute to additional cytauxzoonosis case expansion in endemic areas. Investigating the incidence of acute cytauxzoonosis, patient risk factors, and ecological variables that influence disease transmission are important steps towards developing and communicating the need for effective cytauxzoonosis control strategies for high-risk cat populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Review
Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Egypt: Genetic Diversity and Vaccination Strategies
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040204 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly evolving avian pathogen that has increasingly imposed a negative impact on poultry industry worldwide. In the last 20 years, IBV has been continuously circulating among chicken flocks in Egypt causing huge economic losses to poultry production. [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly evolving avian pathogen that has increasingly imposed a negative impact on poultry industry worldwide. In the last 20 years, IBV has been continuously circulating among chicken flocks in Egypt causing huge economic losses to poultry production. Multiple IBV genotypes, namely, GI-1, GI-13, GI-16, and GI-23 have been reported in Egypt possessing different genetic and pathogenic features. Different vaccine programs are being used to control the spread of the disease in Egypt. However, the virus continues to spread and evolve where multiple IBV variants and several recombination evidence have been described. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge concerning IBV circulation, genesis, and vaccination strategies in Egypt. In addition, we analyze representative Egyptian IBV strains from an evolutionary perspective based on available data of their S1 gene. We also provide insight into the importance of surveillance programs and share our perspectives for better control of IBV circulating in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Case Report
The Outcome and CT Findings of Low-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy with SQAP in a Cat with Thymoma
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040203 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
A 9-year-old male intact domestic cat weighing 4.6 kg was referred for tachypnea. A large mass was visible in computed tomography (CT) scans of the thoracic cavity. A histopathological evaluation of the mass was consistent with thymoma. The cat was treated with 2 [...] Read more.
A 9-year-old male intact domestic cat weighing 4.6 kg was referred for tachypnea. A large mass was visible in computed tomography (CT) scans of the thoracic cavity. A histopathological evaluation of the mass was consistent with thymoma. The cat was treated with 2 × 8 Gy intensity modulated radiation therapy and sulfoquinovosyl acyl propanediol (SQAP). Post radiation therapy (RT), the tumor structure appeared cystic in the CT, and the tumor volume decreased by approximately 80% after aspiration than that before aspiration. The tumor was removed surgically. RT treatment with SQAP made it possible to treat the thymoma with a low total radiation dose. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Floris, I., et al. How the Infestation Level of Varroa destructor Affects the Distribution Pattern of Multi-Infested Cells in Worker Brood of Apis mellifera. Veterinary Science 2020, 7, 136
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040202 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
We have recently been made aware by the reviewer and the Journal Editorial Offices of the following weaknesses in our recent paper [...] Full article
Article
Field Observations and Genetic Characterization of Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Egypt, 2018
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040201 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Ovine gammaherpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causes a lethal disease in cattle and some wild ruminants called malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), which affects the epithelial and lymphoid tissues of the respiratory and digestive tracts and has an important impact on the livestock industry. In this study, [...] Read more.
Ovine gammaherpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causes a lethal disease in cattle and some wild ruminants called malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), which affects the epithelial and lymphoid tissues of the respiratory and digestive tracts and has an important impact on the livestock industry. In this study, MCF was diagnosed in 18 of 427 cattle from different sites in Egypt by its typical clinical signs, found in all 18 animals: corneal opacity, fever, erosions in the buccal cavity, lymphadenitis, and purulent nasal discharge. All affected cattle had been reared in contact with clinically inconspicuous sheep. Of the 18 clinically ill cattle, 13 succumbed to the disease, resulting in estimated morbidity and case fatality rates of 4.2% and 72.2%, respectively. Five samples collected from the affected cattle were positive for OvHV-2 by real-time PCR and were used for sequencing of an 832-bp fragment of the ORF27/gp48 gene. The ORF27 nucleotide sequence of all Egyptian samples was identical, but distinct from viruses found in other parts of Africa and the Mediterranean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Effect of Animal Welfare on the Reproductive Performance of Extensive Pasture-Based Beef Cows in New Zealand
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040200 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. This study assesses welfare on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms, and explores the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive [...] Read more.
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. This study assesses welfare on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms, and explores the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive performance indicators (pregnancy rate, weaning rate, mating period and bull: cow ratio) are investigated using an exploratory principal components analysis and linear regression model. Seven welfare measures (thinness, poor rumen fill, dirtiness, blindness, mortality, health checks of pregnant cows and yarding frequency/year) showed a potential influence on reproductive performance, and lameness was retained individually as a potential measure. Mean pregnancy rates, in both 2018 (PD18) and 2017 (PD17), were ~91% and mean weaning rate was 84%. Of the welfare measures, only lameness had a direct association with pregnancy rate, as well as a confounding effect on the association between mating period and pregnancy rate. The bull: cow ration (mean 1:31) and reproductive conditions (dystocia, abortion, vaginal prolapse) did not influence pregnancy and weaning rates. In the study population, there was no clear association between welfare and reproductive performance, except for the confounding effects of lameness. Full article
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Article
Effects of Synthetic Acaricides and Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on Molecules Associated with Chemical Communication and Recognition in Honey Bees
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040199 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Acaricides and the gut parasite Nosema ceranae are commonly present in most productive hives. Those stressors could be affecting key semiochemicals, which act as homeostasis regulators in Apis mellifera colonies, such as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) involved in social recognition and ethyl oleate (EO) [...] Read more.
Acaricides and the gut parasite Nosema ceranae are commonly present in most productive hives. Those stressors could be affecting key semiochemicals, which act as homeostasis regulators in Apis mellifera colonies, such as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) involved in social recognition and ethyl oleate (EO) which plays a role as primer pheromone in honey bees. Here we test the effect of amitraz, coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, commonly applied to treat varroosis, on honey bee survival time, rate of food consumption, CHC profiles and EO production on N. ceranae-infected and non-infected honey bees. Different sublethal concentrations of amitraz, coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin were administered chronically in a syrup-based diet. After treatment, purified hole-body extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. While N. ceranae infection was also shown to decrease EO production affecting survival rates, acaricides showed no significant effect on this pheromone. As for the CHC, we found no changes in relation to the health status or consumption of acaricides. This absence of alteration in EO or CHC as response to acaricides ingestion or in combination with N. ceranae, suggests that worker honey bees exposed to those highly ubiquitous drugs are hardly differentiated by nest-mates. Having determined a synergic effect on mortality in worker bees exposed to coumaphos and Nosema infection but also, alterations in EO production as a response to N. ceranae infection it is an interesting clue to deeper understand the effects of parasite-host-pesticide interaction on colony functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Article
Blood Microbiome: A New Marker of Gut Microbial Population in Dogs?
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040198 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
The characterization of the microbial population in different compartments of the organism, such as the gastrointestinal tract, is now possible thanks to the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. Several studies in the companion animals field have already investigated the fecal microbiome in [...] Read more.
The characterization of the microbial population in different compartments of the organism, such as the gastrointestinal tract, is now possible thanks to the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. Several studies in the companion animals field have already investigated the fecal microbiome in healthy or sick subjects; however, the methodologies used in the different laboratories and the limited number of animals recruited in each experiment do not allow a straight comparison among published results. Previously, our research focused on the characterization of the microbial taxa variability in 340 fecal samples from 132 healthy dogs, collected serially from several in-house experiments. The results supported the responsiveness of microbiota to dietary and sex factors and allowed us to cluster dogs with high accuracy. For the present study, intestinal and blood microbiota of healthy dogs from different breeds, genders, ages and food habits were collected, with three principal aims: firstly, to confirm the results of our previous study regarding the fecal microbiome affected by the different type of diet; secondly, to investigate the existence of a blood microbial population, even in heathy subjects; and thirdly, to seek for a possible connection between the fecal and the blood microbiota. Limited researches have been published on blood microbiota in humans, and this is the first evidence of the presence of a bacterial population in the blood of dogs. Moreover, gut and blood microbiota can discriminate the animals by factors such as diet, suggesting some relationship between them. These preliminary results make us believe in the use of the blood microbiome for diagnostic purposes, such as researching and preventing gut inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Effect of Different Doses of Atipamezole on Reversal of Medetomidine-Induced Tear-Flow Decrease in Rats
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040197 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1609
Abstract
It has been reported that α2-adrenoceptor agonists such as medetomidine decrease tear flow in many species, including rats. Few studies have investigated the involvement of α2-adrenoceptor in decreased tear flow; the issue has not been illustrated sufficiently. Therefore, we [...] Read more.
It has been reported that α2-adrenoceptor agonists such as medetomidine decrease tear flow in many species, including rats. Few studies have investigated the involvement of α2-adrenoceptor in decreased tear flow; the issue has not been illustrated sufficiently. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of different doses of atipamezole on the reversal of medetomidine-induced tear-flow decrease to reveal the specific involvement of α2-adrenoceptor. Treatment with 400, 800, or 1600 µg/kg atipamezole (or saline as the control) was intramuscularly administered to rats 15 min following intramuscular administration of 200 µg/kg medetomidine. After medetomidine administration, tear flow was measured using a phenol red thread test (PRTT). PRTT values decreased significantly after 200 µg/kg medetomidine administration. The PRTT values after 800 (optimal dose to reverse) and 1600 µg/kg atipamezole administration reached baseline, but never exceeded it significantly. Treatment with 400 µg/kg atipamezole also reversed the decrease in PRTT value but the PRTT remained lower than baseline. The optimal dose and the higher dose of atipamezole fully reversed the medetomidine-induced decrease in tear flow to the baseline level in rats, while the lower dose of atipamezole partially recovered tear flow. Full article
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Article
Computed Tomography-Derived Occipital–Coccygeal Length and Ilium Wing Distance Correlates with Skin to Epidural and Intrathecal Depths in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040196 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The current clinical techniques for neuraxial needle placement in dogs are predominantly blind without prior knowledge of the depth required to reach the desired space. This study investigated the correlation and defined the relationship between easily obtainable external landmark variables in the dog; [...] Read more.
The current clinical techniques for neuraxial needle placement in dogs are predominantly blind without prior knowledge of the depth required to reach the desired space. This study investigated the correlation and defined the relationship between easily obtainable external landmark variables in the dog; occipital–coccygeal length (OCL) and ilium wings distance (IWD), with the skin to epidural and intrathecal space distances using computed tomography (CT). The CT images of 86 dogs of different breeds were examined in this retrospective observational study. Images of dogs in sternal recumbency were optimized to the sagittal view. The distances between the skin and lumbosacral epidural space (LSE) and skin to sacrococcygeal space (SCE) were measured to the ligamentum flavum surrogate (LFS) line. The distance between the skin and the intrathecal space (ITS) was measured from the skin to the vertebral canal at the interlumbar (L5–L6) space. Measurements of the IWD and OCL were performed on dorsal and scout views, respectively. Linear regression equations and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between variables. Data were reported as mean (standard deviation). Significance was set as alpha < 0.05. After exclusion of four dogs, 82 CT scans were included. The depths were LSE 45 (15) mm, SCE 23 (10) mm, and ITS 50 (15) mm. There was a moderate correlation between OCL with LSE (=14.2 + OCL * 0.05 (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001)), and a strong correlation with ITS (=11.4 + OCL * 0.07 (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001)), while a very weak correlation was found with SCE (=14.0 + OCL * 0.02 (r = 0.27, p < 0.0584)). Similarly, with IWD, there was a moderate correlation with LSE (=10.8 + IWD * 0.56 (r = 0.61, p < 0.0001)), and strong correlation with ITS (=9.2 + IWD * 0.67 (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001)), while a weak correlation was found with SCE (=11.2 + IWD * 0.2 (r = 0.32, p < 0.0033)). Mathematical formulae derived from the multiple regression showed that the body condition score (BCS) improved the relationship between IWD and OCL and the LSE, SCE and ITS, while the addition of body weight was associated with multicollinearity. Further studies are required to determine the accuracy of the algorithms to demonstrate their ability for prediction in a clinical setting. Full article
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Article
Intestinal Strongyle Genera in Different Typology of Donkey Farms in Tuscany, Central Italy
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040195 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Intestinal strongyles are common helminths of donkeys, in which they may be responsible for disease and poor performance. This study aimed to identify intestinal strongyle genera in 55 naturally infected donkeys from three different farm typologies in Tuscany, central Italy, using morphological and [...] Read more.
Intestinal strongyles are common helminths of donkeys, in which they may be responsible for disease and poor performance. This study aimed to identify intestinal strongyle genera in 55 naturally infected donkeys from three different farm typologies in Tuscany, central Italy, using morphological and metrical analysis of third stage larvae (L3) obtained from faecal cultures. Larvae were identified using two previous reported morphological identification keys. Moreover, eggs per gram (EPG) data were also evaluated to assess differences, if any, according to the farm typology, sex, and age of the examined donkeys. The results showed that small strongyles were prevalent in all donkey farms. In all examined farms, most (92–100%) of L3 were identified as cyathostomin species of the genera Cylicocyclus spp. and Cylicostephanus spp. Large strongyles of the genera Strongylus spp. and Triodontophorus spp., were identified at low percentage (8%), only in the single organic farm included in the study. A high agreement was observed between the two different morphometric keys used. No significant differences were found for EPG according to farm typology, and sex and age from the examined donkeys. This is the first report about genera identification of intestinal strongyles infecting donkeys in Tuscany, Italy. Full article
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Communication
Field Chemical Immobilization of Free-Ranging Crested Porcupines with Zoletil®: A Reviewed Dosage
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040194 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The tiletamine-zolazepam mixture is a widely used anesthetic for chemical immobilization of wild mammals due to its short induction time, good muscle relaxation, smooth recovery with low convulsions occurrence, and minimal effect on respiration. An injection dose of 7–8 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam has [...] Read more.
The tiletamine-zolazepam mixture is a widely used anesthetic for chemical immobilization of wild mammals due to its short induction time, good muscle relaxation, smooth recovery with low convulsions occurrence, and minimal effect on respiration. An injection dose of 7–8 mg/kg of tiletamine-zolazepam has been proven to be an effective and safe immobilizing mixture for crested porcupines under field conditions. However, the occurrence of long immobilization and recovery times, with high excitement and convulsion during awakening, were recorded. In order to reduce such side effects after recovery, the effectiveness of a lower dosage (4–6 mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam (Zoletil®) was tested. The results obtained confirm that the use of tiletamine-zolazepam in crested porcupine immobilization provides a quick induction, wide safety margin, and predictable awakening under field conditions. A smaller injection dosage of 5 mg/kg has been proven to be sufficient to ensure a short induction time (average: 7.1 min), with good muscle relaxation and little excitement of the animals during awakening. The lower dosage of tiletamine-zolazepam, while providing a shorter recovery time (average: 53.6 min), proves to be adequate for standard handling procedures. Furthermore, the smaller amount of tiletamine-zolazepam also ensures safe immobilization for pregnant individuals and porcupettes. Full article
Review
Use of Essential Oils in Veterinary Medicine to Combat Bacterial and Fungal Infections
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040193 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites of plants employed in folk medicine for a long time thanks to their multiple properties. In the last years, their use has been introduced in veterinary medicine, too. The study of the antibacterial properties of EOs is [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites of plants employed in folk medicine for a long time thanks to their multiple properties. In the last years, their use has been introduced in veterinary medicine, too. The study of the antibacterial properties of EOs is of increasing interest, because therapies with alternative drugs are welcome to combat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Other issues could be resolved by EOs employment, such as the presence of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin and in environment. Although the in vitro antimicrobial activity of EOs has been frequently demonstrated in studies carried out on bacterial and fungal strains of different origins, there is a lack of information about their effectiveness in treating infections in animals. The scientific literature reports some studies about in vitro EOs’ activity against animal clinical bacterial and fungal isolates, but in vivo studies are very scanty. The use of EOs in therapy of companion and farm animals should follow careful studies on the toxicity of these natural products in relation to animal species and route of administration. Moreover, considering the different behavior of EOs in relation to both species and strain pathogen, before starting a therapy, an aromatogram should be executed to choose the oil with the best antimicrobial activity. Full article
Case Report
Prostatic Localization of a Migrating Grass Awn Foreign Body in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040192 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
A 13-year-old male mixed-breed dog was examined because of hematuria and pyrexia. Ultrasonographic examination of the genitourinary tract showed the presence of a migrating grass awn in the right prostatic lobe. Laparotomy allowed, under ultrasonographic guidance, to remove entirely the migrating grass awn [...] Read more.
A 13-year-old male mixed-breed dog was examined because of hematuria and pyrexia. Ultrasonographic examination of the genitourinary tract showed the presence of a migrating grass awn in the right prostatic lobe. Laparotomy allowed, under ultrasonographic guidance, to remove entirely the migrating grass awn from the prostatic parenchyma. The recovery was uneventful and four months after the surgery the owner reported that the dog showed the complete resolution of the clinical signs and full return to normal activity. To our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time the clinical presentation, imaging findings, management and outcome for a dog with prostatic localization of a migrating grass awn. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Nitrite—Nitric Oxide Derivative—In Horses with Intestinal Colic by ESR Spectroscopy
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040191 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of horses are caused by many factors and have a complex pathogenesis. Developing effective methods of differential diagnostics is of high fundamental and applied importance. The pathogenesis of diseases of the digestive tract of horses accompanied by the [...] Read more.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of horses are caused by many factors and have a complex pathogenesis. Developing effective methods of differential diagnostics is of high fundamental and applied importance. The pathogenesis of diseases of the digestive tract of horses accompanied by the development of inflammation and oxidative stress, can be associated with a lack of the nitrogen monoxide which controls many signaling pathways in the body. The level of the nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of the immune and nervous systems, the tone of all the blood vessels, and the courses of many pathological processes. The nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase (sGC) and leads to vascular relaxation. The aim of this investigation was to study the metabolites of nitric oxide in horses suffered from intestinal diseases. The levels of nitric oxide in the blood serum of horses depending on their age and health state was studied. The concentration of nitrites in the blood serum of horses aged 6–25 years was 3.4 ± 4.2 μM, and in the young horses (1–5 years) the level of this indicator was 8.2 ± 5.4 μM. A sharp decrease in nitrite was observed in all the horses with intestinal diseases of 2 ± 0.9 μM, especially with tympanitic caecun of 0.6 ± 0.4 μM and with spasmodic colic of 1.8 ± 0.5 μM. The level of nitrosylhemoglobin HbNO in the blood of the diseased animals was higher than that in clinically healthy horses, regardless of age. Full article
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Article
Predicting Diagnosis of Australian Canine and Feline Urinary Bladder Disease Based on Histologic Features
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040190 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly [...] Read more.
Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly being applied in medicine for predicting disease probability based on medical and patient variables. Our aims were to evaluate histologic features of canine and feline bladder diseases and explore the utility of logistic regression modeling in identifying associations in veterinary histopathology, then formulate a predictive disease model using urinary bladder as a pilot tissue. The histologic features of 267 canine and 71 feline bladder samples were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between the bladder disease diagnosed, and both patient and histologic variables. There were 102 cases of cystitis, 84 neoplasia, 42 urolithiasis and 63 normal bladders. Logistic regression modeling identified six variables that were significantly associated with disease outcome: species, urothelial ulceration, urothelial inflammation, submucosal lymphoid aggregates, neutrophilic submucosal inflammation, and moderate submucosal hemorrhage. This study demonstrated that logistic regression modeling could provide a more objective approach to veterinary histopathology and has opened the door toward predictive disease modeling based on histologic variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
A Century of Swine Influenza: Is It Really Just about the Pigs?
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040189 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Influenza viruses (IV) are one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide due to the variety of species they affect. Pigs play an important role in IV ecology as the “mixing vessel,” since they can be infected by swine, avian [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses (IV) are one of the major threats to human and animal health worldwide due to the variety of species they affect. Pigs play an important role in IV ecology as the “mixing vessel,” since they can be infected by swine, avian and human IV, allowing the appearance of new subtypes. Human viruses originated in swine are known as IV of swine origin or swine influenza virus (SwIV) variants. In this study, we identified knowledge tendencies of SwIV and assessed potential bias in the literature caused by these variants. We identified the most mentioned SwIV variants and manually reviewed the literature to determine the number of publications applying the whole influenza nomenclature, a partial nomenclature, only the subtype or mixed terminology, along with the proportion of articles in which the GenBank ID number was available. We observed that the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic created an important bias in SwIV research driven by an increase in human publications on the IV of swine origin. H1N1 is the most studied subtype for swine and humans, followed by H3N2. We found differences between the nomenclatures applied, where partial classifications were slightly more common. Finally, from all the publications, only 25% stated the GenBank ID of the sequence studied. This review represents the most complete exploration of trends in SwIV knowledge to date and will serve as a guidance for future search strategies in SwIV research. Full article
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Review
Food Safety Considerations Related to the Consumption and Handling of Game Meat in North America
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040188 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Emerging foodborne pathogens present a threat to public health. It is now recognized that several foodborne pathogens originate from wildlife as demonstrated by recent global disease outbreaks. Zoonotic spillover events are closely related to the ubiquity of parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens present [...] Read more.
Emerging foodborne pathogens present a threat to public health. It is now recognized that several foodborne pathogens originate from wildlife as demonstrated by recent global disease outbreaks. Zoonotic spillover events are closely related to the ubiquity of parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens present within human and animal populations and their surrounding environment. Foodborne diseases have economic and international trade impacts, incentivizing effective wildlife disease management. In North America, there are no food safety standards for handling and consumption of free-ranging game meat. Game meat consumption continues to rise in North America; however, this growing practice could place recreational hunters and game meat consumers at increased risk of foodborne diseases. Recreational hunters should follow effective game meat food hygiene practices from harvest to storage and consumption. Here, we provide a synthesis review that evaluates the ecological and epidemiological drivers of foodborne disease risk in North American hunter populations that are associated with the harvest and consumption of terrestrial mammal game meat. We anticipate this work could serve as a foundation of preventive measures that mitigate foodborne disease transmission between free-ranging mammalian and human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Zoonoses at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface)
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Article
Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Avian Metapneumovirus in Backyard and Commercial Chickens in Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040187 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the [...] Read more.
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the knowledge of their epidemiology and impact is extremely limited. In the present work, a cross-sectional study based on 500 tracheal swabs collected from 50 intensive and backyard unvaccinated flocks of the Jimma Zone was performed to investigate the circulation of these viruses and molecularly characterize them. IBV and aMPV presence was tested by molecular assays, and genotyping was carried out on positive samples. Accordingly, 6% (95% CI 2.06% to 16.22%) and 8% (95% CI 3.15% to 18.84%) of flocks tested IBV and aMPV positive, respectively. Particularly, IBV 793B (GI-13) strains were detected in backyard flocks only, and identical or closely related sequences (p-distance <2%) were detected in distantly spaced flocks, suggesting relevant viral circulation. On the contrary, both backyard and intensive flocks were affected by aMPV subtype B. Potential epidemiological links associated to the importation of parental birds from foreign countries could be established. These results highlight non-negligible circulation of these viruses, warranting further epidemiological studies and the evaluation of control measure implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Case Report
Hepatogenous Photosensitivity Outbreak after Coccidiosis in Grazing Holstein Steers
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040186 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Clinical signs of photosensitivity in cattle can occur sporadically and unpredictably. It is believed that cases of photosensitivity may be underreported, causing inaccurate and inflated reports of mortality. Additionally, because secondary photosensitization in grazing cattle occurs with liver damage or dysfunction, photosensitivity can [...] Read more.
Clinical signs of photosensitivity in cattle can occur sporadically and unpredictably. It is believed that cases of photosensitivity may be underreported, causing inaccurate and inflated reports of mortality. Additionally, because secondary photosensitization in grazing cattle occurs with liver damage or dysfunction, photosensitivity can have many potential or associated causes. This case links a previous occurrence of coccidiosis to an outbreak of photosensitivity in grazing Holstein steers. Grazing management staff first observed clinical signs of photosensitivity 17 days after an outbreak of coccidiosis and subsequent turnout to spring pastures. Clinical signs were observed in 25% of the population. The severity of photosensitivity was variable and ranged from blistered skin on the muzzle to sloughing of unpigmented epidermis and thinly haired regions. Severely affected cattle were removed from pasture, housed under shade, monitored for infection, and recovered without treatment. Mild cases remained on pasture and recovered without treatment. Photosensitivity did not reoccur in the cattle that remained on pasture or in mildly affected cattle returned to pasture. Photosensitivity did not appear to be associated with pasture weeds, a specific forage species, or variable or extreme weather conditions that could have resulted in mycotoxin production. The occurrence appears to have been a result of a previous and concurrent coccidiosis outbreak that caused secondary photosensitization through hepatic lipidosis caused by anorexia and dehydration associated with the severe coccidiosis. Although clinical signs appeared suddenly, cattle recovered quickly and without treatment. Full article
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Article
Impact of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in a Rat Model of Male Hypogonadism
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040185 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Objectives: The present study examined the effect DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone remodeling in orchidectomized male rats. Material and Methods: A total of 32 male rats were divided equally into four groups [...] Read more.
Objectives: The present study examined the effect DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone remodeling in orchidectomized male rats. Material and Methods: A total of 32 male rats were divided equally into four groups (n = 8): (i) control group (C), (ii) control treated with DHEA (Control + DHEA), (iii) orchidectomized (ORCH) group that underwent bilateral orchidectomy and (iv) orchidectomized (ORCH) rats treated with DHEA (ORCH+DHEA). DHEA treatment started 4 weeks after orchidectomy and continued for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assayed in the tibia and femur of the right hind limb of each rat. We also measured the serum levels of the bone turnover markers deoxypyridinoline (Dpd), N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b) and osteocalcin (OC) as well as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Results: Orchidectomy in rats caused significant reduction in BMD, BMC, serum levels of testosterone, PTH (parathyroid hormone), OPG, OC and ALP with significant rise in serum levels of TRAP-5B, RANK, Dpd and NTx1 (p < 0.05). On the other hand, DHEA therapy for 12 weeks caused significant improvement in all studied parameters except NTx1 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: DHEA corrected hypogonadism-induced osteoporosis in male rats probably via inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, stimulating the activity of osteoblasts and stimulating the secretion of PTH and testosterone. Full article
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Article
Escherichia coli: Physiological Clues Which Turn On the Synthesis of Antimicrobial Molecules
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040184 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Zoonotic pathogens, like Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a food safety and health risk. To battle the increasing emergence of virulent microbes, novel mitigation strategies are needed. One strategy being considered to combat pathogens is antimicrobial compounds produced by microbes, coined microcins. [...] Read more.
Zoonotic pathogens, like Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a food safety and health risk. To battle the increasing emergence of virulent microbes, novel mitigation strategies are needed. One strategy being considered to combat pathogens is antimicrobial compounds produced by microbes, coined microcins. However, effectors for microcin production are poorly understood, particularly in the context of complex physiological responses along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Previously, we identified an E. coli competitor capable of producing a strong diffusible antimicrobial with microcin-associated characteristics. Our objective was to examine how molecule production of this competitor is affected by physiological properties associated with the GIT, namely the effects of carbon source, bile salt concentration and growth phase. Using previously described liquid- and agar-based assays determined that carbon sources do not affect antimicrobial production of E. coli O103F. However, bile salt concentrations affected production significantly, suggesting that E. coli O103F uses cues along the GIT to modulate the expression of antimicrobial production. Furthermore, E. coli O103F produces the molecule during the exponential phase, contrary to most microcins identified to date. The results underscored the importance of experimental design to identify producers of antimicrobials. To detect antimicrobials, conventional microbiological methods can be a starting point, but not the gold standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Electrocardiographic Findings in Bitches Affected by Closed Cervix Pyometra
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040183 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Pyometra is considered the most common disease in intact bitches, being associated with potentially life-threatening disorders. Myocardial damage is a potentially life-threatening consequence of pyometra. The aim of this study was to describe the electrocardiographic patterns in bitches affected by closed cervix pyometra, [...] Read more.
Pyometra is considered the most common disease in intact bitches, being associated with potentially life-threatening disorders. Myocardial damage is a potentially life-threatening consequence of pyometra. The aim of this study was to describe the electrocardiographic patterns in bitches affected by closed cervix pyometra, to assess the clinical relevance of electrocardiographic changes with the occurrence of pyometra, and to relate their severity with laboratory and clinical findings. A total of 39 bitches with closed cervix pyometra and 10 healthy female dogs were included in this study. During the hospitalization, bitches underwent a complete physical examination. An electrocardiographic examination before the ovariohysterectomy was performed. Blood samples for biochemical and hematological analysis were also evaluated. Bitches suffering pyometra at least one arrhythmia 31/39 (79.4%), sinus tachycardia (22/39, 56.4%), ventricular premature complexes (9/39, 23%), increased amplitude of T wave (7/39, 17.9%), ST depression (4/39, 10.2%), second-degree atrioventricular block (2/39, 5.1%), increase of QT interval (2/39, 5.1%), sinus bradycardia (2/39, 5.1%), and first-degree atrioventricular block (1/39, 2.5%). Some bitches were also detected with low wave amplitude (17/39, 43.5%). Cardiac arrhythmias associated with canine pyometra are frequent events. These data suggest that arrhythmias may be the consequence of one or more factors that can occur during pyometra, such as myocardial damage, electrolyte/metabolic disorders, and/or sepsis. Full article
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Article
Skull Shape Diversity in Pet Rabbits and the Applicability of Anatomical Reference Lines for Objective Interpretation of Dental Disease
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040182 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2490
Abstract
Acquired dental problems are among the most frequently encountered diseases in pet rabbits. However, early symptoms are often overlooked because the affected animals first appear completely asymptomatic. Alterations from anatomical reference lines according to Böhmer and Crossley applied to standard skull X-ray images, [...] Read more.
Acquired dental problems are among the most frequently encountered diseases in pet rabbits. However, early symptoms are often overlooked because the affected animals first appear completely asymptomatic. Alterations from anatomical reference lines according to Böhmer and Crossley applied to standard skull X-ray images, have been shown to be indicative of tooth health problems in pet rabbits. Despite its proven usefulness, there are exceptions in which the anatomical reference lines appear not to be suitable for application. We addressed this issue by quantifying the cranial morphology of a large data set of pet rabbit patients (N = 80). The results of the morphometric analyses revealed considerable diversity in skull shape among the typical pet rabbits, but variance in only a few parameters influences the applicability of the anatomical reference lines. The most substantial parameter is the palatal angle. Specimens in which the anatomical reference lines could not be applied, have a rather large angle between the skull base and the palatal bone. We recommend to measure the palatal angle before applying the anatomical reference lines for objective interpretation of dental disease. Pet rabbits with a palatal angle larger than 18.8° are not strictly suitable for the successful application of the anatomical reference lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Antibacterial Activity of Honey Samples from Ukraine
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040181 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
The employment of natural substances such as beehive products with a preventive and therapeutic purpose has been a widespread custom since ancient times. In this investigation, the antibacterial activity of 41 honey samples from different Ukraine regions has been evaluated. For each honey, [...] Read more.
The employment of natural substances such as beehive products with a preventive and therapeutic purpose has been a widespread custom since ancient times. In this investigation, the antibacterial activity of 41 honey samples from different Ukraine regions has been evaluated. For each honey, melissopalynological and physico-chemical analysis were performed in order to determine botanical origin, pH, glucose and fructose contents and free acidity. So, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcusaureus CCM 4223, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium CCM 3807 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was assessed through the determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) values by the microdilutions method. The results show that the most susceptible bacterial strain was L. monocytogenes. Its growth was inhibited at a honey concentration ranging from 0.094 to 0.188 g/mL. The most resistant bacterial strain was S. aureus. As concerns MBC values, L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible bacteria, while S. aureus was the most resistant. Helianthus spp. honeys was the most effective against all tested bacterial strains, followed by Robinia spp. and multifloral honeys. Promising results for MIC tests have been found for Brassica spp. Full article
Article
Ultrasonographic Monitoring in 38 Dogs with Clinically Suspected Acute Pancreatitis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040180 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Abdominal ultrasound examinations (AUEs) are commonly used in the diagnostic evaluation of canine acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and monitor the ultrasonographic changes observed in dogs with clinically suspected AP on consecutive AUEs. The study population [...] Read more.
Abdominal ultrasound examinations (AUEs) are commonly used in the diagnostic evaluation of canine acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate and monitor the ultrasonographic changes observed in dogs with clinically suspected AP on consecutive AUEs. The study population was constituted by 38 client-owned dogs hospitalized for no less than 48 h from January 2016 to December 2019. Dogs included in this study were suspected of AP based on the clinical examination and abnormal rapid specific canine pancreatic lipase test performed at admission. Dogs were submitted to two AUEs, the first on the first day of hospitalization, and the second between 40–52 h after the first one. Twelve dogs had both AUEs suggestive of AP. Fourteen dogs received an ultrasonographic diagnosis of AP exclusively on the second AUE. Twelve dogs remained negative on both the first and the second AUE. In 26 out of 38 patients the second AUE was suggestive of AP. If a patient is suspected of AP, it is advisable to carry out ultrasonographic monitoring at least within the first 52 h after admission, since ultrasonographic signs of AP may only become observable later after hospitalization. Full article
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