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Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): A Powerful and Greener Alternative to the Latest Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia; Monte S. Angelo Complex, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port’Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento, Italy
3
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070245
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
Traditionally, solid-liquid extractions are performed using organic and/or inorganic liquids and their mixtures as extractant solvents in contact with an insoluble solid matrix (e.g., the Soxhlet method) or using sequential atmospheric pressure systems that require long procedures, such as maceration or percolation. The objective of this procedure is the extraction of any compounds that can be carried out from the inner solid material to the outlet, resulting in a solution containing colorants, bioactive compounds, odorous substances, etc. Over the years, in the extraction techniques sector, there have been many important changes from the points of view of production, quality, and human and environmental safety due to improvements in technology. In more recent times, the interest of the scientific community has been aimed at the study of sustainable processes for the valorization of extracts from vegetables and food by-products, through the use of non-conventional (innovative) technologies that represent a valid alternative to conventional methods, generally through saving time and energy and the formation of fewer by-products. Therefore, with the development of principles based on the prevention of pollution, on a lower risk for human health, and on a low environmental impact, new systems have been implemented to reduce extraction times and solvent consumption, to improve efficiency, and to increase the productivity of the extracts. From this point of view, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), performed using the Naviglio extractor, compared to traditional applications, is a technique that is able to reduce extraction times, generally leads to higher yields, does not require heating of the system, allows one to extract the active ingredients, and avoids their degradation. This technique is based on a new solid-liquid extraction principle named Naviglio’s principle. In this review, after reviewing the latest extraction techniques, an overview of RSLDE applications in various research and production sectors over the past two decades is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid-liquid extraction; green extraction; RSLDE; bioactive compounds; Naviglio extractor; Naviglio’s principle solid-liquid extraction; green extraction; RSLDE; bioactive compounds; Naviglio extractor; Naviglio’s principle
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Naviglio, D.; Scarano, P.; Ciaravolo, M.; Gallo, M. Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE): A Powerful and Greener Alternative to the Latest Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques. Foods 2019, 8, 245.

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