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Consumer Acceptability, Eye Fixation, and Physiological Responses: A Study of Novel and Familiar Chocolate Packaging Designs Using Eye-Tracking Devices

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, School of Agriculture and Food, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 Parkville, Australia
Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(7), 253;
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
PDF [3712 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


Eye fixations on packaging elements are not necessarily correlated to consumer attention or positive emotions towards those elements. This study aimed to assess links between the emotional responses of consumers and the eye fixations on areas of interest (AOI) of different chocolate packaging designs using eye trackers. Sixty participants were exposed to six novel and six familiar (commercial) chocolate packaging concepts on tablet PC screens. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis were performed on eye tracking, facial expressions, and self-reported responses. The results showed that there were significant positive correlations between liking and familiarity in commercially available concepts (r = 0.88), whereas, with novel concepts, there were no significant correlations. Overall, the total number of fixations on the familiar packaging was positively correlated (r = 0.78) with positive emotions elicited in people using the FaceReader™ (Happy), while they were not correlated with any emotion for the novel packaging. Fixations on a specific AOI were not linked to positive emotions, since, in some cases, they were related to negative emotions elicited in people or not even associated with any emotion. These findings can be used by package designers to better understand the link between the emotional responses of consumers and their eye fixation patterns for specific AOI. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotions; familiarity; biometrics; consumer liking emotions; familiarity; biometrics; consumer liking

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gunaratne, N.M.; Fuentes, S.; Gunaratne, T.M.; Torrico, D.D.; Ashman, H.; Francis, C.; Gonzalez Viejo, C.; Dunshea, F.R. Consumer Acceptability, Eye Fixation, and Physiological Responses: A Study of Novel and Familiar Chocolate Packaging Designs Using Eye-Tracking Devices. Foods 2019, 8, 253.

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