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Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crop Commodities in the Philippines: A Review

1
Institute of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031, Philippines
2
Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research, University of Göttingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
3
Institute of Weed Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070249
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
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PDF [278 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]

Abstract

The tropical, warm, and humid conditions that are favorable to the growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi put the Philippines at a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. To date, seven mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species, four Fusarium species, and one Penicillium species have been isolated from various agricultural crop commodities in the country. There are five mycotoxin groups (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, nivalenol, and zearalenone) that have been detected in both the raw form and the by-products of major crops grown in the country. Since the first scientific report of aflatoxin contamination in the Philippines in 1972, new information has been generated on mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi, but little has been known of other mycotoxins until the last two decades. Further, despite the increase in the understanding of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the country, very limited knowledge exists on practices and measures that control both the fungi and the toxins. This paper reviews the current literature on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the Philippines with emphasis on the last two decades and on other mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus sp.; Fusarium sp.; aflatoxin; fumonisin; ochratoxin Aspergillus sp.; Fusarium sp.; aflatoxin; fumonisin; ochratoxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Balendres, M.A.O.; Karlovsky, P.; Cumagun, C.J.R. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Agricultural Crop Commodities in the Philippines: A Review. Foods 2019, 8, 249.

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